Quadrulella

Quadrulella Cockerell, 1909 (ref. ID; 2290, 3686)

Quote from ref. ID; 4999

[ref. ID; 1923]
Shell normally pyriform, with siliceous plates. This genus can be considered a subgenus of Nebela. The distinction between siliceous and calcareous plates is very easily seen with the polarizing microscope. The endogenous siliceous pates always remain black in crossed nicols. (ref. ID; 1923)

[ref. ID; 2290]
Shell colourless, ovoid, composed of quadrangular shell plates arranged without overlapping; aperture oval. (ref. ID; 2290)

[ref. ID; 3686]
Shell colourless; ovoid; composed of quadrangular siliceous shell-plates; aperture terminal, oval. (ref. ID; 3686)

  1. Quadrulella acuminata Van Oye, 1957 (ref. ID; 2235 original paper)
  2. Quadrulella Debonti Van Oye, 1959 (ref. ID; 2236 original paper)
  3. Quadrulella discoides (ref. ID; 2239)
  4. Quadrulella elegans Gauthier-Lievre, 1953 (ref. ID; 2090, 2235)
  5. Quadrulella elongata Van Oye, 1952 (ref. ID; 2235, 2564 original paper)
  6. Quadrulella lageniformis Van Oye, 1949 (ref. ID; 2160, 2235, 3223 original paper)
  7. Quadrulella quadrigera (Wailes) Deflandre, 1936 (ref. ID; 2090, 2160, 2235)
  8. Quadrulella quadrigera var. africana Gauthier-Lievre & Thomas (ref. ID; 2146)
  9. Quadrulella scutellata Wailes, 1912 (ref. ID; 2235)
  10. Quadrulella symmetrica (Wallich, 1863) (ref. ID; 3686) or (Wallich, 1863) Schulze, 1875 (ref. ID; 661, 1923, 2038, 2235, 2290, 2441, 2456, 2498, 2564), Quadrurella misspelling? symmetrica (Wallich) (ref. ID; 3501)
  11. Quadrulella symmetrica var. curvata Wailes, 1912 (ref. ID; 2235)
  12. Quadrulella symmetrica var. irregularis Penard, 1911 (ref. ID; 2110, 2235, 2441)
  13. Quadrulella symmetrica var. kivuensis Van Oye, 1957 (ref. ID; 2235 original paper)
  14. Quadrulella symmetrica var. lanceolata Gauthier-Lievre, 1953 (ref. ID; 2235)
  15. Quadrulella symmetrica (Wallich) Cockerell var. longicollis Taranek, 1882 (ref. ID; 2090, 2235, 2330, 2441)
  16. Quadrulella symmetrica var. tubulata Gauthier-Lievre, 1953 (ref. ID; 2090, 2235)
  17. Quadrulella tropica Wailes, 1912 (ref. ID; 2090, 2235)

Quadrulella symmetrica (Wallich, 1863) (ref. ID; 3686) or (Wallich, 1863) Schulze, 1875 (ref. ID; 661, 1923, 2038, 2235, 2290, 2441, 2456, 2498, 2564), Quadrurella misspelling? symmetrica (Wallich) (ref. ID; 3501)

Descriptions

Plates very transparent, usually regularly arranged in transverse and longitudinal series. Many varieties, some being short, other long, others curved. Habitat Sphagnum and moss, generally submerged. (ref. ID; 1923)
The shell is colourless, ovoid or pyriform and composed of quadrangular, siliceous shell plates. It is compressed laterally especially in the apertural region. The shell plates are usually arranged in a regular manner, often in rows, with smaller plates close to the aperture. The aperture is oval, often concave in lateral view, and surrounded by a thin collar of organic cement. (ref. ID; 3686)

Comments

Differences in the breadth of specimens was recorded by Cash (1909), whilst Deflandre (1936) redescribed Q. symmetrica and three varieties, var. longicollis, var. irregularis and var. curvata. (ref. ID; 3686)

Measurements

Length 68-150 um. (ref. ID; 1923)
Length of shell 72-103; breadth of shell 36-52; depth of shell 27-35; diameter of aperture 18-22 um (n=12). (ref. ID; 3686)