Protozoa, Rotifera, Oligochaeta
Glossary of Protozoa

We reproduce the glossaries from following books;

ref. ID; 1219
Hartmuk Bick, "Ciliated Protozoa"
Copyright: WHO, 1972

ref. ID; 2013
Colin R. Curds, "British Freshwater Ciliate Protozoa, vol. 23" The Linnean Society Synopses of the British Fauna
Copyright: Cambridge University Press, 1982

ref. ID; 2014
Colin R. Curds, Michael A. Gates and David McL. Roberts, "British Freshwater Ciliate Protozoa, vol. 22" The Linnean Society Synopses of the British Fauna
Copyright: Cambridge University Press, 1983

aboral: (ref. ID; 1972)
At the end of the body opposite to the oral region. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
abyssal (ref. ID; 1972)
See dactylopodia.
acellularity concept (ref. ID; 1972)
acetabulum (ref. ID; 1972)
aciliferous (ref. ID; 1972)
ACR (Amphisiellid medina Cirral Row) (ref. ID; 2129)
actinophore (ref. ID; 1972)
adhesive disc (ref. ID; 1972)
adhesive organelle (ref. ID; 1972)
At the end of the body close to the oral region. (ref. ID; 2014)
adoral organelles:
Compound ciliary structures belonging to the oral apparatus (ref. ID; 4613)
adoral zone of membranells (AZM): (ref. ID; 1972)
Short double or triple rows of cilia fused into pennant-like blades, occurring in series, and leading to the mouth. (ref. ID; 1219)
A serial arrangement of three or more membranelles along the left side of the oral area. Commonly abbreviated to AZM. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
Membranelles located in the apical area, around the peristome. They are generally bipartite, one part situated within the buccal cavity and the other on the body surface encircling the anterior pole. Those outside the peristome have been termed "apical membranelles" by some authors. (ref. ID; 3420)
adult (ref. ID; 1972)
afferent canal (ref. ID; 1972)
akontobolocyst (ref. ID; 1972)
algivorous: (ref. ID; 1972)
Feeding on algae
See; saprobity system
See; saprobity system
alveolus (pl. alveoli), pellicular: (ref. ID; 1972)
Flattened vesicle or sac, bounded by a unit membrane, lying just beneath the surface or plasma membrane of the cell (ref. ID; 4613)
amacronucleate (ref. ID; 1972)
ambihymenium (ref. ID; 1972)
amicronucleate (ref. ID; 1972)
ampulla (ref. ID; 1972)
ampullocyst (ref. ID; 1972)
anarchic field (ref. ID; 1972)
anlage: (ref. ID; 1972)
A developing, differentiating, or even presumptive structure or organelle. The anlage of the oral apparatus, for example, is often composed of an irregular accumulation of basal bodies. (ref. ID; 4613)
annulus (ref. ID; 1972)
antecorpy (ref. ID; 1972)
At the extreme anterior region of the cell. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
apical funnel (ref. ID; 1972)
apokinetal: (ref. ID; 1972)
A type of stomatogenesis in which the kinetosomes forming the ciliature of the oral region of the daughter cell have no apparent pre-association with either the parental somatic kineties or oral apparatus. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
apomorph (ref. ID; 1972)
arboroid colony (ref. ID; 1972)
argentophilic: (ref. ID; 1972)
Literally 'silver-loving' referring to those parts of ciliates that stain with silver. (ref. ID; 2014)
argyrome (ref. ID; 1972)
astomy (ref. ID; 1972)
athalassogenic brackish water:
Inland saline waters with inorganic components other than those in seawater. (ref. ID; 1219)
atrial ciliature (ref. ID; 1972)
atrium: (ref. ID; 1972)
A shallow depression in the oral region of certain hypostomes. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
attachment knob (ref. ID; 1972)
attachment organelle (ref. ID; 1972)
aufwuchs community (ref. ID; 1972)
autogamy: (ref. ID; 1972)
A sexual process in ciliates where self-fertilisation takes place. It differs from cytogamy in that no pairing takes place. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
autonomous (ref. ID; 1972)
auxomorphy (ref. ID; 1972)
axenic culture (ref. ID; 1972)
See; adoral zone of membranelles

B fibre:
The B fibre is a ribbon-like structure that follows the anterior portion of R1, lying immediately to the ventral side of the root. First described in Jakoba libera by Patterson (1990). (ref. ID; 4980)
bactivorous: (ref. ID; 1972)
Feeding on bacteria
barren kinetosome (ref. ID; 1972)
basal body: (ref. ID; 1972)
Subpellicularly located, about 1.2 x 0.3 um sized microtubular structure, from which the cilium originates, homologous to the metazoan centriole; usually associated with several types of fibres and bundles of microtubules; often arranged in pairs (= dikinetids, for example in the colpodids or in the dorsal brush of the gymnostomatids) or groups (for example, cirri and adoral membranelles of hypotrichs). (ref. ID; 4613)
basal granule (ref. ID; 1972)
basal microtubules (ref. ID; 1972)
basket of trichites:
A group of rod-like elements used to support the cytopharynx (Syn. cytopharyngeal appratus). (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
bell (ref. ID; 1972)
benthic (ref. ID; 1972)
See; saprobity system
See; saprobity system
biogenetic law (ref. ID; 1972)
bipolar kinetosomes:
Paired basal bodies of cilia. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
bipolar kinety (ref. ID; 1972)
birth pore (ref. ID; 1972)
blepharismin (ref. ID; 1972)
blepharmone (ref. ID; 1972)
border membrane (ref. ID; 1972)
bristles: (ref. ID; 1972)
Stiff or almost immobile, usually rather short (< 5 um) and often paired cilia, possibly with sensory function (thus, previously often termed sensory bristles). (ref. ID; 4613)
brood pouch or chamber: (ref. ID; 1972)
A cavity in which an endogenously produced embryo develops. (ref. ID; 2013)
brosse (ref. ID; 1972)
buccal apparatus (ref. ID; 1972)
buccal area (ref. ID; 1972)
buccal cavity: (ref. ID; 1972)
A food-conducing space or tube, commonly ciliated, open to the outside, and communicating with the cytostome which is located in the depth of the buccal cavity. (ref. ID; 1219)
Typically a deep oral cavity or depression containing compound ciliary organelles such as membranelles and paroral membrane. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
Depression or invaginated, more or less densely ciliated area of body leading directly to the cytostome; part of the oral apparatus. (ref. ID; 4613)
buccal ciliation:
Specialized kind of ciliation located in the vicinity of the mouth and associated with feeding. (ref. ID; 1219)
buccal overture: (ref. ID; 1972)
The outer opening of a buccal cavity. (ref. ID; 2014)
buccokinetal: (ref. ID; 1972)
A type of stomatogenesis in which the kinetosomes forming the oral ciliature of the daughter cell have an apparent origin in the oral organelles of the parental buccal apparatus. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
bud (ref. ID; 1972)
budding (ref. ID; 1972)

C fibre:
Patterson (1990) first identified the C fibre in the jakobid Jakoba libera, where it is an elongate multilayered structure that adheres to the dorsal side of R2. (ref. ID; 4980)
Refers to tentacles bearing knobs at their distal ends. (ref. ID; 2013)
capitate tentacle (ref. ID; 1972)
capitulum (ref. ID; 1972)
carnivorous: (ref. ID; 1972)
Feeding on zooflagellate, ciliate, small rotifer.
Case (ref. ID; 1972)
See; lorica
catenoid colony (ref. ID; 1972)
cathetodesma (ref. ID; 1972)
caudal cilium: (ref. ID; 1972)
A cilium (or group of cilia) longer than somatic cilia arising at the terminal end of the cell. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
A cilium (or group of cilia) usually longer than the other somatic cilia arising at the posterior end of the cell; in hypotrichs modified to (caudal) cirri. (ref. ID; 4613)
caudalia (ref. ID; 1972)
cavernicolous (ref. ID; 1972)
cell mouth (ref. ID; 1972)
See; cytostome
chondriome (ref. ID; 1972)
ciliary corpuscle (ref. ID; 1972)
ciliary girdle (ref. ID; 1972)
ciliary meridian: (ref. ID; 1972)
Rows of cilia. More often than not refers to the rows of kinetosomes that are displayed by silver impregnation methods (syn. kinety). (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
ciliary organelle (ref. ID; 1972)
ciliary rootlet (ref. ID; 1972)
ciliary row (ref. ID; 1972)
ciliatology (ref. ID; 1972)
ciliature (ref. ID; 1972)
ciliferous (ref. ID; 1972)
ciliospores (ref. ID; 1972)
cilium (pl. cilia): (ref. ID; 1972)
Fine hair-like organelles arranged over bodies of most ciliates. They beat in a coordinated fashion and are used for locomotion and feeding. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
Around mouth (ref. ID; 4613)
circumoral ciliature: (ref. ID; 1972)
A line, arc or band of simple somatic cilia encircling all or part of the apical end (including cytostome) of the body. (ref. ID; 2013)
circumoral connective (ref. ID; 1972)
circumoral kineties (ref. ID; 1972)
cirromembranelle (ref. ID; 1972)
cirrus (pl. cirri): (ref. ID; 1972)
Group or groups of cilia fused into a single organelle; the cirri on the ventral surface of the order Hypotrichida are called, according to their location, frontals, ventrals, marginals, transversals, and caudals. (ref. ID; 1219)
A type of compound somatic ciliary structure consisting of a number of cilia which adhere together. The group of cilia forms a rod-like structure which usually narrows distally. They are typically used for locomotion (ref. ID; 2014)
More or less large number of cilia which adhere together; typically found in hypotrichs. (ref. ID; 4613)
Posterior protoplasmic projection in a suctorian ciliate used to grip stalk of a peritrichous ciliate. (ref. ID; 2013)
clathrocyst (ref. ID; 1972)
clathrum (ref. ID; 1972)
Club-like, usually used to describe body shape when posterior end of body is distinctly narrower than the anterior. Also used to describe certain immobile cilia. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
clavate cilia (ref. ID; 1972)
clone: (ref. ID; 1972)
A population of organisms derived entirely from an individual cell. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
cnidocyst (ref. ID; 1972)
cnidotrichocyst (ref. ID; 1972)
code of nomenclature (ref. ID; 1972)
collar (ref. ID; 1972)
collarette (ref. ID; 1972)
colonies (ref. ID; 1972)
commensalism (ref. ID; 1972)
composite fibre:
The composite fibre was identified as a widespread structure by Simpson & Patterson (1999), following Brugerolle's observations of 'cytostomal fibres' in retortamonads (Brugerolle 1973, 1977). The composite fibre of Carpediemonas originates in association with the dorsal/outer side of R1 about halfway down the groove, immediately before the termination of most of the root microtubules (Simpson & Patterson 1999). The fibre is striated longitudinally and cross-striataed, but has a non-striated, electron-dense component on the innermost side. Cross-striations are spaced at ~30 nm. (ref. ID; 4980)
compound ciliature (ref. ID; 1972)
concrement vacuole (ref. ID; 1972)
conjugation: (ref. ID; 1972)
A sexual process involving the exchange of genetic material during the pairing of two ciliates. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
Sexual reproduction where the partners usually fuse locally, exchange genetic material (nuclei), and separate; does not increase the number of individuals. (ref. ID; 4613)
conocyst (ref. ID; 1972)
constellation of characters principle (ref. ID; 1972)
continuous myoneme:
A myoneme permeating all branches of a colonial peritrich's stalk without breaks at the branches. (ref. ID; 2014)
contractile vacuole complex
Ampullae, collecting canal, connecting canal, contractile vacuole, diaphragm, contractile vacuole pore canal, helical pore microtubules, radial pore microtubules, smooth tubular spongiome, orthotubular system of decorated tubular spongiome (ref. ID; 3749)
contractile vacuole (CV): (ref. ID; 1972)
Organelle of osmoregulation; it enlarges itself continuously until it reaches a maximum size ("diastole") and suddenly bursts through the surrounding cytoplasmic layer ("systole"), discharging its content to the outside; 1 or many contractile vacuoles may occur; the number and position of contractile vacuoles in any species is constant under normal conditions. (ref. ID; 1219)
A liquid-filled vacuole that serves to rid the cell of excess water. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
Liquid-filled organelle (sometimes multiple), serving as an osmoregulator in the cytoplasm of all freshwater ciliates; generally pulsates with a certain frequency; empties over one or more excretory pores. (ref. ID; 4613)
contractile vacuole pore (ref. ID; 1972)
convergent evolution (ref. ID; 1972)
corona (ref. ID; 1972)
coronal ciliature (ref. ID; 1972)
cortex: (ref. ID; 1972)
The outer portion or layer of the ciliate body; comprising, inter alia, the pellicle, the basal bodies, and the fibres associated with the basal bodies. (ref. ID; 4613)
cortical (subpellicular) granules
About 0.5-2 um sized granules in the outer cell layer (cortex). Colour, shape, size, and arrangement of the granules are important species characteristics, which are, however, usually recognizable only in live specimens. Some granules are likely special extrusomes. (ref. ID; 4613)
corticotype (ref. ID; 1972)
Used to describe the pellicle of a ciliate whose outline edge has numerous rounded humps. (ref. ID; 2014)
crypt (ref. ID; 1972)
crystallocyst (ref. ID; 1972)
Usually small, highly refractile, edged or globular (“lithosomes”) structures, composed of an inorganic (phosphorus, calcium magnesium, sulfur, chlorine) and organic component and enclosed in vacuoles. Some are ion regulators, others are presumable end products of the metabolism. (ref. ID; 4613)
cursorial (ref. ID; 1972)
cyrtocyst (ref. ID; 1972)
cyrtos: (ref. ID; 1972)
A usually curved cytopharyngeal apparatus supported by trichites. May be distinguished from the rhabdos type by its ultra-structure. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
cyst: (ref. ID; 1972)
Nonmotile, usually globular stage in the life cycle of many ciliates; several types have been described, for example, resting cysts, digestive cysts, division cysts. (ref. ID; 4613)
According to the ultrastructure characteristics displayed by the cysts of hypotrich ciliates, Walker and Maugel in 1980, proposed a general classification for these of two groups: (1) KR cysts (kinetosome-resorbing cysts) - Oxytricha fallax (Grimes, 1973), Gastrostyla steinii (Walker et al., 1980) and Stylonychia mytilus (Walker et al., 1975) (2) NKR cysts (no kinetosome-resorbing cysts) - Dyophris scutum (Walker and Maugel, 1980). (ref. ID; 7758)
A sexual process in ciliates where self-fertilisation takes place. Although two cells pair as in conjugation there is no exchange of genetic material between the sexes. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
cytokinesis (ref. ID; 1972)
cytopharyngeal apparatus: (ref. ID; 1972)
Syn; basket of trichites. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
cytopharyngeal armature (ref. ID; 1972)
cytopharyngeal pouch (ref. ID; 1972)
cytopharyngeal rod (ref. ID; 1972)
cytopharynx (gullet): (ref. ID; 1972)
An unciliated passage leading from the cytostome into the cytoplasm. (Syn. gullet) (ref. ID; 1219)
A non-ciliated tube leading from the cytostome into the cytoplasm. Sometimes supported by trichites. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
cytoproct: (= cytopyge)(ref. ID; 1972)
The generally permanent opening in the pellicle of the cell through which the undigested remains of food are voided to the exterior. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
cytoskeleton (ref. ID; 1972)
cytostome: (ref. ID; 1972)
The true mouth. (cf., buccal cavity) (ref. ID; 1219)
The true oral aperture of the cell which denotes the end of any ciliation. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
Cell mouth; permanent or pre-formed opening which denotes the end of any ciliation and through which (via the following pharynx) food materials pass into the cytoplasm. Usually, the cytostome is surrounded by specialized ciliature (adoral organelles, undulating membrane, circumoral ciliary row) and located at the cell surface (or example, in gymnostomatids) or in a deep (buccal) cavity, the vestibulum (e.g. peritrichs, Bursaridium). (ref. ID; 4613)
cytostome-cytopharyngeal complex (ref. ID; 1972)
cytotaxis (ref. ID; 1972)

The term dactylopodia, used by Hollande (1945) for conical, hyaline pseudopodia, is here accepted for the subpseudopodia of Mayorella and Hollandella, although it was not employed in a previous study of subpseudopodia of lobose Gymnamoebia (Page, 1975). Dactylopodia are quite different structures from the acanthopodia of Acanthamoebidae (Page 1981) and the often bacilliform subpseudopodia of Vexillifera (Page, 1979). Dactylopodia are more or less blunt-tipped, conical subpseudopodia, hyaline except rarely for a slight intrusion of granuloplasm at the base. In many observations of strains of Mayorella, I have only once seen dactylopodia that appeared to be furcate, that is, with a common base branching into two subpseudopodia located close together, and that was in a preparation compressed beneath a coverslip, so that the phenomenon was probably abnormal. This nonfurcate condition distinguishes the dactylopodia of Mayorella and Hollandella from the acanthopodia of Acanthamoebidae, but the subpseudopodia of Vexillifera are also nonfurcate (Page 1979). However, micro-filamentous material oriented longitudinally within the subpseudopodium has been found in one species of Vexillifera, in Pseudoparamoeba (Page, 1979), and in one of the smaller strains of Paramoeba (Cann and Page, in the press). Such microfilamentous cores have long been known in acanthopodia of the Acanthamoebidae (Bowers and Korn 1968; Page 1981). They were not found in the present study even in M. bulla and M. stella, fixed by a procedure very similar to that used for Acanthamoeba castellanii and Protacanthamoeba caledonica. The dactylopodia of Mayorella therefore differ from the linear nonfurcate pseudopodia of Vexillifera and Pseudoparamoeba not only in usually being thicker and more blunt when observed light microscopically, but also in apparently lacking an oriented microfiliamentous core. They further differ from the acanthopodia of the Acanthoamoebidae in being nonfurcate. Because of the difference in methods of fixation used for H. pussardi by Hollande et al. (1981) and for H. kuwaitensis in the present study, it seems best to be cautious about the presence or absence of such cores in the subpseudopodia of Hollandella. The present study should, however, provide a more 'objective' basis for distinguishing amongst these kinds of pseudopodia. (ref. ID; 7601)
dactylozoite (ref. ID; 1972)
deme (ref. ID; 1972)
dendritic or dendroid colonies (ref. ID; 1972)
de novo cytoplasmic (ref. ID; 1972)
de novo kinetosomal (ref. ID; 1972)
denticle: (ref. ID; 1972)
An element, often hooked, which together with several others comprise the adhesive disc of a mobiline peritrich. (ref. ID; 2014)
denticulate ring (ref. ID; 1972)
desmodexy (ref. ID; 1972)
diploid (ref. ID; 1972)
diplokinety (ref. ID; 1972)
diplostichomonad (ref. ID; 1972)
director-meridian (ref. ID; 1972)
A term describing a three-dimensional shape which is spherical or oval in outline but flattened laterally. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
discontinuous myoneme:
A myoneme that permeates the stalk of a colonial peritrich but breaking at each branch. (ref. ID; 2014)
dorsal brush:
A distinctive group of cilia arising from a few specialised kineties that are arranged on the anterior dorsal surface of a ciliate. (ref. ID; 2013)
Field of usually stiff and short cilia (bristles) at the dorsal side of the anterior body portion of gymnostomatids and cyrtophorids (Phascolodon). (ref. ID; 4613)
dorsal zone of membranelles (ref. ID; 1972)
dyad (ref. ID; 1972)

ectosymbiont (ref. ID; 1972)
edaphic (ref. ID; 1972)
enantiotrophic (ref. ID; 1972)
Formation of a cyst (ref. ID; 4613)
endogemmy (ref. ID; 1972)
endogenous bud
A bud produced asexually inside the cell within a brood pouch. The buds develop cilia before emergence from the brood pouch. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
endogenous budding (ref. ID; 1972)
endoplasmic reticulum (ref. ID; 1972)
endoral membrane:
One of the two undulating membrane of the hypotrichs; extends on bottom of buccal cavity. (ref. ID; 4613)
endoskeletal system (ref. ID; 1972)
endosome (ref. ID; 1972)
endosprit (ref. ID; 1972)
endosymbiont (ref. ID; 1972)
envelope (ref. ID; 1972)
epiplasm (ref. ID; 1972)
epistomial disc (ref. ID; 1972)
Refers to the central region (or equator) of the cell. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
ergastoplasm (ref. ID; 1972)
erratic kinetosomes (ref. ID; 1972)
esophagus (ref. ID; 1972)
Living within a wide range of a particular ecological factor (in contrast, stenopotent means living only within a very narrow range). (ref. ID; 1219)
eutrophic (ref. ID; 1972)
evaginative buds:
Buds that are produced internally but are evaginated before they gain cilia and are therefore released externally. (ref. ID; 2013)
evaginative budding (ref. ID; 1972)
evolutionary series (ref. ID; 1972)
Leaving of the cyst. (ref. ID; 4613)
exogenous bud:
A bud that develops on the outside of the mother cell. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
exogenous budding (ref. ID; 1972)
explosive radiation (ref. ID; 1972)
expulsion vesicle (ref. ID; 1972)
extensor membrane (ref. ID; 1972)
extrusome: (ref. ID; 1972)
A structure, usually arranged near cell surface, which is extruded under conditions of appropriate chemical or mechanical stimulation; used for prey capture and defence. According to size, shape and function many types are distinguished for example, mucocysts, trichocysts, toxicysts, haptocysts, cortical granules. (ref. ID; 4613)

fascicle: (ref. ID; 1972)
A bundle or group of several tentacles arising from a localised are on the cell. (ref. ID; 2013)
Thread-like structures (filaments and microtubules), mainly in the cortex (also, myoneme). (ref. ID; 4613)
fibrocyst (ref. ID; 1972)
filamentous annulus (ref. ID; 1972)
filamentous reticulum (ref. ID; 1972)
filial products (ref. ID; 1972)
Thread-like. (ref. ID; 2014)
fission (ref. ID; 1972)
flange (ref. ID; 1972)
flagellar pocket
food vacuole (FV): (ref. ID; 1972)
Space in the cytoplasm containing fluid medium in which the food matter is suspended. (ref. ID; 1219)
Intracellular vacuoles containing food within which the latter is digested. They form at the base of the cytopharynx and are discharged at the cytoproct. (ref. ID; 2014)
Intracellular vesicle (vacuole) containing food within which the latter is digested; usually formed at inner end of pharynx. (ref. ID; 4613)
frange (ref. ID; 1972)
fringe (ref. ID; 1972)
Elongate and narrowed at each end like a spindle. (ref. ID; 2014)

gamones (ref. ID; 1972)
gamonts (ref. ID; 1972)
germinal row (ref. ID; 1972)
golgi apparatus or body (ref. ID; 1972)
gullet (ref. ID; 1972)

haploid (ref. ID; 1972)
haplokinety: (ref. ID; 1972)
A double row of kinetosomes joined in a zig-zag fashion, generally with only the outermost row bearing cilia. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
haptocyst (ref. ID; 1972)
head (ref. ID; 1972)
heterokaryotic (ref. ID; 1972)
heteromembranelle (ref. ID; 1972)
heteromerous macronucleus (ref. ID; 1972)
histophagous (ref. ID; 1972)
holdfast organelle (ref. ID; 1972)
A continuous even covering of cilia. (ref. ID; 2014)
holozoic (ref. ID; 1972)
homokaryotic (ref. ID; 1972)
homologous characters (ref. ID; 1972)
homomerous macronucleus (ref. ID; 1972)
homonym (ref. ID; 1972)
homopolar double (ref. ID; 1972)
homothetogenic fission (ref. ID; 1972)
host (ref. ID; 1972)
hypostomial frange: (ref. ID; 1972)
A band of perioral ciliature characteristically found in certain hypostomes ciliates. It varies from an extensive helical band of specialised postoral ciliature to a few pseudomembranelles lying close to the cytostome. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)

I fibre:
The I fibre is a band of material that adheres to the ventral/inner face of R1 at its most anterior end. The I fibre was first distinguished in the jakobid Reclinomonas (O'Kelly, 1997). (ref. ID; 4980)
indicator organisms (ref. ID; 1972)
infraciliay lattice (ref. ID; 1972)
infraciliature: (ref. ID; 1972)
The complete collection of somatic and oral kinetosomes and associated microfibrillar and microtubular structures that are revealed by silver impregnation methods. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
Ciliary pattern; assembly of all basal bodies and associated fibres. (ref. ID; 4613)
infundibulum: (ref. ID; 1972)
The inner part of the buccal cavity of certain ciliates, it may be funnel or tube shaped. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
inquiline (ref. ID; 1972)
interkinetal (ref. ID; 1972)
intermeridional connectives (ref. ID; 1972)
internal code of zoological nomenclature (ref. ID; 1972)
interstitial (ref. ID; 1972)
intracytoplasmic pouch (ref. ID; 1972)
isoconjugants (ref. ID; 1972)

karyological relict (ref. ID; 1972)
karyonide (ref. ID; 1972)
karyophore (ref. ID; 1972)
kinetal segment (ref. ID; 1972)
kinetid (ref. ID; 1972)
kinetodesma (ref. ID; 1972)
Longitudinally orientated subpellicular cytoplasmic fibrils which arise close to the base of a kinetosome. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
kinetofragments (ref. ID; 1972)
kinetofragmon (ref. ID; 1972)
kinetome (ref. ID; 1972)
kinetorhiza (ref. ID; 1972)
kinetosomal territory (ref. ID; 1972)
kinetosome: (ref. ID; 1972)
Subpellicular basal body of a cilium. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
kinety: (ref. ID; 1972)
Single longitudinally orientated and functionally integrated row of somatic kinetosomes. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
Ciliary row. (ref. ID; 4613)
kinety number 1 (ref. ID; 1972)
Km fiber (ref. ID; 1972)

lamina corticalis (ref. ID; 1972)
A finger-like protoplasmic projection in the oral region. (ref. ID; 2013)
larval form (ref. ID; 1972)
lieberkuhn's organelle (ref. ID; 1972)
lips (ref. ID; 1972)
lithosome (ref. ID; 1972)
littoral (ref. ID; 1972)
Lkm fiber (ref. ID; 1972)
locomotor fringe (ref. ID; 1972)
locus of stripe contrast (ref. ID; 1972)
longitudinal microtubules (ref. ID; 1972)
lorica: (ref. ID; 1972)
An external non-living housing or shell of a ciliate. They may be mucilaginous or pseudochitinous. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
loricastome (ref. ID; 1972)
lysosomes (ref. ID; 1972)

macroconjugant: (ref. ID; 1972)
The larger of two conjugants. Often less mobile than the microconjugant and generally regarded as the female of the pair. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
macronuclear evolution hypothesis (ref. ID; 1972)
macronucleus: (ref. ID; 1972)
The large nucleus; it controls the trophic activities and regeneration processes. (ref. ID; 1219)
The larger vegetative or trophic nucleus of a ciliate which controls the organism's phenotype. It is derived from the micronucleus during sexual reproduction. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
Vegetative or trophic nucleus of ciliates; controls the organisms phenotype. Usually polyploid, except for the Karyorelictea (e.g., Loxodes) where it is diploid. Shape and number (one to many hundred) of macronuclear nodules are important taxonomic features. Originates from micronucleus during sexual reproduction (conjugation). (ref. ID; 4613)
macrophagous (ref. ID; 1972)
marginal cilia (ref. ID; 1972)
meganucleus (ref. ID; 1972)
membrane: (ref. ID; 1972)
Generalized term with a variety of particular meanings depending on its specific modifier (for example, cell membrane, endoral membrane, undulating membrane). (ref. ID; 4613)
membranelle: (ref. ID; 1972)
A compound ciliary organelle found on the left side of a buccal cavity or peristomial field. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
Compound structure composed of many adhering cilia in left portion of oral apparatus; many serially arranged membranelles form the adoral zone of membranelles of heterotrichs and hypotrichs. (ref. ID; 4613)
membranoid (ref. ID; 1972)
A term used to describe cells that are able to readily change their shape because of their plasticity. (ref. ID; 2013)
See; saprobity system
microbiocenosis (ref. ID; 1972)
microconjugant: (ref. ID; 1972)
The smaller of two conjugants. Often more mobile than the macroconjugant and generally regarded as the male of the pair. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
microfibrils (ref. ID; 1972)
microfilaments (ref. ID; 1972)
micronucleus: (ref. ID; 1972)
The smaller nucleus; it is concerned with reproductive activities. (ref. ID; 1219)
The generative and smaller nucleus of ciliates. It is concerned with sexual processes. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
Generative (and usually smaller) nucleus of ciliates; is concerned with sexual processes. Invariably diploid and usually spherical or ellipsoidal. The macronucleus takes its rise from a part of the micronucleus genome during sexual reproduction (conjugation). (ref. ID; 4613)
microphagous (ref. ID; 1972)
microscope slide:
Small glass plates used in microscopy; often used as artificial substrates for evaluating the periphyton community. (ref. ID; 1219)
microtoxicyst (ref. ID; 1972)
microtubule (ref. ID; 1972)
mitochondria (ref. ID; 1972)
A term used to describe a macronucleus that takes the form of a string of beads or sausages. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
monogemmic (ref. ID; 1972)
monophyletic (ref. ID; 1972)
monostomy (ref. ID; 1972)
monotomic (ref. ID; 1972)
monoxenic culture (ref. ID; 1972)
morphogenesis: (ref. ID; 1972)
Division sensu lato; comprises the formation of the new oral apparatus (stomatogenesis), nucleus division and division of the cell (cytokinesis) in contrast to conjugation, the number of individuals is increased. (ref. ID; 4613)
mosaic evolution (ref. ID; 1972)
mouth: (ref. ID; 1972)
Cytostome; sometimes (incorrectly) used instead of oral apparatus. (ref. ID; 4613)
mucocyst: (ref. ID; 1972)
Sub-pellicular sac or rod-shaped organelle which discharges mucus through pore in pellicle. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
Slimy extrusomes as defence against poison and probably involved in cyst formation. (ref. ID; 4613)
mucous trichocyst (ref. ID; 1972)
muller's vesicle (ref. ID; 1972)
mutualism (ref. ID; 1972)
myoneme: (ref. ID; 1972)
Contractile, muscle-like thread in the stalk of sessile peritrichs. (ref. ID; 2014)
Contractile, fibrillar structure; well recognizable in the stalk (as “stalk muscle”) of peritrichs (for example Vorticella). (ref. ID; 4613)

nebenkorper (ref. ID; 1972)
neck (ref. ID; 1972)
nematodesma (pl. nematodesmata): (ref. ID; 1972)
Parallel bundles of microtubules (Syn. trichite). (ref. ID; 2013)
neoteny (ref. ID; 1972)
neritic (ref. ID; 1972)
neuromotorium (ref. ID; 1972)
nomen conservandum (ref. ID; 1972)
nomen dubium (ref. ID; 1972)
nomen novum (ref. ID; 1972)
nomen nudum (ref. ID; 1972)
nomen oblitum (ref. ID; 1972)
nonhomologous (ref. ID; 1972)
nuclear apparatus:
Macronucleus plus micronucleus. (ref. ID; 4613)
nuclear dualism (ref. ID; 1972)
nuclear envelope (ref. ID; 1972)
nuclear membrane (ref. ID; 1972)
nucleolus (pl. nucleoli) (ref. ID; 1972)
Dense site(s) in the macronucleus, where rRNA is synthesized and ribonucleoproteins, the precursers of ribosomes, are formed. (ref. ID; 4613)
nucleus (ref. ID; 1972)
numbering conventions (ref. ID; 1972)

occam's razor (ref. ID; 1972)
ogival field (ref. ID; 1972)
oligomerization (ref. ID; 1972)
oligosaprobic: (ref. ID; 1972)
See; saprobity system
omnivorous (ref. ID; 1972)
ontogeny (ref. ID; 1972)
May be a lid or flap-like covering used to close the lorica of certain peritrichs or the retractable stalked epistomial disc present in operculariid peritrichs. (ref. ID; 2014)
ophryokinety (ref. ID; 1972)
opisthe: (ref. ID; 1972)
Posterior daughter of a dividing ciliate cell. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
oral apparatus: (ref. ID; 1972)
All structures and organelles involved in or quite directly related with feeding, for example, adoral organelles, cytostome, pharynx, undulating membrane. (ref. ID; 4613)
oral area (ref. ID; 1972)
oral basket (cyrtos, rhados):
Usually distinct, funnel-shaped structure composed of microtubular bundles (oral basket rods, nematodesmata) and strengthening the pharynx. Depending on the origin of the microtubules, a cyrtos (e.g. cyrtophorids [Phascolodon]) and rhabdos (e.g. gymnostomatids) type of oral basket are distinguished. (ref. ID; 4613)
oral ciliature (ref. ID; 1972)
oral disc (ref. ID; 1972)
oral groove (ref. ID; 1972)
oral ribs (ref. ID; 1972)
”Organ” of an unicellular organism, for example, the contractile vacuole; analogous to the organs (for example, kidney) of the metazoans. Organelles are compartments of one cell, organs are composed many cell. (ref. ID; 4613)
orthogenetic lines (ref. ID; 1972)
orthomere (ref. ID; 1972)

palintomy (ref. ID; 1972)
palp (ref. ID; 1972)
papilla (ref. ID; 1972)
parakinetal: (ref. ID; 1972)
A type of stomatogenesis in which the kinetosomes of the daughter cell are derived from one or more of the postoral kineties of the mother cell. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
paralabial organ (ref. ID; 1972)
paramembranelle (ref. ID; 1972)
paramere (ref. ID; 1972)
parasitism (ref. ID; 1972)
parasomal sac (ref. ID; 1972)
parateny (ref. ID; 1972)
parental form (ref. ID; 1972)
paroral kinety: (ref. ID; 1972)
Syn. paroral membrane (ref. ID; 2014)
paroral membrane: (ref. ID; 1972)
A ciliary organelle lying along the right side or border of a buccal cavity. (ref. ID; 2014)
Ciliary organelle lying along the right side or border of the buccal cavity, composed of cilia arising from a single row of kinetosomes. (ref. ID; 3420)
paves (ref. ID; 1972)
PBB-complex (Polar Basal Body-complex) (ref. ID; 1972)
pecilokont (ref. ID; 1972)
Short rows of strong unfused cilia occurring in series. (Syn. pectinelles) (ref. ID; 1219)
pectinelle (ref. ID; 1972)
pedicel (ref. ID; 1972)
peduncle: (ref. ID; 1972)
A non-contractile stalk. (ref. ID; 2013)
pelagic (ref. ID; 1972)
pellicle: (ref. ID; 1972)
Outer living covering of a ciliate. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
”Skin” of the ciliates, sensu lato identical with cortex, sensu stricto with cell membrane and pellicular alveoli. (ref. ID; 4613)
pellicular crest (ref. ID; 1972)
pellicular pores (ref. ID; 1972)
pellicular striae (ref. ID; 1972)
peniculus (pl. peniculi): (ref. ID; 1972)
Group of specialized cilia in the buccal cavity of the suborder Peniculina. (ref. ID; 1219)
A band-like membranelle or compound ciliary organelle typically found travelling along the left wall of a buccal cavity. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
perilemma: (ref. ID; 1972)
An additional outer membrane covering the pellicle or polygonal cortical platelets. (ref. ID; 3420)
perioral ciliature: (ref. ID; 1972)
Similar to circumoral ciliature but often used more loosely meaning any ciliature around the cytostome. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
periphyton community: (ref. ID; 1972)
Organisms living on submerged substrates (stones, plants, microscope slides, etc.). (ref. ID; 1219)
peristome: (ref. ID; 1972)
A differentiated external area adjacent to the mouth, associated with feeding. (ref. ID; 1219)
Usually used to mean the complete oral area (peristomial field) of peritrichs and certain spirotrichs where the buccal ciliature has been everted from a cavity and occupies much of the anterior portion of the body. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
peristomial area:
Entire oral area including buccal cavity. (ref. ID; 3420)
peristomial ciliature:
Compound ciliary organelles in the region (usually surrounding) the peristome. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
peristomial collar:
Collar-like protrusion located at the apical extremity, surrounding the peristomial area. (ref. ID; 3420)
perizonal ciliary stripe:
A band of somatic cilia in the vicinity of the oral area whose rows appear to run transversely. (ref. ID; 2014)
perizonal ciliature (ref. ID; 1972)
perkinetal (ref. ID; 1972)
pexicyst (ref. ID; 1972)
phagoplasm (ref. ID; 1972)
Throat; nonciliated tubular passeway leading from the cytostome proper into the inner cytoplasm; typically, food vacuoles are formed at its inner end; often strengthened by oral basket rods (nematodesmata, oral basket) made of microtubules. (ref. ID; 4613)
phoront: (ref. ID; 1972)
Stage in the life cycle of an apostome ciliate, where it is carried about on the carapace of a crustacean. (ref. ID; 2013)
phylogeny (ref. ID; 1972)
pigment granules (ref. ID; 1972)
pigment shield
plankton (ref. ID; 1972)
plasmalemma (ref. ID; 1972)
plesiomorph (ref. ID; 1972)
podite (ref. ID; 1972)
polyenergid (ref. ID; 1972)
polygemmic (ref. ID; 1972)
polygenomic (ref. ID; 1972)
polygonal cortical platelet:
Thickened pellicle mainly composed of polysaccharide platelets which covers the posterior and in some cases almost the whole body. The terms "polysaccharide plate" and "polysaccharide plaque" are also used. (ref. ID; 3420)
polyhymenium (ref. ID; 1972)
polykinety: (ref. ID; 1972)
The infraciliary bases of the buccal membranelles. (ref. ID; 2014)
polymerization (ref. ID; 1972)
polyphyletic (ref. ID; 1972)
polyploid (ref. ID; 1972)
polysaprobic (ref. ID; 1972)
See; saprobity system
polystichomonad (ref. ID; 1972)
polystomy (ref. ID; 1972)
polytomic (ref. ID; 1972)
pores (ref. ID; 1972)
positional control principle (ref. ID; 1972)
postciliary fibers (ref. ID; 1972)
postciliary microtubules (ref. ID; 1972)
postciliodesma (ref. ID; 1972)
posterior microtubules (ref. ID; 1972)
Behind (underneath) of oral apparatus. (ref. ID; 4613)
postoral meridian (ref. ID; 1972)
postoral suture: (ref. ID; 1972)
A suture posterior to the cytostome. (ref. ID; 2014)
prebuccal area (ref. ID; 1972)
prebuccal ciliature (ref. ID; 1972)
prehensile tentacle (ref. ID; 1972)
In front (above) of oral apparatus. (ref. ID; 4613)
preoral ciliary apparatus (ref. ID; 1972)
preoral funnel:
The expanded anterior funnel-like region of a chonotrich; it is ciliated internally and represents a vestibulum. (ref. ID; 2013)
preoral kinety (ref. ID; 1972)
preoral suture: (ref. ID; 1972)
A suture anterior to the cytostome. (ref. ID; 2014)
proboscis (ref. ID; 1972)
Silver-protein-compound (silver impregnation). (ref. ID; 4613)
proter (ref. ID; 1972)
Anterior daughter of a dividing ciliate. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
protomite (ref. ID; 1972)
protomont (ref. ID; 1972)
protrichocyst (ref. ID; 1972)
psammophilic (ref. ID; 1972)
pseudomembranelle: (ref. ID; 1972)
A loose term to describe oral or somatic ciliary complexes which superficially resemble membranelles but which on closer examination differ from them structurally. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
pseudoperistome (ref. ID; 1972)
Pear-shaped. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)

quadrulus: (ref. ID; 1972)
Buccal ciliary organelle composed of long cilia on an infraciliary base that is four kinetosomes in width and many in length. (ref. ID; 2014)

radial fibers (ref. ID; 1972)
Kidney-shaped. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
reorganization band: (ref. ID; 1972)
Special section in the macronucleus of some ciliates (hypotrichs, oligotrichs), involved in DNA replication and histone synthesis. (ref. ID; 4613)
reproduction (ref. ID; 1972)
reticulated fiber (ref. ID; 1972)
retoractor fibers (ref. ID; 1972)
retrodesmal fiber (ref. ID; 1972)
rhabdocyst (ref. ID; 1972)
rhabdos: (ref. ID; 1972)
A cytopharyngeal apparatus supported by straight trichites. May be distinguished from the cyrtos type by its fine structure. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
ribbed wall (ref. ID; 1972)
rosette (ref. ID; 1972)
rosette organelle:
A rose-shaped septate structure of unknown function found near the cytostome in apostome ciliates. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
rostellum (ref. ID; 1972)
rostrum: (ref. ID; 1972)
A general term referring to the apical end of a ciliate when it has a beak-like appearance. It is usually bent at an angle to the longitudinal body axis. (ref. ID; 2013)

saltatorial cilia (ref. ID; 1972)
sanguicolous (ref. ID; 1972)
saprobity system: (ref. ID; 1972)
The saprobity system is based on the observation that in the course of the self-purification process a body of water shows distinct zones of decreasing pollution (or improved water quality); these zones are termed polysaprobic (gross pollution), alpha-mesosaprobic, beta-mesosaprobic, and oligosaprobic; the latter may be divided into alpha- and beta- oligosaprobic. Each zone is characterized by a particular content of oxygen, organic matter, products of septic decay, and products of mineralization. Biologically, each zone affords optimal conditions for certain species and communities of organisms, the so-called "indicator" organisms (for full details see Kolkwitz (1950) and Liebmann (1962). The particular saprobity zones may be characterized as follows:
polysaprobic zone - heavy pollution with sewage or other organic materials, mass development of bacteria that are involved in decomposition processes, a high rate of oxygen consumption, and a high production of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide
alpha-mesosaprobic zone - vigorous oxidation processes, increased dissolved oxygen though oxygen consumption is still high, no hydrogen sulfide production, oxidation of ammonia starts
beta-mesosaprobic zone - much dissolved oxygen, low oxygen consumption, mineralization of organic materials, and large amounts of the end-products of mineralization, e.g., nitrates
oligosaprobic zone - all mineralization processes have been completed, the dissolved oxygen content is high and oxygen consumption nearly zero; the beta-oligosaprobic level is characterized by rather moderate variety of species and low bioactivity, while the alpha-oligosaprobic level is characterized by a comparatively large variety of species and high bioactivity (ref. ID; 1219)
Putrefying sludge rich in hydrogen sulfide. (ref. ID; 1219)
An aquatic habitat containing a high concentration of organic matter and a low concentration of dissolved oxygen (frequently anaerobic). (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
Occurrence limited to the sapropel. (ref. ID; 1219)
saprozoic (ref. ID; 1972)
satellite vesicles:
Small accessory vesicles surrounding and serving a contractile vacuole. (ref. ID; 2014)
scopula: (ref. ID; 1972)
Compound organelle with thickened peripheral border at the aboral pole of sessile peritrichs which may function as a holdfast or more commonly by involved in the secretion of a stalk. (ref. ID; 2014)
Stalk forming and attachment organelle at posterior pole of peritrichs. The analogous structure of stalked suctorians is named scopuloid. (ref. ID; 4613)
scopulary organelles (ref. ID; 1972)
scopuloid (ref. ID; 1972)
scutica: (ref. ID; 1972)
Usually a small group of barren basal bodies underneath the oral apparatus; during stomatogenesis, a part of the new mouth is formed by this structure, which occurs only in the scuticociliates (for example, Histiobalantium), a group of the hymenostomes. (ref. ID; 4613)
scutico-field: (ref. ID; 1972)
Kinetosomal structure in scuticociliates from which the oral structures of the opisthe develop; it only becomes prominent in the dividing cell. (ref. ID; 2014)
scutico-hook (ref. ID; 1972)
scutico-kinetosomes (ref. ID; 1972)
scutico-vestige (ref. ID; 1972)
scuticus (ref. ID; 1972)
seizing organ (ref. ID; 1972)
secretory organelle (ref. ID; 1972)
SEM: (ref. ID; 1972)
Scanning electron microscopy.
seme (ref. ID; 1972)
semi-autonomous (ref. ID; 1972)
semi-membrane (ref. ID; 1972)
sensory bristles (ref. ID; 1972)
sensory organelle (ref. ID; 1972)
sexual phenomena (ref. ID; 1972)
sheath (ref. ID; 1972)
shell (ref. ID; 1972)
silver impregnation:
Cytological methods where silver ions (e.g. protargol, silver nitrate) deposit onto argyrophilic sites (especially the basal bodies) and which are then visible in the light microscope. (ref. ID; 4613)
silver-impregnation techniques (ref. ID; 1972)
silverline system: (ref. ID; 1972)
Striated or reticulate cortical structure, which can be stained (impregnated) with silver nitrate; usually composed of fibres, and possibly involved in morphogenetic processes and/or conduction of stimuli. (ref. ID; 4613)
simple ciliature (ref. ID; 1972)
singlet roots:
The 'singlet root' was originally distinguished by O'Kelly (1997) in the jakobid Reclinomonas. It is a single microtubule that originates from the dorsalmost angle between the right root and the basal body, then runs along the floor of the groove. (ref. ID; 4980)
skeletal plaques (ref. ID; 1972)
skeletal plates (ref. ID; 1972)
skeletogenous structure (ref. ID; 1972)
solitary forms (ref. ID; 1972)
Belonging to the body; as opposed to oral. (ref. ID; 4613)
somatic area (ref. ID; 1972)
somatic ciliature: (ref. ID; 1972)
The cilia or compound ciliary organelles found anywhere on the body surface other than in the oral area. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
somatic-meridional (ref. ID; 1972)
somatization (ref. ID; 1972)
spasmoneme (ref. ID; 1972)
spherical colony (ref. ID; 1972)
spines (ref. ID; 1972)
split R1:
In the most excavate flagellates, R1 splits shortly after its origin into distinct inner and outer portions. (ref. ID; 4980)
spongioplasm (ref. ID; 1972)
stalk (ref. ID; 1972)
stentorin (ref. ID; 1972)
stereocilia (ref. ID; 1972)
stichodyad: (ref. ID; 1972)
Type of paroral membrane in which the kinetosomes are arranged in a zigzag manner. (ref. ID; 2014)
stichomonad (ref. ID; 1972)
stomatogenesis: (ref. ID; 1972)
The process by which a new oral area is formed. The term is usually used with special reference to the formation of new oral ciliature. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
Formation of the new oral apparatus during cell division. (ref. ID; 4613)
stomatogenic field (ref. ID; 1972)
stomatogenic kinety:
The parental kinety from which the oral ciliature of a daughter cell is formed. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
striated bands (ref. ID; 1972)
strobilation (ref. ID; 1972)
structural conservatism hypothesis (ref. ID; 1972)
structural guidance principle (ref. ID; 1972)
stylet (ref. ID; 1972)
Area just below the apex of the body. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
Area just below the equator of the cell. (ref. ID; 2014)
subkinetal microtubules (ref. ID; 1972)
sucker (ref. ID; 1972)
sucking tube (ref. ID; 1972)
suctorial organelle (ref. ID; 1972)
suctorial tentacle: (ref. ID; 1972)
Tubular tentacle of subclass Suctoria concerned with food-capturing. (ref. ID; 1219)
supernumerary kinetosomes (ref. ID; 1972)
The linear space left between the ends of converging kineties. (ref. ID; 2013)
The line of junction between the converging kineties from either side of the peristome. (ref. ID; 2014)
The linear space left between the ends of converging ciliar rows (for example, in front of and behind the oral apparatus of Frontonia). (ref. ID; 4613)
suture lines (ref. ID; 1972)
swarmer: (ref. ID; 1972)
Freely swimming, ciliated embryonic stage of a suctorian ciliate. (ref. ID; 2013)
Freely motile disperse stage in the life cycle of a number of sessile ciliates, for example, of peritrichs and suctorians. (ref. ID; 4613)
symbiont (ref. ID; 1972)
symbiosis (ref. ID; 1972)
symbiotic algae
Single-celled algae living symbiotic in the ciliate cytoplasm. (ref. ID; 4613)
symmetrogenic fission (ref. ID; 1972)
symphoriont (ref. ID; 1972)
syncilium (ref. ID; 1972)
syngen (ref. ID; 1972)
synhymenium (ref. ID; 1972)
synkaryon (ref. ID; 1972)
synonym (ref. ID; 1972)
systeme secant (ref. ID; 1972)

tail (ref. ID; 1972)
tangential fibers (ref. ID; 1972)
tectin granules (ref. ID; 1972)
teeth (ref. ID; 1972)
tela corticalis (ref. ID; 1972)
telokinetal: (ref. ID; 1972)
A type of stomatogenesis in which the new oral ciliature is formed from all or some of the encircling somatic kinetosomes or from those comprising the kinetofragments. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
telotroch: (ref. ID; 1972)
Free-swimming migratory stage in the life cycle of a sessile peritrich. (ref. ID; 2014)
TEM: (ref. ID; 1972)
Transmission electron microscopy.
temporary conjugation (ref. ID; 1972)
tentacle: (ref. ID; 1972)
Hollow tube-like extension of body of suctorian. They are extensible and retractable and are often knobbed (capitate). Tentacles are used for feeding. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
tentaculoid: (ref. ID; 1972)
Small finger-like protoplasmic extensions found amongst the membranelles of the AZM of certain tintinnids; function unknown. (ref. ID; 2014)
Extreme posterior region of the body. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
test (ref. ID; 1972)
tetrahymenal buccal apparatus (ref. ID; 1972)
tetrahymenium (ref. ID; 1972)
Brackish water originating from seawater diluted with fresh water. (ref. ID; 1219)
theca (ref. ID; 1972)
theront (ref. ID; 1972)
thigmotactic area or zone (ref. ID; 1972)
thigmotactic cilia:
A definite patch, area or tuft of somatic cilia which is adhesive. (ref. ID; 2014)
thigmotactic ciliature (ref. ID; 1972)
tomite: (ref. ID; 1972)
Small, free-swimming, non-feeding stage in the polymorphic life cycle of an apostome ciliate. It serves to spread the organism to a new 'host' and is the product of the multiple fission of an encysted trophont. (ref. ID; 2013)
tomitogenesis (ref. ID; 1972)
tomont (ref. ID; 1972)
total conjugation (ref. ID; 1972)
toxicyst: (ref. ID; 1972)
Subpellicular slender tubular organelle found particularly in the carnivorous gymnostomes. Also found in the non-suctorial tentacles of certain other gymnostomes. (ref. ID; 2013)
Extrusomes filled with poison and used of capture of prey. (ref. ID; 4613)
transverse fibers (ref. ID; 1972)
transverse fibrous spur (ref. ID; 1972)
transverse microtubules (ref. ID; 1972)
trichite: (ref. ID; 1972)
A skeletal rod-like structure used to support the cytopharynx of some ciliates. Now often called a cytopharyngeal rod. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
Unique skeletal structure, hollow, rod-like and of a proteinaceous nature, usually arranged radially beneath the pellicle of the posterior hemisphere of the body. (ref. ID; 3420)
trichocyst: (ref. ID; 1972)
Tiny rod-like body that can shoot out slender threads into the surrounding water when mechanically or chemically stimulated. (ref. ID; 1219)
A term loosely used throughout this volume to include mucocysts and trichocysts proper. The trichocyst sensu stricto is a fibrous explosive organelle restricted to the peniculine hymenostomes and hypostome microthoracines. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
Needle-shaped extrusomes used for defence. (ref. ID; 4613)
trochal band (ref. ID; 1972)
trophont: (ref. ID; 1972)
Feeding stage of an apostome ciliate. It feeds on the exuvial fluid of the moulted exoskelton of a crustacean. (ref. ID; 2013)
trophozoite (ref. ID; 1972)
tubercle (ref. ID; 1972)
tubicolous (ref. ID; 1972)
tubular trichocyst (ref. ID; 1972)
tubulin (ref. ID; 1972)
type genus (ref. ID; 1972)
type species (ref. ID; 1972)
Species on which a genus is based; the sole species which cannot be removed from the genus. (ref. ID; 4613)
type specimen (ref. ID; 1972)

undulating membrane: (ref. ID; 1972)
Syn. the moderan term paroral membrane. (ref. ID; 2013)
One or several rows of narrowly spaced cilia, which usually adhere together at the right margin of the oral apparatus. (ref. ID; 4613)
undulipodium (ref. ID; 1972)
unit membrane (ref. ID; 1972)

vacuole: (ref. ID; 1972)
Vesicle; contractile vacuole and food vacuole. (ref. ID; 4613)
variety (ref. ID; 1972)
velum (ref. ID; 1972)
ventralization (ref. ID; 1972)
Worm-like. (ref. ID; 2013)
vesicles (ref. ID; 1972)
vestibular ciliature (ref. ID; 1972)
vestibulum (vestibule): (ref. ID; 1972)
Depressed part of the body ("oral groove") in the surroundings of the mouth, containing more or less modified somatic ciliation associated with feeding. (ref. ID; 1219)
A depression or cavity in the body containing cilia that are predominantly somatic in origin. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
Buccal cavity. (ref. ID; 4613)
vestige (ref. ID; 1972)

xenosomes (ref. ID; 1972)
xeric (ref. ID; 1972)
xylophagous (ref. ID; 1972)

zoochlorellae: (ref. ID; 1972)
Algae living symbiotically within the cell of a ciliated protozoon. (ref. ID; 1219)
Green mutualistic algae found in certain ciliates. (ref. ID; 2013, 2014)
Symbiotic algae of the genus Chlorella. (ref. ID; 4613)
zooid: (ref. ID; 1972)
The individuals of peritrichs with branched stalk. (ref. ID; 4613)