Ciliophora


[Notice]

We reproduce the descriptions of morphology from following books;

ref. ID; 1219
Hartmuk Bick, "Ciliated Protozoa"
Copyright: WHO, 1972

ref. ID; 1618
Kudo, "Protozoology 5th Ed."
Copyright: CHARLES C THOMAS PUBLISHER, LTD., 1966

ref. ID; 2013
Colin R. Curds "British and other freshwater ciliated protozoa Part I Ciliophora: Kinetofragminophora"
Copyright: Cambridge University Press, 1982

ref. ID; 2014
Colin R. Curds, Michael A. Gates and David McL. Roberts "British and other freshwater ciliated protozoa Part II Ciliophora: Oligohymenophora and Polyhymenophora"
Copyright: Cambridge University Press, 1983

and we thank following Scientists and The Society of Protozoologists (The Journal of Protozoology) for quoting text descriptions from their papers.


Genus list

[A]
Acanthostomella, Acaryophrya (Syn. Balanophrya), Acineria, Acineta, Acinetides, Acinetopsis, Acropisthium (Syn. Dinophrya, Siagonophorus), Actinobolina (Syn. Actinobolus), Alinostoma, Allotricha, Ambiphrya, Amphibothrella, Amphileptus (Syn. Hemiophrys), Amphisiella, Amphisiellides, Amphorella, Amphorellopsis, Amphorides, Ancystropodium, Anteholosticha, Anophryoides, Anophrys, Apiosoma, Apocryptopharynx, Apofrontonia, Apocarchesium, Apsiktrata, Arachnella, Arachnidiopsis, Arachnidium, Archiastomata, Archinassula, Arcuospathidium, Aristerostoma, Ascampbellielia, Askenasia, Aspidisca (Syn. Aspidicopsis, Coccudina, Onychaspis), Astrophrya, Astylozoon (Syn. Geleiella), Atopodinium, Atractos, Australocirrus, Australothrix

[B]
Baikalodendron, Baikalophrya, Bakuella, Balanion, Balanonema, Balantidioides (Syn. Balantidiopsis), Balantidion, Balantidium (Parasitic species), Ballodora, Balladyna (Syn. Balladina), Balladynella (Syn. Balladinella), Banyulsella, Baznosanuia, Belonophrya, Bicoronella, Biholosticha, Biggaria, Bizonula, Blepharisma, Blepharostoma, Bothrostoma, Botticula, Brachonella, Brachyosoma (Syn. Hallezia), Branchioecetes, Brandtiella, Bresslaua, Bresslauides, Bryometopus, Bryophrya, Bryophyllum, Buehringa, Bursaopsis, Bursaria, Bursaridium, Bursella (See; Bursellopsis), Bursellopsis (Syn. Bursella), Bursostoma

[C]
Caenomorpha (Syn. Gyrocoris), Caliperia (Marine genus), Calyptotricha (Syn. Diplostyla), Campanella, Canellana, Canthariella, Caracatharina, Carchesium, Cardiostoma, Cardiostomatella, Caudiholosticha, Cavichona, Celeritia, Centrophorella, Chaenea, Chaetospira (Syn. Stichospira), Chasmatostoma, Chilodina, Chilodochona, Chilodonatella, Chilodonella (Syn. Chilodon), Chilodontopsis, Chilophrya, Chlamydodon, Chlamydonella, Chlamydonellopsis, Choanophrya, Choanostoma, Chytridium, Ciliofaurea, Ciliospina, Cinetochilum, Cinetozona, Circinella, Circolagenophrys (Syn. Lagenophrys), Cirranter, Cirrophrya, Cladotricha, Clara, Clathrostoma, Climacocylis, Climacostomum, Clistolagenophrys, Codonaria, Codonella, Codonellopsis, Codonobotrys, Cohnilembus (Syn. Lembus), Coleps, Colpidium, Colpoda, Colpodidium, Cometodendron, Conchophthirus, Conchostoma, Condylostoma, Coniculostomum, Copemetopus, Corlissia, Corticocolpoda, Cosmocolpoda, Cothurnia, Cothurnopsis (Syn. Cothurniopsis), Coxliella, Cranotheridium, Craspedomyoschistion, Craspedonotus, Craspedophrya, Craspedothorax (See; Pseudomicrothorax), Craterella, Cristigera, Crobylura, Crypthecodinium, Cryptophrya, Ctedoctema, Cyclidium, Cyclodonta, Cyclogramma, Cyclophrya, Cyclotrichium, Cymatocylis, Cyrtohymena, Cyrtolophosis, Cyrtostrombidium, Cytharoides, Cyttarocylis

[D]
Dactylochlamys, Dactylostoma, Dadayiella, Dapedophrya, Daturella, Deltopylum, Dendrocometes, Dendrocometides, Dendrosoma, Dendrosomides, Deviata, Dexiostoma, Dexiotricha, Dexiotrichides, Diafolliculina, Diaphanosoma, Diceras (See; Diceratula), Diceratula (Syn. Diceras), Dichilum, Dictiocoleps, Dictyocysta, Didinium (Syn. Monodinium), Dileptus, Dimacrocaryon, Dinophrya, Diophryopsis, Diophrys, Discocephalus, Discomorphella (Syn. Discomorpha), Discophrya, Discosomatella (Syn. Discosoma), Discotricha, Discozoon, Disematostoma, Dissothigma (Syn. Patschia, Urotrichopsis), Drepanomonas (Syn. Drepanoceras), Dysteria (Syn. Aegyria, Cypridium, Ervilia, Iduna)

[E]
Echinophrya, Ellobiophrya (Syn. Claustophrya), Enchelydium, Enchelyodon, Enchelyomorpha, Enchelys, Endosphaera, Engelmanniella, Enigmostoma, Entziella, Epalxella (Syn. Epalxis), Epenardia, Ephelota, Epicarchesium, Epiclintes, Epiorella, Epiplocylis, Epiplocyloides, Epispathidium, Epistylis, Erastophrya, Erionella, Eschaneustyla, Espejoia, Eufolliculina, Euplotaspis, Euplotes (Syn. Crateromorpha, Euploea, Ploesconia), Euplotidium (Marine species), Euplotoides, Euplotopsis, Eutintinnus

[F]
Fabrea, Favella, Figotintinnus, Frontonia, Fungiphrya, Furgasonia (Syn. Cyclogramma), Fuscheria

[G]
Gajewskajophrya, Gastrocirrhus (Marine species), Gastronauta, Gastrostyla (Syn. Nothopleurotricha), Geleia, Gerda, Gillardella, Glaucoma (Syn. Dallasia), Glaucomella, Gonostomum (Syn. Plagiotricha), Gonzeella, Gorgonosoma, Grandoria (Syn. Lagenella), Grossglockneria, Gruberia, Gymnodinioides

[H]
Hallezia, Halteria, Halterioforma, Haplocaulus, Harmodirus, Hastatella, Hausmanniella, Helicoprorodon, Helicostoma, Helicostomella, Heliophrya, Hemiamphisiella, Hemicycliostyla, Hemicyclium, Hemigastrostyla, Hemiophrys, Heminotus (or Hemionotus), Hemisincirra, Heteropolaria, Hexotricha, Histiobalantium, Histriculus (Syn. Histrio), Histrio (See; Oxytricha), Holophrya, Holosticha (Syn. Amphisia), Holostichides, Homalogastra, Homalozoon, Hyalophysa, Hyalospira, Hydrophrya, Hypocoma, Hypophrya, Hypotrichidium (Syn. Peritromoides, Spirofilum), Hysterophrya

[I]
Ichthyophthirius, Ileonema (Syn. Monomastix), Intranstylum, Isosticha

[J]
Jeannellia

[K]
Kahliella (Syn. Kahlia), Kahlilembus, Kalometopia, Kentrophoros (Syn. Centrophorella), Kerona, Keronella, Keronopsis (Syn. Kahliela, Paraholosticha), Kovalevia, Krassniggia, Kreyella, Kuehneltiella, Kuklikophrya

[L]
Laackmanniella (See; Codonellopsis), Laboea, Lacazea, Lacerus, Lacrymaria, Lagenophrys, Lagynophrya, Lagynus, Lambornella, Lamtostyla, Larvulina, Laurentia, Laurentiella (Syn. Laurentia), Lecanodiscus, Lechriopyla, Legendrea, Lembadion, Lepidotrachelophyllum, Leprotintinnus, Leptodesmus, Leptopharynx (Syn. Trichopelma), Lernaeophrya, Leucophrys, Liliimorpha, Limnostrombidium, Linostoma, Linostomella (Hom. Linostoma), Litonotus (Syn. Lionotus), Lohmaniella or Lohmanniella (Marine species), Longifragma, Longitricha, Lopezoterenia, Lophophorina, Loricophrya, Loxocephalus, Loxodes, Loxophyllum (Syn. Opistyodon), Ludio

[M]
Magnifolliculina, Malacophrys, Marginotricha, Marituja, Maryna, Maupasia (See; Schewiakoffia), Membranicola, Mesanophrys, Meseres, Mesnilella, Mesodinium, Metacineta, Metacylis, Metacystis, Metafolliculina, Metanophrys, Metastrombidium (Marine species), Metopus, Microcardiosoma, Microchoanostoma, Microdiaphanosoma (Syn. Diaphanosoma), Microregma, Microthorax (Syn. Kreyella), Mirofolliculina, Moneuplotes, Monilicaryon, Monochilum, Monodinium, Mucophrya, Mucotrichidium, Muscipula, Mykophagophrys, Mycterothrix (Syn. Trichorhynchus), Mylestoma, Myoschiston, Myriokaryon, Myrionecta

[N]
Nassula, Nassulopsis, Neobursaridium, Neogeneia, Nivaliella, Nolaclusilis, Notohymena, Notoxoma, Novistrombidium, Nuchterleinella, Nyctotheroides, Nyctotherus

[O]
Obertrumia, Octocirrus, Odontochlamys, Onychodromopsis, Onychodromus (Syn. Himantophorus), Opercularia, Operculariella, Operculigera, Ophrydiopsis, Ophrydium, Ophryoglena, Opisthostomatella (Syn. Opistostomum), Opisthonecta, Opisthostyla, Opisthotricha (Syn. Opisthiotricha), Orbopercularia, Orbopyxidiella, Orcavia, Orchitophrya, Ormosella, Orthoamphisiella, Orthodonella (Syn. Orthodon), Orthotrochilia, Ovalorhabdos, Oxytricha (Syn. Oxitricha, Histrio, Opisthotricha, Steinia)

[P]
Pachyfolliculina, Pachystomos, Palmarella (Syn. Palmarium), Palmarium, Papillorhabdos, Parabakuella, Parablepharisma, Parabryophrya, Parachilodonella, Paracineta, Paracolpidium, Paracolpoda, Paracondylostoma, Paracyclidium, Paradexiotricha, Paradileptus (Syn. Tentaculifera), Paradiophrys, Paraenchelys, Parafavella, Paragastrostyla, Paraglaucoma, Parahistriculus (Syn. Parahistricus), Paraholosticha, Parakahliella, Paralagenophrys, Paralembus, Paramecium (Syn. Paramaecium), Parametopus, Paramphisella, Paranassula, Paranophrys, Parapetalotricha, Paraphilaster, Parapodophrya, Paraspathidium, Parastentor, Parastrongylidium, Parastylonychia, Parastokesia, Parastrombidium (Marine species), Parauronema, Paraurostyla, Paraurotricha, Parazoothamnium, Parundella, Paruroleptus, Parurosoma, Pattersoniella, Pedohymena, Pelagohalteria, Pelagostrombidium, Pelagothrix, Pelagotrichidium, Pelagovasicola, Pelagovorticella, Pelatractus, Pelodinium, Penardiella, Pentahymena, Periacineta, Peridion, Peridionella, Peridiscophrya, Periholosticha, Perisincirra, Perispira, Peritromus, Petalotricha, Phacodinium (Syn. Conchophthirius), Phascolodon, Phialina, Phialinides, Philaster (Syn. Philasterides), Philasterides (Syn. Philaster), Physalophrya, Physanter (Syn. Faurella), Pithothorax, Placus (Syn. Spathidiopis, Spathidiopsis, Thoracophrya), Plagiocampa, Plagiopogon, Plagiopyla, Plagiotoma, Platophrya, Platyophryides, Platycola, Platyfolliculina, Platynematum, Platyophrya, Plesiotricha (Syn. Uroleptapsis, Uroleptopsis), Pleurochilidium, Pleurofragma (Syn. Mimeticus, Oldesloeria), Pleuronema, Pleuroplites, Pleuroplitoides, Pleurotricha (Syn. Allotricha, Onychodromopsis), Podophrya, Poroecus, Potomacus, Pottsia, Prodiscocephalus, Prodiscophrya, Proplectella, Propyxidium (Syn. Pyxidiella, Pyxidium), Prorodon (Syn. Rhagadostoma), Protocruzia, Protocymatocylis, Protorhabdonella, Protospathidium, Psammocephalus, Pseudoamphisiella, Pseudobalanion, Pseudoblepharisma, Pseudocarchesium, Pseudochilodonopsis, Pseudocohnilembus, Pseudocyrtolophosis, Pseudoenchelys, Pseudogemma, Pseudoglaucoma, Pseudohaplocaulus, Pseudoholophrya, Pseudokahliella, Pseudokeronopsis, Pseudokreyella, Pseudomaryna, Pseudomicrothorax (Syn. Craspedothorax), Pseudoplatyophrya, Pseudoprorodon, Pseudostrombidium, Pseudothuricola, Pseudouroleptus, Pseudourostyla, Pseudovorticella, Pseuduronema, Psilotricha (Syn. Hemiholosticha, Pigostyla), Ptychocylis, Puytoraciella, Pyxicola (Syn. Caulicola, Pachytrocha), Pyxidiella, Pyxidium

[Q]
Quasillagilis

[R]
Raabellocineta, Racovitzaia, Reichenowella, Remanella (Marine species), Rhabdoaskenasia, Rhabdonella, Rhabdonellopsis, Rhabdosella, Rhabdostyla, Rhagadostoma, Rhopalophrya, Rhyncheta, Rhynchophria, Rigchostoma, Rimostrombidium, Rostrophrya

[S]
Sagittaria, Salpingacantha, Salpingella, Saprodinium, Saprophilus (See; Sathrophilus), Sathrophilus (Syn. Saprophilus), Scaphidiodon, Schewiakoffia (Syn. Maupasia), Scyphidia, Scyphidiella, Semiplatyophrya, Semitrichodina, Serpentichona, Setonophrys, Sigmostomum, Siroloxophyllum, Solenophrya, Sonderia, Sorogena, Spasmostoma, Spartina, Spathidiella (Syn. Spathidioides), Spathidiodes (Syn. Spathidiella), Spathidioides, Spathidiosus, Spathidium (Syn. Spathidiopsis, Spathidiosus), Spelaeonecta (Syn. Faureia), Spelaeophrya, Sphaerobactrum, Sphaerophrya, Sphaerotrichium, Spiretella (Syn. Microspiretta, Spiratella, Spiretta), Spirochona, Spirofilopsis (Syn. Spirofilum), Spiroprorodon, Spirostomum, Spirozona, Supraspathidium, Stammeridium (Syn. Stammeriella), Stammeriella, Staurophrya, Steenstrupiella, Stegochilum, Steinia, Stenosemella, Stenotricha, Stensomella, Stentofolliculina, Stentor, Stephanidina, Stephanopogon, Sterkiella (Syn. Histriculus, Histrio), Stichotricha (Syn. Archimedea, Schizosiphon, Stichochaeta), Stokesia, Strobilidium (Syn. Stombilidium, Turbilina), Strombidinopsis, Strombidium, Strongylidium, Stylocometes, Stylohedra, Stylonethes, Stylonychia (Syn. Kerona, Prosopsenus, Stylonichia), Stylophrya, Suctorella, Sulcigera, Sultanophrys, Swedmarkia, Synhymenia, Systylis

[T]
Tachysoma (Syn. Actinotricha), Telotrochidium (Syn. Opisthonecta), Terricirra, Tesnospira, Tetrahymena, Teuthophrys, Thalassiomastix, Thecacineta, Thigmogaster, Thigmokeronopsis, Thuricola, Thuricolopsis, Thylakidium, Thysanomorpha, Tiarina, Tillina, Tintinnidium, Tintinnopsis, Tintinnus, Tokophrya, Tokophryella, Tokophryopsis, Tontonia (Marine species), Trachelius, Trachelocerca (Syn. Gruvelina, Nephrocerca, Protrichophora), Trachelochaeta, Trachelolophos, Trachelonema (See; Tracheloraphis), Trachelophyllum, Tracheloraphis (Syn. Trachelonema), Trachelostyla (Syn. Gonostomum (part), Stichochaeta), Trachelotractus, Transitella, Trichoda, Trichoderum, Trichodina, Trichodinella, Trichodinopsis, Trichodoxa, Trichopelma, Trichophrya, Trichospira, Trichotaxis, Trichototaxis (Syn. Trichotaxis), Trimyema (Syn. Sciadostoma), Tripartiella, Trithigmostoma, Trochilia, Trochilioides, Trochiliopsis, Tropidoatractus, Turaniella (Syn. Turania)

[U]
Undella, Undellopsis, Urceolaria, Urnula, Urocentrum, Urochaenia, Urocyclon, Uroleptoides, Uroleptopsis, Uroleptus (Syn. Cladotricha, Platytrichotus), Uronema, Uronemella, Uronemita, Uronemopsis, Uronychia, Uropedalium, Urosoma (Syn. Parastrombidium, Pseudostrombidium), Urosomoida, Urospina, Urospinula (Syn. Urospina), Urostorngylum, Urostyla, Urotricha (Syn. Balanitozoon), Urozona, Usconophrys

[V]
Vaginicola, Vasichona, Vasicola (Syn. Pelamphora), Vorticella

[W]
Wallackia, Wenrichia, Wesenbergia, Woodania, Woodruffia

[X]
Xystonella, Xystonellopsis

[Z]
Zoothamnium, Zosterodasys


Identification key


Lorica-tentaculoids peculiar
Acanthostomella, Amphorella, Amphorellopsis, Brandtiella, Bursaopsis, Codonella, Codonellopsis, Coxliella, Craterella, Cymatocylis, Cyttarocylis, Dadayiella, Daturella, Dictyocysta, Epiplocylis, Epiplocyloides, Favella, Helicostomella, Laackmanniella, Leprotintinnus, Metacylis, Parafavella, Petalotricha, Poroecus, Proplectella, Protocymatocylis, Protorhabdonella, Ptychocylis, Rhabdonella, Rhabdonellopsis, Salpingella, Steenstrupiella, Stenosemella, Tintinnidium, Tintinnopsis, Tintinnus, Undella, Xystonella, Xystonellopsis
Lorica-sessile
Acineta, Acinetopsis, Bothrostoma, Botticula, Calyptotricha, Canellana, Caracatharina , Cothurnia, Cothurnopsis, Cryptophrya, Cyclodonta, Diafolliculina, Lagenophrys, Maryna, Metacineta, Metacystis, Lecanodiscus, Lernaeophrya, Loricophrya, Ophrydiopsis, Paracineta, Periacineta, Peridiscophrya, Platycola, Pseudothuricola, Pyxicola, Solenophrya, Stylohedra, Thuricola, Urnula, Vaginicola , Vasicola
Lorica-AZM
Chaetospira, Codonella, Stichotricha
Stalk like structure
Solitary
Acineta, Acinetides, Acinetopsis, Ancystropodium, Apiosoma, Brachyosoma (Hallezia), Canellana, Caracatharina , Choanophrya, Cryptophrya, Dactylosoma, Dendrosomides, Discophrya, Echinophrya, Haplocaulus, Hypophrya, Lecanodiscus, Loricophrya, Metacineta, Ophrydiopsis, Opisthostyla, Paracineta, Parazoothamnium, Periacineta, Peridiscophrya, Podophrya , Prodiscophrya, Propyxidium (Pyxidium, Pyxidiella) , Pseudothuricola, Pseudovorticella, Pyxicola, Rhabdostyla, Rhyncheta, Rhynchophria, Scyphidia, Spirochona, Strobilidium, Suctorella, Tokophrya , Tokophryella, Tokophryopsis, Urnula, Vorticella
Colonial
Campanella , Carchesium , Craspedomyoschiston, Entziella, Epistylis , Gonzeella, Heteropolaria, Intranstylum, Myoschiston, Opercularia , Ophrydium, Orbopercularia, Pseudocarchesium, Systylis, Zoothamnium
Tentacle and tentacle like process
Acineta, Acinetides, Acinetopsis, Actinobolina, Astrophrya, Belonophrya, Brachyosoma (Hallezia), Canellana, Caracatharina , Choanophrya, Cirrophrya, Cometodendron, Cryptophrya, Cyclophrya, Dactylochlamys, Dactylosoma, Dendrocometes, Dendrocometides, Dendrosoma, Dendrosomides, Discosomatella, Discophrya, Echinophrya, Enchelyomorpha, Erastophrya, Gorgonosoma, Heliophrya, Hypophrya, Loricophrya, Lecanodiscus, Lacerus, Legendrea, Lophophorina, Loricophrya, Metacineta, Mucophrya, Paracineta, Parastentor, Periacineta, Peridiscophrya, Platophrya, Prodiscophrya, Podophrya , Rhyncheta, Rhynchophria, Spelaeophrya, Sphaerophrya , Solenophrya, Staurophrya, Stylocometes, Stylophrya, Suctorella, Thysanomorpha, Tokophrya , Tokophryella, Tokophryopsis, Trichophrya, Urnula
Spine-like projections
Atopodinium, Coleps, Discomorphella, Drepanomonas, Dysteria, Microthorax, Ludio, Orthotrochilia, Parachilodonella, Saprodinium, Trochilia, Trochilioides
Ciliary girdles
Acropisthium, Askenasia, Didinium, Dinophrya, Mesodinium, Monodinium
Cirri
Spiralling row: Atractos, Hypotrichidium, Spiretella
Transverse cirri: Aspidisca
Ventral cirri, marginal cirri: Psilotricha, Urospinula
Ventral cirri, marginal cirri, transverse cirri: Balladyna, Kerona, Trichototaxis
Frontal cirri, ventral cirri, marginal cirri are absent: Hemicycliostyla
Frontal cirri, ventral cirri, marginal cirri: Eschaneustyla, Paraholosticha, Uroleptus
Frontal cirri, ventral cirri, marginal cirri are absent, transverse cirri: Urostyla
Frontal cirri, ventral cirri are absent, marginal cirri, transverse cirri: Gonostomum, Lamtostyla, Trachelostyla
Frontal cirri, ventral cirri, marginal cirri, transverse cirri: Amphisiella, Bakuella, Balladynella (longitudinal row of transverse cirri), Gastrostyla, Histriculus, Holosticha, Laurentiella, Onychodromus, Parahistriculus, Parurosoma, Paraurostyla, Paruroleptus , Pleurotricha, Steinia, Tachysoma, Urosoma
Frontal cirri, fronto-ventral cirri, marginal cirri, transverse cirri are absent, caudal cirri: Ancystropodium, Strongylidium, Uroleptoides
Frontal cirri, fronto-ventral cirri, marginal cirri, transverse cirri, caudal cirri: Opisthotricha, Oxytricha , Stylonychia , Trachelochaeta, Wallackia
Buccal cirrus, mid-ventral cirri, marginal cirri, transverse cirri, caudal cirri are absent: Keronopsis, Pseudourostyla
Buccal cirrus, fronto-ventral cirri, transverse cirri, caudal cirri: Euplotes
Posterior cirri: Discomorphella, Mylestoma
Unciliated ridges
Branchioecetes, Bryophyllum, Diceratula, Myriokaryon, Penardiella, Perispira
Trichocyst warts
Loxophyllum
Long caudal cilium
Balanonema, Celeritia, Choanostoma, Cohnilembus, Coleps, Cristigera, Cyclidium, Dexiotricha, Dexiotrichides, Halterioforma, Jeannellia, Microregma, Paranophrys, Peridion, Philasterides, Pithothorax, Plagiocampa, Platynematum, Pseudocohnilembus, Pseuduronema, Racovitzaia, Sagittaria, Schewiakoffia, Spelaeonecta, Trimyema, Uronema, Uronemopsis, Uropedalium, Urozona
Long anterior cilium
Larvulina
Movement
Highly contractile: Chaenea, Dileptus (neck region) , Homalozoon, Lacrymaria, Tokophryella, Urochaenia
Highly flexible: Lacrymaria, Trachelophryllum, Urochaenia
Body color
Blue: Stentor
Green: (Zoochlorellae) Paramecium , Thylakidium
Red or rose: Blepharisma, Stentor
Body shape
Spherical:
Discoid (flattened dorso-ventrally): Atopodinium, Cinetochilum, Platynematum
Oval: Clathrostoma, Glaucoma, Halterioforma, Holophrya, Kreyella, Ophryoglena, Phacodinium, Physalophrya
Barrel: Coleps, Telotrochidium, Urozona
Reniform: Bryophrya, Chasmatostoma, Colpidium , Colpoda , Dexiotrichides, Histiobalantium, Plagiopyla, Uronemopsis, Wenrichia
Pyriform: Blepharostoma, Tetrahymena
Cylindrical: Deltopylum, Physalophrya, Pseudoblepharisma, Spirostomum
Clavate: Physanter
Flask Enchelys
Cigar: Paramecium
Foot: Paramecium
Heart: Stokesia
Transversely truncate:
Obliquely truncate:
Anterior beak or rostrum: Tesnospira
Anterior neck-like: Amphileptus, Cohnilembus, Dileptus , Ileonema, Lacrymaria, Litonotus, Paradileptus, Teuthophrys, Trachelius, Trachelophyllum
Stellate: Astrophrya
Dendritic: Dendrosoma, Gorgonosoma
Prominent undulating membranes
Condylostoma, Cristigera, Cyclidium, Dexiotrichides, Histiobalantium, Pleuronema, Uronemopsis
Mouth Position
Apical: Acaryophrya, Acineria, Askenasia, Bursellopsis, Cranotheridium, Enchelyodon, Enchelys, Holophrya, Homalozoon, Metacystis, Microcardiosoma, Monodinium, Pelatractus, Peridion, Placus, Plagiocampa, Prorodon, Spathidiodes, Spathidioides, Spathidium, Urotricha, Woodruffia
Equatorial or sub-equatorial: Branchioecetes, Chasmatostoma, Cinetochilum, Discozoon, Histiobalantium, Homalogastra, Paramecium, Physanter, Uropedalium, Urozona
Posterial: Hemicyclium, Kreyella, Microthorax
Oral structure
Trichites and trichite-like structures: Archinassula, Chilodina, Chilodonatella, Chilodonella, Chilodontopsis, Chlamydodon, Chlamydonella, Clathrostoma, Drepanomonas, Enigmostoma, Furgasonia, Leptopharynx, Loxodes, Nassula, Nassulopsis, Odontochlamys, Orthodonella, Parachilodonella, Phascolodon, Pseudochilodonopsis, Stammeridium, Synhymenia, Trithigmostoma
AZM: Amphisiella, Ancystropodium, Aspidisca , Atopodinium, Atractos, Bakuella, Balantidioides, Balladyna, Balladynella, Blepharisma, Brachonella, Bryometopus, Caenomorpha , Cirranter, Climacostomum, Condylostoma, Discomorphella, Epalxella, Eschaneustyla, Euplotes , Gastrostyla, Gonostomum, Halteria , Halterioforma, Hemicycliostyla, Holosticha, Hypotrichidium, Jeannellia, Kahliella, Kerona, Keronopsis, Histriculus, Lamtostyla, Laurentiella, Ludio, Meseres, Metopus Mylestoma, Onychodromus, Opisthotricha, Oxytricha , Parahistriculus, Paraholosticha, Parurosoma, Paraurostyla, Paruroleptus , Phacodinium, Plesiotricha, Pleurotricha, Pseudoblepharisma, Pseudourostyla, Psilotricha, Reichenowella, Spelaeonecta, Spiretella, Spirostomum , Steinia, Stentor , Strobilidium, Strombidinopsis, Strombidium, Strongylidium, Stylonychia , Tachysoma, Tesnospira, Trachelochaeta, Trachelostyla, Trichototaxis, Uroleptoides, Uroleptus, Urosoma, Urospinula, Urostyla, Wallackia
Perizonal stripe: Atopodinium, Discomorphella, Epalxella, Pelodinium, Saprodinium
Contractile vacuole
[One]
Apical position: Mycterothrix
Terminal position: Acaryophrya, Acineria, Actinobolina, Askenasia, Bursaridium, Chaenea, Chilophrya, Climacostomum, Cohnilembus, Diceratula, Enchelyomorpha, Halterioforma, Holophrya, Ileonema, Jeannellia, Lembadion, Longitricha, Metopus , Microchoanostoma, Microdiaphanosoma, Myriokaryon, Orthodonella, Paranophrys, Pelatractus, Perispira, Phacodinium, Plagiopyla, Protospathidium, Racovitzia, Reichenowella, Rhopalophrya, Sagittaria, Spathidium, Spirostomum , Spirozona, Tetrahymena, Teuthophrys, Tillina, Trachelophryllum, Urochaenia, Vasicola, Woodruffia
Lateral position: Archinassula, Bursostoma, Choanostoma, Eschaneustyla, Meseres, Stentor , Stylonychia
[Two]
Brachyosoma, Chlamydonella, Dysteria, Neobursaridium, Orthotrochilia, Parachilodonella, Paramecium, Phascolodon, Pseudochilodonopsis, Trochilia, Trochilioides
[Several]
Regularly: Branchioecetes, Dileptus , Homalozoon, Urostyla
Scattered throughout body: Archiastomata, Chlamydodon, Cyclophrya, Discophrya, Grandoria, Lernaeophrya, Rhynchophria, Trachelius, Trithigmostoma
Macronucleus
[Single-mass]
Spherical: Aristerostoma, Blepharostoma, Calyptotricha, Chasmatostoma, Cinetochilum, Colpoda, Cristigera, Dactylochlamys, Diafolliculina, Dinophrya, Enchelyomorpha, Glaucoma, Halteria , Halterioforma, Jeannellia, Larvulina, Leptopharynx, Meseres, Microcardiosoma, Microregma, Microthorax, Opisthostomatella, Paradexiotricha, Philasterides, Pithothorax, Platynematum, Pseudocohnilembus, Pseuduronema, Racovitzaia, Rhopalophrya, Spasmostoma, Stammeridium, Tesnospira, Tetrahymena, Uronemopsis, Uropedalium, Urozona
Elongate: Clathrostoma, Deltopylum, Disematostoma, Lembadion, Neobursaridium, Ophryoglena, Physalophrya, Transitella

[Separate-mass]
Moniliform: Botticula, Choanostoma, Condylostoma, Paradileptus, Parastentor


Cyst formation
Reproductive cyst: Colpoda, Kalometopia, Platyophrya, Tillina, Woodruffia
Protective cyst: Colpoda, Woodruffia

Scientists list


We cannot still accept permission to quote some description from following articles. Please allow us to reproduce. (May 31, 2017)
ref. ID; 313, 1662, 2343, 3342, 3552, 3809, 3992, 4016, 4046, 4059, 4093, 4152, 4236, 4327, 4399, 4409, 7273, 7312, 7323, 7332, 7399, 7416, 7423, 7432, 7472, 7485, 7486, 7513, 7526, 7559, 7569, 7579, 7583, 7587, 7594, 7614, 7704, 7708, 7743, 7759