Nebela

Nebela Leidy, 1875 (ref. ID; 3686)

Amoebozoa: Order Arcellinida: Family Hyalospheniidae (ref ID; 6728)
Rhizopoda (ref. ID; 4863)
Nebelinae Deflandre (ref. ID; 7501)

[ref. ID; 1618]
Test thin, ovate or pyriform; with circular or oval platelets of uniform or various sizes; highly irregular; endoplasm with oil globules; nucleus posterior; body does not fill the test, and is connected with the latter by many ectoplasmic strands at fundus end; pseudopodia blunt, rarely branched; fresh water. (ref. ID; 1618)

[ref. ID; 1923]
Shell never with foreign elements, with round, oval or irregular plates, pyriform, ovoid or rounded, compressed. This genus widely distributed throughout the world, and having endemic forms. (ref. ID; 1923)

[ref. ID; 3686]
Shell colourless, yellow or brown; ovoid or pyriform; composed of oval or circular or rectangular siliceous shell-plates, usually of mixed shapes and sizes; aperture, terminal, oval or circular, often with an organic border. (ref. ID; 3686)

  1. Nebela acuminata Van Oye, 1959 (ref. ID; 2046, 2236 original paper)
  2. Nebela americana Taranek, 1882 (ref. ID; 2046, 2441) reported year? (ref. ID; 3693)
  3. Nebela americana var. falcata Wailes (ref. ID; 2046)
  4. Nebela ansata Leidy (ref. ID; 2242, 3693) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 3595)
  5. Nebela antarctica Grospietsch (ref. ID; 2046)
  6. Nebela australis Vucetich (ref. ID; 2046)
  7. Nebela barbata Leidy, 1874 (ref. ID; 3686) reported year? (ref. ID; 1316) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 3595)
    Syn; Difflugia barbata Leidy, 1874 (ref. ID; 1316)
  8. Nebela barbata var. psilonata Jung (ref. ID; 2046)
  9. Nebela bartosi Haager-Haagerova (ref. ID; 2046)
  10. Nebela batekensis Gauthier-Lievre (ref. ID; 3539)
  11. Nebela bigibbosa Penard, 1890 (ref. ID; 3686) reported year? (ref. ID; 2242, 3693)
  12. Nebela bipes (ref. ID; 3595)
  13. Nebela bohemica Taraneck (ref. ID; 1923) or Taranek, 1882 (ref. ID; 2037, 2441, 4737, 5461) reported year? (ref. ID; 2087, 3501, 3693)
  14. Nebela bohemica var. adelia Decloitre (ref. ID; 2046)
  15. Nebela bursella Vejdovsky (ref. ID; 3693)
    Syn; Hyalosphenia tincta Leidy (ref. ID; 3693)
  16. Nebela carinata (Archer, 1867) (ref. ID; 3686), (Archer) Leidy (ref. ID; 1316, 2242, 2494, 2498, 3501) or Leidy (ref. ID; 3693) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 3595, 6728, 7076)
    Syn; Difflugia carinata Archer, 1867 (ref. ID; 1316) reported year? (ref. ID; 3693); Difflugia peltigeracea Carter (ref. ID; 3693)
  17. Nebela carinata var. acarinata Jung (ref. ID; 2046)
  18. Nebela carinata var. brevicarinata Jung (ref. ID; 2046)
  19. Nebela carinatella Beyens & Chardez, 1982 (ref. ID; 129 original paper, 4718)
  20. Nebela carinulata Jung (ref. ID; 2046)
  21. Nebela caudata Leidy (ref. ID; 1923, 2233, 2235, 2236, 2490, 3693) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 3595), cauudata Leidy (ref. ID; 2110)
  22. Nebela certesi Penard (ref. ID; 2233, 2242)
  23. Nebela ciliata (ref. ID; 2046)
  24. Nebela circulata Bartos (ref. ID; 2046)
  25. Nebela cockayni (Penard) Wailes (ref. ID; 2233, 2242, 5092) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 3595)
  26. Nebela collaris (Ehrenberg, 1848) (ref. ID; 3686) reported year? (ref. ID; 1618), (Ehrenberg, 1848) Leidy, 1879 (ref. ID; 661, 1316, 1923, 2037, 2110, 2147, 2177, 2238, 2301, 2329, 2330, 2367, 2441, 2456, 3223, 3279), (Ehrenberg) Leidy, 1879 (ref. ID; 4737, 5461) reported year? (ref. ID; 3501, 3595, 3598) or Leidy (ref. ID; 3190, 3283, 3693)
    Syn; Difflugia cancellata Ehrenberg, 1848 (ref. ID; 1316); Difflugia carpio Ehrenberg, 1854 (ref. ID; 1316); Difflugia cellulifera Ehrenberg, 1874 (ref. ID; 1316); Difflugia collaris Ehrenberg, 1848 (ref. ID; 1316) reported year? (ref. ID; 3693); Difflugia laxa Ehrenberg, 1871 (ref. ID; 1316); Difflugia numata Leidy, 1874 (ref. ID; 1316) reported year? (ref. ID; 3693); Difflugia peltigeracea Carter (ref. ID; 3693); Difflugia reticulata Ehrenberg, 1848 (ref. ID; 1316); Difflugia symmetrica Wallich (ref. ID; 3693)
  27. Nebela collaris var. galeata Hoogenraad-De Groot (ref. ID; 2046, 2241)
    Syn; Nebela tincta galeata Jung, 1936 (ref. ID; 2241)
  28. Nebela collaris (Ehrenberg) Leidy var. minor Bunescu & Matic, 1982 (ref. ID; 4718)
  29. Nebela columbiana Wailes (ref. ID; 2236) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 3595)
  30. Nebela columbiana var. ivorensis Gauthier-Lievre (ref. ID; 2046)
  31. Nebela columbiana var. minor Laminger, 1972 (ref. ID; 7501 original paper) reported year? (ref. ID; 2046)
  32. Nebela complanata Levander (ref. ID; 2046)
  33. Nebela crenata Jung (ref. ID; 2046)
  34. Nebela crenulata Penard (ref. ID; 3693)
    Syn; Nebela dentistoma Penard (ref. ID; 3693)
  35. Nebela cuadata Leidy (ref. ID; 2242)
  36. Nebela cylindrica Bonnet (ref. ID; 2160, 2481 original paper, 3710)
  37. Nebela deflandrei Decloitre, 1955 (ref. ID; 2046, 2231 original paper)
  38. Nebela dentistoma (ref. ID; 2401)
  39. Nebela dentistoma Brown, 1890 (ref. ID; 2147, 2441)
  40. Nebela dentistoma Penard, 1890 (ref. ID; 661, 1923, 2189, 2235, 2242, 2329, 2330, 3223, 3686) reported year? (ref. ID; 3501, 3539, 3595, 3598, 3693)
    See; Nebela crenulata (ref. ID; 3693)
  41. Nebela dentistoma Penard var. hesperia Wailes (ref. ID; 3595)
  42. Nebela dentistoma Penard var. laevis Hopk. (ref. ID; 3501)
  43. Nebela dentistoma Penard var. lageniformis Playfair (ref. ID; 2046, 3595)
  44. Nebela dentistoma Penard var. major Grospietsch (ref. ID; 2046)
  45. Nebela dentistoma Penard var. oblonga Gauthier-Lievre (ref. ID; 2046)
  46. Nebela digitiformis Vucetich (ref. ID; 2046)
  47. Nebela duttoni Gericke (ref. ID; 2046)
  48. Nebela d'ydevallei Van Oye (ref. ID; 2046)
  49. Nebela d'ydewallei Van Oye (ref. ID; 2330 original paper)
  50. Nebela equicalceus (ref. ID; 1316, 3595)
    Syn; Difflugia equicalceus Leidy, 1874 (ref. ID; 1316)
  51. Nebela ertli Laminger (ref. ID; 2046)
  52. Nebela fabulosa Sudzuki, 1965 (ref. ID; 4673)
  53. Nebela fagni Chardez, 1957 (ref. ID; 2046, 2259)
  54. Nebela flabellulum Leidy, 1874 (ref. ID; 3686) reported year? (ref. ID; 1316, 1923, 2037, 2456, 3693) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 3595, 6728)
    Syn; Difflugia flabellulum Leidy, 1874 (ref. ID; 1316)
  55. Nebela galeata Penard, 1890 (ref. ID; 2242, 2441, 3686) reported year? (ref. ID; 3693)
  56. Nebela galeata var. minor Hoogenraad-De Groot (ref. ID; 2046)
  57. Nebela galeata var. orbicularis Deflandre (ref. ID; 2046)
  58. Nebela galeata var. orbicularis f. minor Tarnogransky (ref. ID; 2046)
  59. Nebela gauthier-lievrei Stepanek (ref. ID; 2046)
  60. Nebela gertrudeana Jung (ref. ID; 2046)
  61. Nebela globulosa Imhof (ref. ID; 2046)
  62. Nebela gracilis Penard (ref. ID; 3501)
  63. Nebela griseola Penard, 1890 (ref. ID; 2087, 2090, 2189, 2498) or 1911 (ref. ID; 2379, 3686)
  64. Nebela grisolea Penard (ref. ID; 2236)
  65. Nebela guinensis Golemansky (ref. ID; 2046)
  66. Nebela hippocrepis Leidy (ref. ID; 3693)
  67. Nebela intermedia Bartos (ref. ID; 2046)
  68. Nebela kenyana Chardez, 1982 (ref. ID; 3559 original paper, 3569, 4718)
  69. Nebela kivuense Gauthier-Lievre-Thomas (ref. ID; 2046)
  70. Nebela kundulungui Van Oye, 1959 (ref. ID; 2046, 2236 original paper)
  71. Nebela lageniformis Penard, 1890 (ref. ID; 661, 1923, 2057, 2083, 2087, 2239, 2242, 2408, 2436, 2441, 2489, 2564, 3223, 3279, 4664, 4737) or 1902 (ref. ID; 5461) reported year? (ref. ID; 3190, 3501, 3598, 3693) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 3595, 6728)
    Syn; Nebela collaris Leidy (ref. ID; 3693)
  72. Nebela lageniformis var. cordiformis Heinis (ref. ID; 3223)
  73. Nebela lageniformis var. elegans Stepanek (ref. ID; 2046)
  74. Nebela lageniformis var. minor Wailes, 1902 (ref. ID; 5461)
  75. Nebela leidyana Vejdovsky (ref. ID; 2046)
  76. Nebela lobostoma (Stepanek) Decloitre, 1977 (ref. ID; 2046 redescribed paper)
  77. Nebela longicollis (ref. ID; 3595)
  78. Nebela longitubulata Gauthier-Lievre (ref. ID; 2046, 2090)
  79. Nebela marginata Penard, 1902 (ref. ID; 3693 original paper) reported year? (ref. ID; 2096, 2490, 2456, 2498) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 3595)
  80. Nebela martiali Certes (ref. ID; 2242)
  81. Nebela merginata (ref. ID; 1316)
    Syn; Difflugia carinata Leidy (ref. ID; 1316)
  82. Nebela militaris Penard, 1890 (ref. ID; 661, 1923, 2147, 2233, 2234, 2235, 2236, 2256, 2408, 2441, 2456, 3686, 4737, 4863) or 1902 (ref. ID; 5461) reported year? (ref. ID; 3190, 3501, 3598, 3693)
  83. Nebela militaris var. curvata Golemansky (ref. ID; 2046)
  84. Nebela militaris var. penardiana Del Pilar Gracia (ref. ID; 2046)
  85. Nebela minor Penard (ref. ID; 2160, 3501, 3693)
  86. Nebela nobilis (Cash) Deflandre (ref. ID; 2122)
    Syn; Hyalosphenia nobilis Cash, 1908 (ref. ID; 2122)
  87. Nebela parvula Cash, 1908 (ref. ID; 2160, 2441) or 1909 (ref. ID; 2862), Cash & Hopkinson, 1909 (ref. ID; 4755)
  88. Nebela penardiana Deflandre, 1936 (ref. ID; 2441, 3686) or 1937 (ref. ID; 2066, 2160, 2236) reported year? (ref. ID; 3501), var. penardiana (ref ID; 6728)
  89. Nebela penardiana var. minor Gauthier-Lievre (ref. ID; 2046) reported author and year? (ref ID; 6728)
  90. Nebela penardiana var. retorta Decloitre (ref. ID; 2046)
  91. Nebela penardiana var. suecica Grospietsch (ref. ID; 2046)
  92. Nebela playfairi Jung (ref. ID; 2046)
  93. Nebela playfairi var. elongata Grospietsch (ref. ID; 2046)
  94. Nebela playfairi var. lata Grospietsch (ref. ID; 2046)
  95. Nebela pulchra Bartos (ref. ID; 2046)
  96. Nebela pusilla Vucetich (ref. ID; 2046)
  97. Nebela rampii Stepanek (ref. ID; 2046)
  98. Nebela repanda Jung (ref. ID; 2046)
  99. Nebela retorta (Leidy) Stepanek (ref. ID; 2046, 2087)
  100. Nebela saccifera (ref. ID; 3595)
  101. Nebela schwabei Jung (ref. ID; 2046)
  102. Nebela semimarginata Van Oye, 1949 (ref. ID; 3223 original paper) reported year? (ref. ID; 2046)
  103. Nebela similis Vucetich (ref. ID; 2046)
  104. Nebela speciosa Deflandre, 1936 (ref. ID; 2234, 2441)
  105. Nebela sphagnophila (Steinecke) Van Oye, 1933 (ref. ID; 2037, 2046, 2236)
  106. Nebela spicata Wailes (ref. ID; 2160, 2236) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 3595)
  107. Nebela strangularia Decloitre (ref. ID; 2046)
  108. Nebela subsphaerica Van Oye, 1956 (ref. ID; 2046, 2233 original paper)
  109. Nebela (Quadrulella) symmetrica Wallich var. irregularis Penard (ref. ID; 3595)
  110. Nebela (Quadrulella) symmetrica Wallich var. longicollis Taranek (ref. ID; 2683, 3595)
  111. Nebela tenella Penard, 1893 (ref. ID; 1316, 2379, 4664) reported year? (ref. ID; 3693)
    Syn; Difflugia annulata Ehrenberg?, 1871 (ref. ID; 1316)
  112. Nebela teres Jung (ref. ID; 2046)
  113. Nebela tincta (Leidy, 1879) (ref. ID; 3686, 5461), (Leidy, 1879) Awerintzew, 1906 (ref. ID; 661, 2037, 2147, 2330, 2426, 2441, 2456, 2490, 4755), (Leidy) Awerintzew, 1906 (ref. ID; 4737) or (Leidy) Averintz. (ref. ID; 3501) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 2401, 3595, 7076), var. tincta (ref. ID; 6728)
    Syn; Difflugia proteiformis Perty?, 1852 (ref. ID; 1316); Hyalosphenia tincta Leidy, 1879 (ref. ID; 2037)
  114. Nebela tincta (Leidy) Awerintzew var. grandis Bunescu & Matic, 1982 (ref. ID; 4718)
  115. Nebela tincta var. major Deflandre, 1936 (ref. ID; 2037, 6790) reported author and year? (ref ID; 6728)
  116. Nebela tincta var. rotunda Penard (ref. ID; 2037, 2405) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 3595)
  117. Nebela tincta var. stenostoma Jung, 1936 (ref. ID; 2037, 2046, 2256)
  118. Nebela triangulata (Lang) Cash (ref. ID; 3595) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 1316, 3595)
    Syn; Difflugia triangulata Lang, 1865 (ref. ID; 1316)
  119. Nebela triangulata (Leidy) Cash var. senegalensis Gauthier-Lievre (ref. ID; 2046)
  120. Nebela (Quadrulella) tropica Wailes (ref. ID; 2490, 3595)
  121. Nebela tuberculata Owen III & Jones, 1976 (ref. ID; 3761 redescribed paper)
    Syn; Difflugia tuberculata (Wallish, 1864) Archer, 1867 (ref. ID; 3761)
  122. Nebela tubulata Brown, 1911 (ref. ID; 2110, 2160, 2233, 2235, 2441, 2456, 2490, 3686)
  123. Nebela tubulata var. magna Van Oye, 1959 (ref. ID; 2046, 2236 original paper)
  124. Nebela tubulata var. spatha Thomas (ref. ID; 2160, 3383)
  125. Nebela tubulosa Penard, 1890 (ref. ID; 3686) reported year? (ref. ID; 1316, 2242, 2367, 2498, 2564, 3190, 3501, 3693) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 3595, 6728)
    Syn; Difflugia collaris Leidy (ref. ID; 1316)
  126. Nebela tubulosa var. adami Laminger (ref. ID; 2046)
  127. Nebela tylophora Jung (ref. ID; 2046)
  128. Nebela varia Decloitre (ref. ID; 2046)
  129. Nebela vas Certes, 1891 (ref. ID; 3569) reported year? (ref. ID; 2233, 2235, 2236, 2242, 2564, 3223, 4643) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 3595)
    Syn; Difflugia vas Leidy, 1889 (ref. ID; 4643)
  130. Nebela vas Certes var. longicollis Grospietsch (ref. ID; 2046, 4643)
  131. Nebela vas Certes var. obliqua Grospietsch (ref. ID; 2046, 4643)
  132. Nebela vas Certes var. recticollis (Jung, 1914) (ref. ID; 4643) reported year? (ref. ID; 2046)
    Syn; Apodera vas f. reticollis Jung, 1914 (ref. ID; 4643)
  133. Nebela vitraea Penard, 1899 (ref. ID; 3686) reported year? (ref. ID; 3693)
  134. Nebela vitraea var. minor Wailes (ref. ID; 3501)
  135. Nebela virtrea Penard, 1899 (ref. ID; 2420)
  136. Nebela virtrea Penard var. elongata Gauthier-Lievre (ref. ID; 2046)
  137. Nebela virtrea Penard var. minor Wailes, 1912 (ref. ID; 2420) reported year? (ref. ID; 3595)
  138. Nebela virtrea Penard var. sphagni Penard (ref. ID; 3595)
  139. Nebela wailesi Deflandre, 1936 (ref. ID; 2420) or 1937 (ref. ID; 2066, 2233, 2235) reported year? (ref. ID; 2329, 3501) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 3595, 4664)
  140. Nebela wailesi var. magna Van Oye, 1956 (ref. ID; 2046, 2233 original paper)
  141. Nebela wailesi Deflandre var. obliqua Bunescu & Matic, 1982 (ref. ID; 4718)
  142. Nebela wellingtonia Decloitre (ref. ID; 2046)
  143. Nebela wetekampi Jung (ref. ID; 2046)

Nebela barbata Leidy, 1874 (ref. ID; 3686) reported year? (ref. ID; 1316) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 3595)

Synonym

Difflugia barbata Leidy, 1874 (ref. ID; 1316)

Descriptions

The shell is colourless and pyriform with an elongated neck. It is composed of a mixture of oval, circular and elongate shell plates, with numerous short, fine spines projecting from the junctions of the shell plates. The spines are often flattened against the shell and difficult to see. The aperture is oval and surrounded by a collar of organic cement, the inner margin of which has about eight tooth-like protrusions. (ref. ID; 3686)

Comments

Cash (1909) noted that the spines were seldom seen on specimens from Britain. From our observations we suggest that this was due mainly to their fragility, as they are easily lost in handling. The tooth-like protrusions were absent in one of our specimens so this may be a variable character. (ref. ID; 3686)

Measurements

Length of shell 96-106; breadth of shell 38-44; depth of shell 36-41; diameter of aperture 10-16 um (n=5). (ref. ID; 3686)

Nebela bigibbosa Penard, 1890 (ref. ID; 3686) reported year? (ref. ID; 2242, 3693)

Descriptions

The shell is yellow, pyriform and laterally composed. At approximately one third of the body length from the aperture, on each side, are distinct lateral depressions with large central pores. Viewed laterally pore is present just anterior to the larger pores. It is composed of oval, circular and elongate shell plates. The aperture is oval, convex in outline, and surrounded by a distinct organic collar. (ref. ID; 3686)

Measurements

Length of shell 153-171; breadth of shell 95-115; depth of shell 55-56; diameter of aperture 38-41 um (n=2). (ref. ID; 3686)

Nebela bohemica Taraneck (ref. ID; 1923) or Taranek, 1882 (ref. ID; 2037, 2441, 4737, 5461) reported year? (ref. ID; 2087, 3501, 3693)

Descriptions

This problematical species is said by Taranek (1882) to show much variation. He gives a size range of 85-125 x 61-105 x 21-32 um. The straight mouth is characteristic of this species. Taranek (1882) does not figure lateral pores, but Klitzke (1913) states that in N. collaris v. bohemica pores were difficult to observe, indicating that they were present. N. bohemica has been indicated in N. collaris by Hoogenraad and De Groot (1937, 1940, 1952) and others, while Deflandre (1936) and Jung (1942) are doubtful of its validity. In the light of the present survey there seems little reason to regard it as a separate species. (ref. ID; 2037)

Nebela carinata (Archer, 1867) (ref. ID; 3686), (Archer) Leidy (ref. ID; 1316, 2242, 2494, 2498, 3501) or Leidy (ref. ID; 3693) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 3595, 6728, 7076)

Synonym

Difflugia carinata Archer, 1867 (ref. ID; 1316) reported year? (ref. ID; 3693); Difflugia peltigeracea Carter (ref. ID; 3693)

Descriptions

The shell is colourless, oval or pyriform with a lateral ridge that begins just posterior to the aperture, laterally compressed with a small lateral pore present on each side. It is composed mainly oval or circular shell plate, often interspersed with small beads of organic cement. The aperture is oval and surrounded by a thin collar of organic cement. (ref. ID; 3686)

Comments

The most distinctive feature of this species is the lateral ridge. But as Cash et al., (1909) noted, the degree of development of this feature is not constant and they suggested that this probably indicated a wide range of variability. (ref. ID; 3686)

Measurements

Length of shell 155-202; breadth of shell 110-152; depth of shell 55-66; diameter of aperture 27-43 um (n=12). (ref. ID; 3686)
Shell dimensions (n=10): length 177+/-7 um, breadth 124+/-7 um (sampling location: Sphagnum, Bog pool, Ryggmossen peatland), length 179+/-10 um, breadth 129+/-5 um (sampling location: Sphagnum, Praz-Rodet Bog). (ref ID; 6728)

Nebela caudata Leidy (ref. ID; 1923, 2233, 2235, 2236, 2490, 3693) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 3595), cauudata Leidy (ref. ID; 2110)

Descriptions

Shell ovoid with a rounded or angulous fundus ornated with 3 to 5 hollow horns (generally 4); covered with polygonal or circular scales, jointing or rarely overlapping. Habitat Sphagnum swamps. (ref. ID; 1923)

Measurements

Length 78-90 um. (ref. ID; 1923)

Nebela certesi Penard (ref. ID; 2233, 2242)

Descriptions

The pearl-shaped grains around the neck are not always evenly distributed. (ref. ID; 2233)

Nebela collaris (Ehrenberg, 1848) (ref. ID; 3686) reported year? (ref. ID; 1618), (Ehrenberg, 1848) Leidy, 1879 (ref. ID; 661, 1316, 1923, 2037, 2110, 2147, 2177, 2238, 2301, 2329, 2330, 2367, 2441, 2456, 3223, 3279), (Ehrenberg) Leidy, 1879 (ref. ID; 4737, 5461) reported year? (ref. ID; 3501, 3595, 3598) or Leidy (ref. ID; 3190, 3283, 3693)

Synonym

Difflugia cancellata Ehrenberg, 1848 (ref. ID; 1316); Difflugia carpio Ehrenberg, 1854 (ref. ID; 1316); Difflugia cellulifera Ehrenberg, 1874 (ref. ID; 1316); Difflugia collaris Ehrenberg, 1848 (ref. ID; 1316) reported year? (ref. ID; 3693); Difflugia laxa Ehrenberg, 1871 (ref. ID; 1316); Difflugia numata Leidy, 1874 (ref. ID; 1316) reported year? (ref. ID; 3693); Difflugia peltigeracea Carter (ref. ID; 3693); Difflugia reticulata Ehrenberg, 1848 (ref. ID; 1316); Difflugia symmetrica Wallich (ref. ID; 3693)

Descriptions

Test pyriform, fundus obtuse in profile; aperture without any notch; endoplasm with chlorophyllous food particles; pseudopodia digitate, short, usually three to six in number; in marshes among Sphagnum. (ref. ID; 1618)
Shell pyriform with a convex aperture, in side view oblong, aperture always notched. A very common species comprised of many varieties. Often difficult to separate from N. bohemica Taraneck in which the aperture is not notched. Habitat Sphagnum swamps, mosses, aquatic vegetation in peaty bogs. (ref. ID; 1923)
Leidy (1879) included other species of Nebela in his N. collaris but 2/3 of the 50 individuals which he measured range from 100-140 um in length and his figures show a number of N. collaris sensu stricto, regularly pyriform in shape this slightly concave sides leading to a curved mouth with membranous lips. This type, also shown by Deflandre (1936), can usually be distinguished from it varieties but the mouth width and general shape do vary (Deflandre 1936). The name N. collaris has been used to cover a wide variety of forms very different from N. collaris sensu stricta. Penard's slides is at the Eugene Penard Collection at the British Museum (National History), London. (ref. ID; 2037)
The shell is colourless, ovoid, slightly compressed laterally with a small lateral pore on each side. It is composed mainly of oval or circular shell plates arranged in a regular manner so that they do not overlap. The aperture is oval and has a thin organic collar. The formation of the shell of N. collaris has been described b MacKinley (1936) who noted that in the absence of other smaller testate amoebae as a source of food, the shell wall consisted of a membrane devoid of shell plates. Heal (1963) examined the morphological variation of specimens belonging to the Nebela tincta-collaris-bohemica group and concluded that although N. tincta could be distinguished as a valid species, he could not separate N. bohemica and N. collaris. (ref. ID; 3686)

Measurements

About 130 by 85-90 um. (ref. ID; 1618)
Length 115-130 um. (ref. ID; 1923)
Length of shell 98-153; breadth of shell 72-91; depth of shell 33-42; diameter of aperture 24-35 um (n=25). (ref. ID; 3686)

Nebela collaris var. galeata Hoogenraad-De Groot (ref. ID; 2046, 2241)

Synonym

Nebela tincta galeata Jung, 1936 (ref. ID; 2241)

Comments

To this species attention was first called by Jung (1936), who considered it as a variety of Nebela tincta. Hoogenraad-De Groot observed some separate specimens on diverse localities and took them at first sight for a variety in the Nebela collaris-flabellulum complex by its dimensions and the structure of the test. The marked differences with Nebela collaris and its varieties are (1) the length/width proportion of the shell, and (2) the development of a margin along the outline of the broad elliptic test. Coming across numerous populations Hoogenraad-De Groot could establish this form as an species, biometrically separated from Nebela collaris and it varieties and also widely separated from Nebela tincta. (ref. ID; 2241)

Nebela dentistoma Penard, 1890 (ref. ID; 661, 1923, 2189, 2235, 2242, 2329, 2330, 3223, 3686) reported year? (ref. ID; 3501, 3539, 3595, 3598, 3693)

See

Nebela crenulata (ref. ID; 3693)

Descriptions

Shell ovoid transparent, with polygonal rounded plates not jointing but united by minute chitinous bridges. Fundus without spines. Border of the aperture crenulate. Habitat Sphagnum and mosses. (ref. ID; 1923)
The shell is colourless, ovoid, slightly compressed laterally and composed of oval, and elongated shell plates. The shell plates do not overlap and the organic cement between the plates appears to be porous. The aperture is oval and surrounded by shell-plates. (ref. ID; 3686)

Comments

Cash et al. (1909) stated that the shell of this species fractured when subjected to pressure, whereas those of N. collaris and N. tincta were simply distorted. We agree with this and suggest that the shell of N. dentistoma is of a more rigid construction. Three varieties of this species are described by Deflandre (1936) in his review of the genus which differ in size and shape of the aperture and shell. (ref. ID; 3686)

Measurements

Length 70-115 um. (ref. ID; 1923)
Length of shell 81-96; breadth of shell 58-80; depth of shell 40-59; diameter of aperture 14-26 um (n=11). (ref. ID; 3686)

Nebela flabellulum Leidy, 1874 (ref. ID; 3686) reported year? (ref. ID; 1316, 1923, 2037, 2456, 3693) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 3595, 6728)

Synonym

Difflugia flabellulum Leidy, 1874 (ref. ID; 1316)

Descriptions

Shell broader than long, rounded, transversally elliptical. The transverse diameter usually equals or exceeds the length. A very short but distinct cylindric neck is present. Habitat Sphagnum swamps. (ref. ID; 1923)
The shell is colourless, circular or ovoid with a short neck, and a small lateral pore on each side. It is laterally compressed and composed mainly of oval or circular shell plates, smaller shell plates or beads of cement are often seen between the larger shell plates. The shell plates sometimes appear to be covered with a thin layer of cement so that the edges are not clearly defined. The aperture is oval and surrounded by a collar of organic cement. This species can be distinguished from N. collaris and N. tincta which it closely resembles, by being wider in size than it is long. (ref. ID; 3686)

Measurements

Length 72-96; breadth 89-100 um. (ref. ID; 1923)
Length of shell 76-88; breadth of shell 86-95; depth of shell 35-41; diameter of aperture 18-25 um (n=9). (ref. ID; 3686)
Shell dimensions (n=10): length 78+/-4 um, breadth 88+/-2 um. (ref. ID; 6728)

Nebela galeata Penard, 1890 (ref. ID; 2242, 2441, 3686) reported year? (ref. ID; 3693)

Descriptions

The shell is colourless, pyriform with a distinct thickened lateral margin. A small lateral pore is present on each side, often at the point of origin of the lateral margins. It is composed mainly of oval or siliceous shell plates, occasionally interspersed with smaller shell plates or beads of organic cement. The aperture is oval and usually has a thin organic collar. (ref. ID; 3686)

Comments

Nebela galeata is similar to N. carinata and N. marginata in having a lateral margin, but in the two latter species the margin is thin and sharply-pointed. Deflandre (1936) described a new variety of this species, N. g. var. orbicularis, which has a reduced margin and is oval or circular in shape. (ref. ID; 3686)

Measurements

Length of shell 190-283; breadth of shell 113-153; depth of shell 42-100; diameter of aperture 26-51 um (n=7). (ref. ID; 3686)

Nebela griseola Penard, 1890 (ref. ID; 2087, 2090, 2189, 2498) or 1911 (ref. ID; 2379, 3686)

Descriptions

The shell is yellow or brown, pyriform and slightly compressed laterally. It is composed of siliceous shell plates and pieces of quartz, arranged in a random manner to give an uneven appearance. The aperture is circular and bordered by a prominent collar of mainly circular shell plates. (ref. ID; 3686)

Measurements

Length of shell 82-88; breadth of shell 62-69; depth of shell 50-51; diameter of aperture 20-21 um (n=2). (ref. ID; 3686)

Nebela lageniformis Penard, 1890 (ref. ID; 661, 1923, 2057, 2083, 2087, 2239, 2242, 2408, 2436, 2441, 2489, 2564, 3223, 3279, 4664, 4737) or 1902 (ref. ID; 5461) reported year? (ref. ID; 3190, 3501, 3598, 3693) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 3595, 6728)

Synonym

Nebela collaris Leidy (ref. ID; 3693)

Descriptions

Body of shell broad, ellipsoid, prolonged into a tubular neck. Large elliptic or polygonal rounded plates, sometimes intermixed with small polygonal scales. Habitat mosses and Sphagnum, in front or peaty bogs. (ref. ID; 1923)

Measurements

Length 125-130 um. (ref. ID; 1923)
Shell dimensions (n=10): length 116+/-5 um, breadth 68+/-4 um. (ref. ID; 6728)

Nebela militaris Penard, 1890 (ref. ID; 661, 1923, 2147, 2233, 2234, 2235, 2236, 2256, 2408, 2441, 2456, 3686, 4737, 4863) or 1902 (ref. ID; 5461) reported year? (ref. ID; 3190, 3501, 3598, 3693)

Descriptions

Shell elongate pyriform, with 2 lateral pores. Two minute pores opposite each other are situated at the first third of the shell; shell transparent chitinous and yellowish in color, with minute plates sometimes scarcely distributed or wanting. Habitat Sphagnum swamps and moss on forest soil. (ref. ID; 1923)
The shell is colourless, ovoid or pyriform with a convex aperture in broad view. It is slightly compressed laterally, has small lateral pores, and is composed of a mixture of oval, circular and rectangular shell plates. The aperture is an elongate slit, which is concave when viewed laterally, and surrounded by a thick organic collar. (ref. ID; 3686)
In broad lateral view, the shell is pyriform or narrowly pyriform with a convex pseudostome. The pseudostome is surrounded by a narrow organic collar. There is only a slight restriction towards the pseudostome in narrow lateral view. In apertural view, the shell is elliptic in shape with the pseudostome appearing as an elongated slit. A small pore is present one each side of the lower third of the shell. The pores are poorly visible in light field but are obvious under SEM (Ogden & Hedley 1980). The shell is covered by a mixture of oval and circular shell plates (idiosomes) of different sizes. The patterns are quite variable and some distinct types are recognized in our material. Occasionally, the shells lack idiosomes. Measurements of shell length showed no statistically significant difference between the Siberian and Ontario populations, nor were any differences noted in the diameters of the pseudostome, whereas shell width is significantly different. A scatter diagram and results of correspondence analysis (Ter Braak 1988) indicate, however, that the two populations are essentically similar and each of them is homogeneous. (ref. ID; 4863)

Comments

Cash (1909) described some specimens that were broader than average, but suggests that this appears to be the only variation. (ref. ID; 3686)

Measurements

Length 50-72 um. (ref. ID; 1923)
Length of shell 59-70; breadth of shell 33-41; depth of shell 21-23; diameter of aperture 15-18 um (n=4). (ref. ID; 3686)

Nebela nobilis (Cash) Deflandre (ref. ID; 2122)

Synonym

Hyalosphenia nobilis Cash, 1908 (ref. ID; 2122)

Descriptions

The shell is pyriform with a circular cross-section. The elongated neck is cylindrical, the aperture truncated at right angles. The shell is transparent, with small reworked scales, inlaid in an organic matrix. These shell scales of different sizes are not contiguous. (ref. ID; 2122)

Measurements

Length of shell 200-216, length of neck 60-66, diameter of shell 90-106, diameter of aperture 38-43 um (n=5). (ref. ID; 2122)

Nebela parvula Cash, 1908 (ref. ID; 2160, 2441) or 1909 (ref. ID; 2862), Cash & Hopkinson, 1909 (ref. ID; 4755)

Descriptions

Shell pear-shaped, slightly brownish, compressed, with a small neck and an oval aperture. Shell wall composed of platelets from Euglypha spp., Trinema spp. and Corythion spp., according to the accompanying testacean fauna (Gnekow 1981). (ref. ID; 4755)

Nebela penardiana Deflandre, 1936 (ref. ID; 2441, 3686) or 1937 (ref. ID; 2066, 2160, 2236) reported year? (ref. ID; 3501), var. penardiana (ref. ID; 6728)

Descriptions

The shell is brown, pyriform or elongate, slightly compressed laterally and has small lateral margins. The lateral margins do not extend around the aboral region, but small lateral pores are usually present at a distance of one-third of the body length from the aperture. It is composed of a mixture of oval, circular and quadrangular shell plates. The aperture is oval, sometimes concave from a lateral aspect, and surrounded by a collar of organic cement. (ref. ID; 3686)

Comments

This species is easily distinguished from N. marginata by being narrower and having less pronounced lateral margins, and from N. tubulosa in size and shape. One variety of N. penardiana is noted by Deflandre (1936) in his review of the genus. (ref. ID; 3686)

Measurements

Length of shell 115-161; breadth of shell 65-80; depth of shell 37-54; diameter of aperture 23-34 um (n=8). (ref. ID; 3686)
Shell dimensions (n=10): length 144+/-8 um, breadth 124+/-5 um. (ref. ID; 6728)

Nebela penardiana var. minor Gauthier-Lievre (ref. ID; 2046) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 6728)

Measurements

Shell dimensions (n=10): length 81+/-4 um, breadth 41+/-3 um. (ref. ID; 6728)

Nebela sphagnophila (Steinecke) Van Oye, 1933 (ref. ID; 2037, 2046, 2236)

Descriptions

Van Oye (1933) stated that it is 70-110 x about 60 x 15-25 um and his figures broadly pyriform test, but he distinguishes it from N. collaris by its more or less angular, irregular plates which are never round or oval. In general shape, this species is represented in a specimens in the present survey, but plates of the type described by Van Oye (1933) were never observed. The plates are obtained from other Testacea on which Nebela feeds but there is no indication of selective feeding (MacKinlay 1936). Before systematic position of N. sphagnophila can be ascertained, culture experiments are necessary to decide how important taxonomically are the type and arrangement of plates. (ref. ID; 2037)

Nebela subsphaerica Van Oye, 1956 (ref. ID; 2046, 2233 original paper)

Descriptions

This species is at first sight very much like some specimens of N. collaris; it differs however in that its neck is translucid and always well developed. The body is on the whole of a Nebelid structure, but the neck is well delimited and without any particularity in its structure. The specimen is slightly longer than it is broad, by which character the species can easily be distinguished from N. flabellulum. (ref. ID; 2233)

Measurements

Length 100; breadth 83 um. (ref. ID; 2233)

Nebela (Quadrulella) symmetrica Wallich var. longicollis Taranek (ref. ID; 2683, 3595)

Measurements

Two specimens had tests 90 um long with a maximum width of 45 um and a pseudostome diameter of 19 um. (ref. ID; 2683)

Nebela tincta (Leidy, 1879) (ref. ID; 3686, 5461), (Leidy, 1879) Awerintzew, 1906 (ref. ID; 661, 2037, 2147, 2330, 2426, 2441, 2456, 2490, 4755), (Leidy) Awerintzew, 1906 (ref. ID; 4737) or (Leidy) Averintz. (ref. ID; 3501) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 2401, 3595, 7076), var. tincta (ref. ID; 6728)

Synonym

Difflugia proteiformis Perty?, 1852 (ref. ID; 1316); Hyalosphenia tincta Leidy, 1879 (ref. ID; 2037)

Descriptions

It was originally described as Hyalosphenica tincta by Leidy (1879) because his specimens lacked the plates which are usually present. N. bursella Vejdovsky is probably synonymous with N. tincta (Penard, 1902) but Hoogenraad & De Groot (1937, 1940) regard it as partly synonymous with both N. tincta and N. militaris, while Van Oye (1933) considered that it was probably a distinct species. Penard's slides is at the Eugene Penard Collection at the British Museum (National History), London. (ref. ID; 2037)
The shell is yellow, ovoid with a small neck at the aperture. It is laterally compressed, has small lateral pores and is composed mainly of oval or circular shell plates. Like Nebela flabellum, a thin layer of organic cement appears to overlay the shell plates. The aperture is oval and surrounded by a thin organic collar. (ref. ID; 3686)

Comments

Deflandre (1936) listed two varieties of this species, N. t. var. rotunda and N. t. var. major, which have larger dimensions than the type species. As a result of a morphological study, Heal (1963) suggested that N. tincta was a distinct species 75-95 um long living in relatively dry Sphagnum. (ref. ID; 3686)
N. tincta can at present be distinguished from N. parvula only by having two lateral pores. Nucleus of N. tincta with several spherical or ovoid nucleoli. The determination within the N. tincta-parvula-bohemica-collaris group is exceedingly difficult. A criterion which is often used to discriminate these species is the presence or absence of lateral pores. Reffering to this, a lot of contradictory or insufficient descriptions exist (Leidy 1879; Taranek 1881; Cash & Hopkinson 1909; Klitzke 1913; Deflandre 1936; Jung 1942). However, Heal (1963) and Meisterfeld (pers. comm.) consider the presence or absence of pores as an ambiguous character, since they can be hidden by the shell platelets. With our population, the pores always could be seen, despite thick shell covering. Cash & Hopkinson (1909) do not pay attention to this criterion, as in evident from their genus and species description. We regard Deflandre (1936), who investigated N. parvula by himself, as the valid revisor, and therefore N. parvula as strictly without pores. The species of the N. tincta-parvula-bohemica-collaris group show great variations in size (Hoogenraad & De Groot 1937; Heal 1963). (ref. ID; 4755)

Measurements

75-95x55-73 um. (ref. ID; 2037)
Length of shell 76-94; breadth of shell 51-71; depth of shell 35-58; diameter of aperture 14-22 um (n=4). (ref. ID; 3686)
Shell dimensions (n=10): length 81+/-4 um, breadth 124+/-5 um. (ref. ID; 6728)

Nebela tincta var. major Deflandre, 1936 (ref. ID; 2037, 6790) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 6728)

Descriptions

This variety has been described as being broader than N. tincta and N. tincta f. stenostoma and is recorded as 90-120 um in length (Deflandre 1936; Gauthier-Lievre 1953). The typical major shape is shown by tests up to 155 um long. Deflandre (1936) states that lateral pores distinguish this form from the varieties of N. collaris. (ref. ID; 2037)
Shell composition is recycled biosilica; position of aperture is terminal. (ref. ID; 6790)

Measurements

Shell dimensions (n=10): length 117+/-5 um, breadth 82+/-4 um (sampling location: Sphagnum, Poor Fen "Scragh Bog"), length 118+/-5 um, breadth 82+/-3 um (sampling location: Ryggmossen Peatland). (ref. ID; 6728)
Shell dimensions (um): length 90-120. (ref. ID; 6790)

Nebela tincta var. rotunda Penard (ref. ID; 2037, 2405) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 3595)

Descriptions

This variety is described as almost circular and 70-90x60-85 um in size (Deflandre 1936). A few individuals recorded in the present survey fall into this size range with length:breadth ratio of about 1.1, but it is not possible to say whether or not N. tincta and N. tincta v. rotunda form a continuous series. (ref. ID; 2037)

Nebela tincta var. stenostoma Jung, 1936 (ref. ID; 2037, 2046, 2256)

Descriptions

Jung (1936) describes this as being pyriform in shape with a constricted neck and a relatively smaller mouth than N. tincta. The size is given as 100-130x70-93 um with a length: breadth ratio of 1.4, and a length:mouth ratio of 4.6-5.3. Lateral pores were only occasionally visible. (ref. ID; 2037)

Nebela tuberculata Owen III & Jones, 1976 (ref. ID; 3761 redescribed paper)

Synonym

Difflugia tuberculata (Wallish, 1864) Archer, 1867 (ref. ID; 3761)

Diagnosis

Test round to void, 120-130 um in diameter; aperture angular, often hexagonal with a lip 5-6 um long; mammilations covering entire test; test composed of autogenous regular and irregular silicious [verified by X-ray diffraction] rods, with longer straight rods between mammilations; nucleus located near fundus, 50 um in diameter, with numerous; endosomes and thick nuclear membrane; cytoplasm, pale to dark grey with numerous light brown "oil" globules not filling test; 1 contractile vacuole observed; pseudopodia granular, blunt, seldom branched. (ref. ID; 3761)

Comments

According Cash (1909), in 1864, Wallich first described the ameba as Difflugia proteiformis subsp. globularis var. tuberculata. Archer in 1867 elevated tuberculata to the rank of a species name. Leidy (1897) drew the organism as a form of Difflugia lobostoma. Leidy noted the "mulberry appearance" of the test and the rimmed "six-lobed mouth" similar to that of Wallich's form, but stated that he could not make out the composition of the test. Cash (1909) described the "mulberry-shaped" test and stated that the nucleus contained numerous endosomes. He listed the average diameter of the test as 130 um. His 2 illustrate were "derived" from Wallich and Penard. Cash's only reference to test composition was that the mulberry shape was "sometimes" masked by sand grains. He described the aperture as hexagonal with a lip or collar. Jung (1942) created the genus Cingodifflugia and placed in it Penard's Difflugia tuberculata var. laevis as Cingodifflugia laevis. Jung stated that both his and Penard's forms had no mammilations. According to Jung, the test is composed of small silicious plates, "Kieselplattchen". This type of test material would, in itself, be enough to remove the organism from the genus Difflugia. Stepanek (1952) reported a D. tuberculata with a tuberculated ovoid test. According to him, the tubercles either abutted one another or were separated by "rod-shaped sherds", and were composed of "oval sand grains". The test aperture varied from circular to lobate. He listed the length of the test as 110-119 um and the width as 92-105 um, with an aperture diameter of 35-41 um. Gauthier-Lievre & Thomas (1958) reported a D. tuberculata from Africa. These authors described the test as chitinoid, composed of small endogenous plaques, with mammilations and a small lip which bore a hexagonal aperture; the test was somewhat longer (91-150 um) than wide (85-132 um). The nucleus bore many endosomes and a single contractile vacuole was present. The ameba was said to be cosmopolitan in its distribution. (ref. ID; 3761)

Nebela tubulata Brown, 1911 (ref. ID; 2110, 2160, 2233, 2235, 2441, 2456, 2490, 3686)

Descriptions

The shell is colourless or yellowish-brown, flask-shaped with a distinct slender neck, and laterally compressed. It is fragile, and composed mainly of oval or circular shell plates. The aperture is oval and bordered by a thick lip of organic cement. (ref. ID; 3686)

Measurements

Length of shell 63-71; breadth of shell 31-34; depth of shell 15-17; diameter of aperture 11-13 um (n=2). (ref. ID; 3686)

Nebela tubulosa Penard, 1890 (ref. ID; 3686) reported year? (ref. ID; 1316, 2242, 2367, 2498, 2564, 3190, 3501, 3693) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 3595, 6728)

Synonym

Difflugia collaris Leidy (ref. ID; 1316)

Descriptions

The shell is yellow or brown, ovoid with a distinct neck. The lateral margins begin at the base of the neck and extend all round, small lateral pores are present although they are often difficult to see. The shell is composed of a mixture of oval, circular and quadrangular shell plates which are usually arranged haphazardly and overlap. The aperture is oval and surrounded by a thin collar of organic cement. (ref. ID; 3686)

Comments

Cash (1909) described the presence of 'fine punctulations' around the neck of some specimens, which he considered was organic cement producing a rough surface, and the only other feature that appeared to vary was the mixture of shell plates. (ref. ID; 3686)

Measurements

Length of shell 213-264; breadth of shell 120-155; depth of shell 54-71; diameter of aperture 42-54 um (n=8). (ref. ID; 3686)
Shell dimensions (n=3): length 215+/-13 um, breadth 120+/-17 um. (ref. ID; 6728)

Nebela vitraea Penard, 1899 (ref. ID; 3686) reported year? (ref. ID; 3693)

Descriptions

The shell is colourless, ovoid and compressed laterally. It is composed of a mixture of oval, circular and elongate shell plates which overlap each other. The aperture is oval and surrounded by a border of shell plates. (ref. ID; 3686)

Comments

Cash (1909) stated that N. vitraea could be distinguished from N. dentistoma by the structure of the shell and the outline of the aperture. Two varieties of this species, N. v. var. minor and N. v. var. sphangi, both smaller than Penard's (1899) original specimens, were redescribed by Deflandre (1936). Our observations suggest that it is possible to separate N. vitraea from N. dentistoma in the arrangement of the shell plates and the size of the aperture, but further specimens must be examined to establish these characters. (ref. ID; 3686)

Measurements

Length of shell 117-160; breadth of shell 102-145; depth of shell 55-95; diameter of aperture 28-37 um (n=8). (ref. ID; 3686)

Nebela wailesi var. magna Van Oye, 1956 (ref. ID; 2046, 2233 original paper)

Descriptions

At the end of the mouth there is a distinct annulus. The body-structure does not differ in any respect from that of the Nebelids. (ref. ID; 2233)

Measurements

Length 177; breadth 103; mouth 35 um. (ref. ID; 2233)