Lecane

Lecane Nitzsch, 1827

Order Ploimida: Family Lecanidae (ref. ID; 7097)

Synonym Cathypna Gosse, 1886 (ref. ID; 1345, 2978) or Hudson & Gosse, 1886 (ref. ID; 2016), Catypna Hudson & Gosse, 1886 (ref. ID; 3688), Cercaria Nitzch, 1827 (ref. ID; 3688), Diarthra Daday, 1897 (ref. ID; 2016, 3688), Distyla Eckstein, 1883 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3688), Distyla Eichwald, 1847 (ref. ID; 2016, 2978), Hemimonostyla Bartos, 1959 (ref. ID; 2016, 2844), Monostyla Ehrenberg, 1830 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 2844, 3688)

See Wolga

[ref. ID; 689]
Monogonont rotifers with retractile head, dorso-ventrally compressed loricate body, dorsal and ventral plates connected by a flexible membrane, foot with two short joints, and two toes often ending in a claw. (ref. ID; 689)

[ref. ID; 696]
The genus Lecane has two well formed toes. The genus Monostyla has a single toe. However, Lecane elasmae Harring & Myers, Lecane sympoda Hauer has toes are fused at base. Hauer (1929) further commented that the extent of fusion of toes varied considerable within individuals of the same species. Since Lecane and Monostyla differ only in the number of toes, Edmondson (1935) suggested to combine these genera under the first genus. Voigt (1957) recognised the force in Edmondson's argument and combined the two genera retaining the older name Lecane. Sudzuki (1964) considered the structure of toes as generically important and resurrected the genus Monostyla for single-toe specimens. (ref. ID; 696)

[ref. ID; 1312]
Bartos (1959) established the family Lecanidae which included both genera and a new subgenus, Hemimonostyla. Koste (1978) considered Hemimonostyla and Monostyla to be subgenera: later, Koste & Shiel (1990) reerected both genera (Lecane and Monostyla), and gave Hemimonostyla a generic rank. Recently, Segers (1993) questioned the separation of the genera only according to the degree of fusion of the toes, and proposed the Synonymy of Monostyla and Hemimonostyla with Lecane. (ref. ID; 1312)

[ref. ID; 1663]
Dorsal plate the same size or smaller than the ventral plate, dorsal and ventral plates connected by a flexible membrane. Body (length 150-250 um) with retractile head, strongly compressed dorso-ventrally. Foot with two rudimentary segments, of which only the posterior is moviable (Lecane) or, with a single long toe (Monostyla), or short joints and two toes often ending in a claw (Hemimonostyla). Toes parallel-sided. Many small littoral species. (ref. ID; 1663)

[ref. ID; 2760]
The definition of the genera Lecane and Monostyla as given by Harring and Myers (1926) read alike except that in the definition of Monostyla, "toe single" is substituted for "toes two" in the definition of Lecane. Within the last few year several species have been published which are definite transitions between the genera. These are, in order of fusion of the toes, L. elasma Harring & Myers, L. inopinata, Harring and Myers, L. sympoda Hauer, and M. furcata Murray. Lecane agilis Bryce is a side branch of this transition. Lecane elasma itself is variable in this respect; Hauer (1929) has shown that the toes may be slightly fused, while the specimen seen by Harring and Myers have absolutely free toes. These considerations lead to the inevitable conclusion that Lecane and Monostyla are not distinct genera and it is here proposed to unite the two groups under the name Lecane Nitzsch (1827), type species, Lecane luna (Muller). This generic name, under the International Rules of Zoological Nomenclature, takes precedence over the name Monostyla Ehrenberg. (1830). (ref. ID; 2760)

[ref. ID; 2844]
In 1935, Edmondson (see; ref. ID; 2760) synonymized Lecane and Monostyla, because these genera differ only by their toes, which are either separated or fused, and because a number of species having incompletely fused toes exist. Bartos (1959), however, placed the intermediate forms in a new subgenus Hemimonostyla. Recently, Koste & Shiel (1990) reestablished Lecane and Monostyla and elevated Hemimonostyla to generic rank, based on an unsubstantiated statement that the differences between them are sufficient to warrant generic separation. No author, however, questions the fact that so far only the degree of fusion of the toes distinguishes the three taxa. I hypothesize that in the Lecanidae, a complete separation of the toes represents a primitive situation which can gradually evolve towards a complete fusion. This follows from a comparison with representatives of the Proalidae, the group most closely related to the Lecanidae. The following remarks can be made. (1) Lecane and Hemimonostyla are diagnosed by a single plesiomorph character (complete separation of toes versus fusion; partial fusion versus complete fusion). (2) Fusion of the toes my have evolved several times. If not, it would mean that species as different as L. furcata (Murray) and L. unguitata (Fadeew) would be closer to each other than to L. inopinata (Harring & Myers) and L. nwadiaroi n. sp. respectively, and that L. agilis (Bryce) and L. undulata Hauer would be closer than to L. clara (Bryce) and L. pusilla Harring, respectively. Therefore, Hemimonostyla and Monostyla have to be considered polyphyletic taxa. (3) The diagnosis of the three taxa is blurred by intraspecific variability: see L. nana (Murray) var. monostyla Rodewald, or L. bulla (Gosse) var. styrax Harring & Myers, or the intraspecific variation in L. aeganea Harring as recorded by Segers & Dumont (1992). These points support the synonymy of Monostyla Ehrenberg and Hemimonostyla Bartos with Lecane Nitzsch. Even a subgeneric status for these taxa can not be considered. Additionally, a consistent application of the 'generic' diagnosis would lead to confusion. For example, the structure of the terminal part of the toes in a species as common and well-known as Lecane bulla (Gosse) would place it in Hemimonostyla rather than in Monostyla. The same holds for several other species as well. Obviously, this would upset taxonomic stability. In a genus as large as Lecane (about 380 taxa described), homonyms are likely occur. Most of these are junior synonyms (e.g. L. appendiculata (Daday) non (Skotikov) nec (Levander) or inadequately described taxa (e.g. L. ungulata (Mola) non (Gosse), and do therefore not threaten taxonomic stability. Some other cases of homonymy are: (1) L. amazonica (Murray, 1913). Hauer (1965) proposed L. murrayi Hauer as a nomen novum for this species, without a valid motivation. This name is a junior homonym of L. murrayi Korde 1927 (a junior synonym of L. subtilis Harring & Myers 1926). Obviously, L. amazonica (Murray) is the valid name for the taxon. (2) The specific epithet longidactyla was used by Edmondson (1948) in a naming Proales. Judging from the original description, the species belongs to Lecane, and, in fact, is a synonym of L. clara (Bryce) (comb. nov., syn. nov.). Arora's (1965) L. longidactyla is a junior homonym, but is not replaced as it is itself synonymous to L. curvicornis (Murray) (new synonym). (3) L. ornata (Harring & Myers, 1926) non (Daday, 1901). I propose the name L. myersi as a nomen novum for the junior homonym. (4) L. rotunda (Olofsson, 1918) non (Jakubski, 1914). In this case, the junior homonym can be replaced by its junior synonym, L. latissima Yamamoto, 1953. (5) L. truncata Yamamoto non (Lessling) nec (Turner). This taxon is most probably a synonym of L. brachydactyla (Stenroos) (new synonym), its description presumably being based on a misinterpreted observation. Leissling's species is also a synonym of L. brachydactyla. (ref. ID; 2844)

[ref. ID; 2891]
After Bartos (1959), Kutikova (1970) and Koste (1978), the family contains a single genus, which is divided into three subgenus: (1) subgenus Lecane (s.str.) Nitzsch, 1827 (toes always completely separate), (2) subgenus (L.) Hemimonostyla Bartos, 1959 (toes partly fused), (3) subgenus (L.) Monostyla Bartos, 1959 (toes completely fused). All morphological taxonomic characters are taken from contracted animals, as until now the shape of the lorica, especially the form of the anterior margin, the coxal plate, the feet and toes as well as spines (claws and pseudo-claws) have been the basis for identification and systematics. (ref. ID; 2891)

[ref. ID; 3114]
The genus Monostyla Ehrenberg, 1850 was formerly distinguished from a genus Lecane simply based upon the number of the toes (Harring 1913; Harring-Myers 1926; Wesenberg-Lund 1929). Afterwards, as some transitional specimens were found between both genera by Harring-Myers, the generic separation became rather difficult. Hauer (1929) even pointed out that the degree of the fusion of the toes is different in each specimen and the difference is not 'generic'. These considerations led Edmondson (1935, p.304) to the conclusion that Lecane and Monostyla are not separable genera, and it was proposed to unite the two groups under the name Lecane Nitzsche, 1827, its type species being Lecane luna (O.F. Muller). Recently Voigt (1957, s.211) shows 'Zehenverschmelzung bei Lecane Arten' based upon L. agilis, L. elasma, L. kenchor, L. inopinata, L. sympodia and L. undulata, and he divided genus Lecane into 3 groups owing to the degree of the fusion of the toes: 1. Zehen vollstandig getrennt (Distyla, Cathypna) - Gruppe A 2. Zehen teilweise verwachsen - Gruppe B 3. Zehen ganz verwachsen (Monostyla 1830) - Gruppe C. Voigt's treatment may be logical and warranted on one side so far as we classified the animal basing upon the female, but the Sudzuki is of the opinion the consideration on another sex may be also necessary and it may have a key to the solution of the problem. The males of the group a have been discovered in a few species, viz. L. luna, L. levistyla and L. clare by Wiszniewski and Sudzuki. All these males have a spindle shaped body provided with two wholly separated toes on the annulated foot. While, the males of the group C have been found in L. quadrata, L. psammonphila and L. perpusilla by Harring-Myers, Wiszniewski, and all these males have an elongated body provided with one long toe on the long foot. In this point it results that the males are closely related to the females. The male belonging to the group B, which seems to have an important key to the solution of this problem, has not yet been discovered. As mentioned already in this paper, the toes, especially the number of the toes is an important character for generic diagnosis. The male of the Group A (Lecane) and that of the Group C (Monostyla) are different in number of the toes number of the annulations on the foot, length of the toes, the position of the gonopore, etc. besides the general shape of the body. Accordingly, we should not unite these genera in a single genus, and we had better consider genus Monostyla should be re-established. (ref. ID; 3114)

[ref. ID; 3334]
The members of this genus have a well-developed lorica consisting of a dorsal and a smaller ventral plate, joined by a flexible membrane. The foot projects through a hole in the ventral plate. The foot is short, of one or two segments, and the toes long. The mastax has malleate trophi. (ref. ID; 3334)

[ref. ID; 3592]
Resting egg: The resting egg remains inside the lorica of the female, and is released only by decay of the female. The production of resting eggs is apparently limited to a single egg per female in Lecane. Clearly, resting eggs are for dispersal and survival through periods of adverse conditions only, whereas population growth is attained by parthenogenetic reproduction. (ref. ID; 3592)

  1. Lecane abanica Segers, 1994 (ref. ID; 2016, 2922 original paper)
  2. Lecane abnobensis Hauer, 1929 (ref. ID; 1345)
    See; Lecane ligona (ref. ID; 2016)
  3. Lecane acanthinula (Hauer, 1938) (ref. ID; 1831, 2016, 2923)
    Syn; Lecane inopinata acanthinula Wiszniewski, 1954 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla acanthinula Hauer, 1938 (ref. ID; 2016)
  4. Lecane acinaces (Mola, 1913) Mola, 1913 (ref. ID; 2016)
  5. Lecane acronycha Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 1837, 2317, 3514)
    See; Lecane curvicornis (ref. ID; 2016)
  6. Lecane aculeata (Jakubski, 1912) (ref. ID; 696, 1345, 1351, 2016, 2135, 2199, 2787, 2894, 3037, 3083, 3514) reported year? (ref. ID; 3039), aculeata aculeata (ref. ID; 2545)
    Syn; Distyla aculeata Jakubski, 1912 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016); ?Distyla gissensis Eckstein, 1883 (ref. ID; 3514); Lecane aculeata Wiszniewski, 1932 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane arcula Harring, 1914 (ref. ID; 3514); Lecane curvicerata Yamamoto, 1951 (ref. ID; 2016)
  7. Lecane aculeata arcula Harring (ref. ID; 2545)
  8. Lecane aculeata arcula Wiszniewski, 1953
    See; Lecane arcula Harring, 1914 (ref. ID; 3688)
  9. Lecane (Monostyla) acus (Harring, 1913) (ref. ID; 1345, 2339, 2994, 3275, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 3385) or (Harring, 1913) Myers, 1937 (ref. ID; 2016) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 3532)
    See; Lecane lunaris (ref. ID; 2016)
    Syn; Monostyla acus Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3275, 3688); Monostyla lunaris obserata Steinecke, 1916 (ref. ID; 3688)
  10. Lecane aegaenea Harring (ref. ID; 3502)
  11. Lecane aeganea Fadeew, 1924
    See; Lecane tenuiseta (ref. ID; 3688)
  12. Lecane aeganea Harring, 1914 (ref. ID; 1324, 2016)
    See; Lecane tenuiseta Harring, 1914 (ref. ID; 1345, 3688)
    Syn; Lecane aegana Koste, 1978 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane tenuiseta aegaena Kutikova, 1970 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane tenuiseta aegaena Wiszniewski, 1954 (ref. ID; 2016)
  13. Lecane aegenea Fadeew, 1924
    See; Lecane tenuiseta (ref. ID; 3263)
  14. Lecane affinis (Levander, 1894) (ref. ID; 1345, 3688) or (Levander, 1894) Mola, 1930 (ref. ID; 2016)
    Syn; Cathypna affinis Levander, 1894 (ref. ID; 3688); Cathypna amban Stewart, 1908 (ref. ID; 3688); Distyla affinis Iroso, 1910 (ref. ID; 3688)
  15. Lecane (Hemimonostyla) agilis (Bryce, 1892) (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 2683, 2787, 2807, 3058, 3506, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 3449, 3501, 3502)
    Syn; Distyla agilis Bryce, 1892 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3058, 3688); Lecane agilis Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3688); Lecane bryophila nach Bartos, 1959 (ref. ID; 2807)
  16. Lecane aguessei De Ridder, 1960
    See; Lecane punctata (ref. ID; 2016)
  17. Lecane aliger Nogrady, 1983
    See; Lecane spinulifera (ref. ID; 2016)
  18. Lecane aliger (ref. ID; 1807)
  19. Lecane althausi Rudescu, 1960 (ref. ID; 3688 original paper) reported year? (ref. ID; 1806, 2016, 2628)
  20. Lecane amazoniana Koste & Robertson, 1983 (ref. ID; 1837, 2808 original paper)
    See; Lecane eutarsa (ref. ID; 2016)
    Syn; Lecane rhytida after Hauer, 1965 (ref. ID; 2808); Lecane rhytida after Koste, 1972 (ref. ID; 2808); Lecane stichaea var. amazonica after Koste, 1978 (ref. ID; 2808)
  21. Lecane amazonica Koste & Bottger, 1992
    See; Lecane eutarsa (ref. ID; 2016)
  22. Lecane amazonica (Murray, 1913) (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 2265)
    Syn; Lecane amazonica Voigt, 1957 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane murrayi Hauer, 1965 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla amazonica Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 2016)
  23. Lecane amban (Stewart, 1908)
    See; Lecane depressa (ref. ID; 2016)
  24. Lecane amorpha Harring, 1914 or Hauer, 1924
    See; Lecane inermis (ref. ID; 2016, 3688)
  25. Lecane apatinensis Zivkovic, 1987
    See; Lecane subtilis (ref. ID; 2016)
  26. Lecane appendiculata (Levander, 1894) Wiszniewski, 1954
    See; Lecane ludwigii (ref. ID; 2016)
  27. Lecane appendiculata (Skorikov, 1898)
    See; Lecane lamellata (ref. ID; 2016)
  28. Lecane aquila Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 3006, 3154)
    See; Lecane signifera (ref. ID; 2016)
  29. Lecane (Monostyla) arcuata (Bryce, 1891) (ref. ID; 1345, 1847, 2016, 2064, 2196, 2282, 2339, 2597, 2608, 2640, 2757, 2824, 2929, 3060, 3275, 3514, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 3448, 3501, 3502, 4607)
    Syn; Lecane arcuata Wiszniewski, 1953 (ref. ID; 2016, 3688); Lecane piepelsi De Smet & Bafort, 1990 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla arcuata Bryce, 1891 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 2757, 3275, 3514, 3688)
  30. Lecane arcuata f. magna Koste, 1978
    See; Lecane hamata (ref. ID; 2016)
  31. Lecane arcula Harring, 1914 (ref. ID; 1345, 1847, 2016, 2064, 2135, 2265, 2280, 2599, 2825, 2906, 3144, 3335, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 2890, 3502)
    See; Lecane aculeata (ref. ID; 3514)
    Syn; Cathypna aculeata Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 2064, 3688); Lecane aculeata arcula Wiszniewski, 1953 (ref. ID; 3688); Lecane strandi Berzins, 1943 (ref. ID; 2016)
  32. Lecane arcula Murray, 1914 (ref. ID; 696)
  33. Lecane armata Thomasson, 1971 (ref. ID; 2016)
    Syn; Lecane gillardi armata Koste, 1978 (ref. ID; 2016)
  34. Lecane aspasia Myers, 1917 (ref. ID; 690, 1847, 2016, 2808, 2923) reported year? (ref. ID; 3271, 4606)
    See; Lecane hegurensis
  35. Lecane aspasia amazonica Koste & Robertson, 1983 (ref. ID; 2808 original paper)
    See; Lecane robertsonae (ref. ID; 2016)
  36. Lecane aspersa Kutikova & Arov, 1985
    See; Lecane rhopalura (ref. ID; 2016)
  37. Lecane asthena Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2016)
  38. Lecane asymmetrica (Murray, 1913) (ref. ID; 2016)
    Syn; Lecane asymmetrica Voigt, 1957 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane janetzkyi Koste, Janetzky & Vareschi, 1991 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla asymmetrica Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 2016)
  39. Lecane balatonica (Varga, 1938) (ref. ID; 2016)
  40. Lecane batillifer (Murray, 1913) (ref. ID; 1831, 2016, 2757)
    Syn; Lecane batillifer Wiszniewski, 1954 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla batillifer Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 2016, 2757)
  41. Lecane beauchampi (von Hofsten, 1923)
    See; Lecane clara (ref. ID; 2016)
  42. Lecane beningi Tarnogradsky, 1961 (ref. ID; 3502 original paper) or Tarnogradski, 1961 (ref. ID; 2016)
    See; Lecane galeata (ref. ID; 2016)
  43. Lecane bicornis (Daday, 1897)
    See; Lecane quadridentata (ref. ID; 2016)
  44. Lecane bicornis (Stenroos, 1898)
    See; Lecane stenroosi (ref. ID; 2016)
  45. Lecane bidentata (Dhanapathi, 1976) (ref. ID; 689 original paper, 2016)
  46. Lecane bifastigata Hauer, 1937/38 (ref. ID; 1345) or Hauer, 1938 (ref. ID; 2016)
  47. Lecane bifastigiata Hauer (ref. ID; 3502)
  48. Lecane (Monostyla) bifurca (Bryce, 1892) (ref. ID; 1312, 1345, 1806, 2016, 3263, 3335, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 3449, 3502)
    Syn; Lecane bifurca entome Berzins, 1982 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane crypta (Hauer, 1938) Voigt, 1957 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane fusilis Myers, 1936 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla bifurca Bryce, 1892 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3263, 3688); Monostyla crypta Hauer, 1938 (ref. ID; 3263, 3688); Monostyla monostylaeformis Fadeew, 1925 (ref. ID; 3263); Monostyla monostylaeformis Iroso, 1910 (ref. ID; 1345); Monostyla monostylaeformis (Stenroos, 1898) Iroso, 1910 (ref. ID; 2016, 3688); Notommata monostylaeformis Stenroos, 1898 (ref. ID; 1345, 3263, 3688)
  49. Lecane bifurca entome Berzins, 1982 (ref. ID; 4606 original paper)
    See; Lecane bifurca (ref. ID; 2016)
  50. Lecane biloba (Daday, 1905)
    See; Lecane leontina (ref. ID; 2016)
  51. Lecane bipes (Stokes, 1896)
    See; Lecane bulla (ref. ID; 2016)
  52. Lecane (Hemimonostyla) blachei Berzins, 1973 (ref. ID; 1806, 1831, 2016, 2797, 3019 original paper)
  53. Lecane boettgeri Koste, 1986 (ref. ID; 2016, 2796 original paper)
  54. Lecane boliviana Segers, 1994 (ref. ID; 2913 original paper)
  55. Lecane bondi Edmondson, 1934 (ref. ID; 2939 original paper)
    See; Lecane curvicornis (ref. ID; 2016)
  56. Lecane boorali Koste & Shiel, 1983 (ref. ID; 1417 original paper, 2016)
  57. Lecane brachydactyla (Stenroos, 1898) (ref. ID; 1345, 1351, 2757, 2894, 3216) reported year? (ref. ID; 3063, 3502)
    See; Lecane depressa (ref. ID; 2016), Lecane truncata
    Syn; Cathypna brachydactyla Stenroos, 1898 (ref. ID; 1345, 2757, 3216); Cathypna luna brachydactyla Sachse, 1912 (ref. ID; 1345); Distyla truncata Leissling, 1914 (ref. ID; 1345)
  58. Lecane braumi Koste (ref. ID; 1324, 2016, 2797 original paper)
  59. Lecane braziliensis Segers, 1993 (ref. ID; 2016, 2914 original paper)
  60. Lecane brevis (Murray, 1913) Voigt, 1957
    See; Lecane flexilis (ref. ID; 2016)
  61. Lecane brevis Wiszniewski, 1930
    See; Lecane flexilis (ref. ID; 3263, 3688)
  62. Lecane brevita Myers, 1942
    See; Lecane perpusilla (ref. ID; 2016)
  63. Lecane brodskii (Muraveisky, 1937) Wiszniewski, 1954
    See; Lecane closterocerca (ref. ID; 2016)
  64. Lecane brundini Thomasson, 1959 (ref. ID; 2016)
  65. Lecane bryophila
    See; Lecane agilis (ref. ID; 2807)
  66. Lecane (Monostyla) bulla (ref. ID; 2261)

    Quote from ref. ID; 2261

  67. Lecane (Monostyla) bulla (Gosse, 1851) (ref. ID; 689, 2016, 2064, 2251, 2265, 2599, 2704, 2714, 2867, 3060, 3127, 3128, 3180, 3271, 3275, 3512, 3592, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 2640, 2787, 2825, 2890, 3141, 3274, 3502, 6846) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 3292), bulla bulla (ref. ID; 2757, 3039)
    Syn; Lecane bipes (Stokes, 1896) (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane bulla constricta (Sudzuki, 1992) (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane bulla dentata (Sudzuki, 1992) (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane bulla diana Abdullaev, 1989 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane bulla kutikovae Naberezhniyi & Irmasheva, 1975 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane goniata (Harring & Myers, 1926) Myers, 1942 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane incisa (Daday, 1897) (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane ozolini (Berzins, 1943) Kutikova, 1970 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane physalis Wulfert, 1939 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane styrax (Harring & Myers, 1926) Wiszniewski, 1954 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane styrax longistyla (Weisig, 1928) Kutikova, 1970 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla bipes Stokes, 1896 (ref. ID; 2016, 3271, 3688); Monostyla bulla Gosse, 1851 (ref. ID; 2016, 2757, 3128, 3274, 3271, 3275, 3688); Monostyla bulla longistyla Weisig, 1928 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla goniata Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla incisa Daday, 1897 (ref. ID; 2016, 3271, 3688); Monostyla lunaris Perty, 1852 (ref. ID; 3688); Monostyla styrax Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2016)
  68. Lecane (Monostyla) bulla (Gosse, 1886) (ref. ID; 696, 1312, 1345, 2268, 3083, 3335, 3514)
    Syn; Monostyla bipes Stokes, 1896 (ref. ID; 1345); Monostyla bulla Gosse, 1886 (ref. ID; 1345, 3514); Monostyla incisa Daday, 1897 (ref. ID; 1345)
  69. Lecane (Monostyla) bulla constricta (Sudzuki, 1992) (ref. ID; 2874 original paper)
    See; Lecane bulla (ref. ID; 2016)
    Syn; Monostyla bulla constricta (ref. ID; 2874)
  70. Lecane (Monostyla) bulla constricta f. triangula (ref. ID; 2261, 2874 original paper)

    Quote from ref. ID; 2261

    Syn; Monostyla bulla constricta f. triangulata Sudzuki, 1992 (ref. ID; 2874)

  71. Lecane (Monostyla) bulla dentata (Sudzuki, 1992) (ref. ID; 2874 original paper)
    See; Lecane bulla (ref. ID; 2016)
    Syn; Monostyla bulla dentata Sudzuki, 1992 (ref. ID; 2874)
  72. Lecane (Monostyla) bulla diabolica (Hauer, 1936) (ref. ID; 1847), f. diabolica Hauer, 1936 (ref. ID; 2903 original paper)
  73. Lecane (Monostyla) bulla diana Abdullaev, 1989
    See; Lecane bulla (ref. ID; 2016)
  74. Lecane (Monostyla) bulla kutikovae Naberezhniyi & Irmasheva, 1975
    See; Lecane bulla (ref. ID; 2016)
  75. Lecane (Monostyla) bulla styrax (Harring & Myers, 1926) (ref. ID; 1836, 2834)
    Syn; Monostyla styrax Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2834)
  76. Lecane calcaria Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2016)
  77. Lecane camptica Berzins, 1982
    See; Lecane hornemanni (ref. ID; 2016, 2936)
  78. Lecane candida Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 1351, 2016)
  79. Lecane carinata (Jakubski, 1912) Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 2016)
  80. Lecane carpatica Rodewald-Rudescu, 1960 (ref. ID; 2627 original paper) or Rudescu, 1960 (ref. ID; 2016, 3688)
  81. Lecane ceylonensis Chengalath & Fernando, 1973 (ref. ID; 2714 original paper, 3180)
    See; Lecane hornemanni (ref. ID; 2016, 2936)
  82. Lecane chankensis Bogoslovsky, 1958 (ref. ID; 3452 original paper)
    See; Lecane curvicornis (ref. ID; 2016)
  83. Lecane clara (Bryce, 1892) (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 2740, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 3297, 3502, 4607)
    Syn; Cathypna sulcata Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345); Cathypna clara Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 2016, 3688); Diaschiza cupha Gosse, 1887 (ref. ID; 3688); Diglena beauchampi von Hofsten, 1923 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3688); Distyla clara Bryce, 1892 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3688); Lecane beauchampi (von Hofsten, 1923) (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane clara Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3688); Lecane longidactyla (Edmondson, 1948) Segers, 1993 (ref. ID; 2016); Proales longidactyla Edmondson, 1948 (ref. ID; 2016)
  84. Lecane climacois Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2016, 2844)
  85. Lecane closterocerca (ref. ID; 2823, 2825)
  86. Lecane closterocerca Wulfert, 1931 or 1939
    See; Lecane closterocerca (Schmarda, 1859) (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3688)
  87. Lecane (Monostyla) closterocerca (Schmarda, 1853) (ref. ID; 2998), 1859 (ref. ID; 696, 1312, 1345, 1923, 2016, 2064, 2196, 2265, 2268, 2269, 2277, 2385, 2599, 2700, 2704, 2714, 2787, 3083, 3154, 3180, 3271, 3275, 3512, 3514, 3688) or 1895 (ref. ID; 2757, 2841) reported year? (ref. ID; 1450, 1473, 2703, 2890, 2913, 2932, 2933, 3039, 3239, 3274, 3334, 3501, 3502, 4607) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 3114 , 3411, 3412), closterocerca closterocerca Schmarda (ref. ID; 4606)

    Quote from ref. ID; 3114

    Syn; Lecane brodskii (Muraveisky, 1937) Wiszniewski, 1954 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane closterocerca amazonica Koste, 1978 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane closterocerca Wulfert, 1931 (ref. ID; 3688) or 1939 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016); Lecane cornuta f. anglica (Bryce, 1924) (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane eichsfeldica (Kunne, 1926) (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane latvica (Berzins, 1943) Voigt, 1957 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane wulferti Hauer, 1956 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla brodskii Muraveisky, 1937 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla closterocerca Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2757); Monostyla closterocerca Schmarda, 1859 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3271, 3274, 3275, 3514, 3688); Monostyla cornuta Olofsson, 1918 (ref. ID; 3688); Monostyla cornuta f. anglica Bryce, 1924 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3688); Monostyla eichsfeldica Kunne, 1926 (ref. ID; 2016, 3688); Monostyla latvica Berzins, 1943 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla truncata Turner, 1892 (ref. ID; 3688)

  88. Lecane closterocerca amazonica Koste, 1978
    See; Lecane closterocerca (ref. ID; 2016)
  89. Lecane cochlearis (Murray, 1913) Voigt, 1957 (ref. ID; 2016)
  90. Lecane compta Harring, 1914
    See; Lecane flexilis (ref. ID; 2016)
  91. Lecane (Monostyla) conspicua (Hauer, 1936) (ref. ID; 1345, 2903 original paper) or (Hauer, 1936) Wiszniewski, 1954
    See; Lecane thalera (ref. ID; 2016)
  92. Lecane (Monostyla) constricta (Murray, 1913) (ref. ID; 1345, 3036, 3263) or (Murray, 1913) Myers, 1942 (ref. ID; 2016)
    See; Lecane lunaris (ref. ID; 2016)
    Syn; Monostyla constricta Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345, 3036); Monostyla constricta Carlin, 1939 (ref. ID; 3036); Monostyla lunaris Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 1345, 3036); Monostyla lunaris Hauer, 1929 (ref. ID; 1345, 3036)
  93. Lecane (Monostyla) copeis (Harring & Myers, 1926) (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 2622, 3688)
    Syn; Lecane copeis Wiszniewski, 1954 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane eupsammophila Koste, 1992 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla copeis Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2016, 2622, 3688)
  94. Lecane (Monostyla) cornuta (O.F. Muller, 1786) (ref. ID; 1345, 1830, 2016, 2265, 2276, 2599, 2757, 2824, 3125, 3275, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 2890, 3502)
    Syn; Diceratella cornuta Deshayen & Milne Edwards, 1835 (ref. ID; 3688); Lecane cornuta Edmondson, 1936 (ref. ID; 2016, 3688); Lecane cornuta f. oidipus (Hauer, 1956) (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane glumiformis (Bory de St. Vincent, 1827) (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane robusta (Stokes, 1896) (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane rotunda (Fadeev, 1927) Voigt, 1957 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane rotundata (Jakubski, 1914) (ref. ID; 2016); Lepadella cornuta Bory de St. Vincent, 1826 (ref. ID; 1345, 3688); Lepadella glumiformis Bory de St. Vincent, 1827 (ref. ID; 3688); Monostyla cornuta Ehrenberg, 1830 (ref. ID; 1345, 2276, 2757, 3688); Monostyla robusta Ehrenberg, 1830 (ref. ID; 2757); Monostyla robusta Stokes, 1896 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3688); Monostyla rotunda Fadeev, 1927 (ref. ID; 2016) or Fadeew, 1927 (ref. ID; 3688); Monostyla rotundata Jakubski, 1914 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3688); Monostyla truncata Turner, 1892 (ref. ID; 1345, 3688); Notommata cornuta Ehrenberg, 1830 (ref. ID; 1345, 3688); Trichocerca cornuta Gravenhorst, 1832 (ref. ID; 3688); Tricoda cornuta O.F. Muller, 1786 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 2276, 2757, 3275, 3688)
  95. Lecane cornuta f. anglica (Bryce, 1924)
    See; Lecane closterocerca (ref. ID; 2016)
  96. Lecane cornuta f. oidipus (Hauer) (ref. ID; 1837), var. oidipus Hauer, 1952 (ref. ID; 3125 original paper)
    See; Lecane cornuta (ref. ID; 2016)
  97. Lecane cornuta var. rotunda (Fadeew, 1927) (ref. ID; 1836)
    See; Lecane cornuta (ref. ID; 2016)
  98. Lecane (Monostyla) crenata (Harring, 1913) (ref. ID; 696, 1345, 1839, 2265, 2599, 2757 3060, 3128, 3379, 3514, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 2890, 3063, 3502) or (Harring, 1913) Edmondson, 1935 (ref. ID; 2016)
    See; Lecane lunaris (ref. ID; 2016)
    Syn; Monostyla crenata Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345, 2757, 3128, 3379, 3514, 3688)
  99. Lecane crepida Harring, 1914 (ref. ID; 1345, 1806, 2016, 2064, 2265, 2317, 2599, 2703, 2714, 2797, 2825, 3083, 3180, 3514)
    Syn; Lecane crepida longidactyla Koste, 1972 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane neali Wulfert, 1966 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane vasishti Sharma, 1980 (ref. ID; 2016)
  100. Lecane crepida Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 696, 2704)
  101. Lecane crepida f. bengalensis Sharma, 1978 (ref. ID; 688)
  102. Lecane crepida longidactyla Koste, 1972 (ref. ID; 2545)
  103. Lecane (Monostyla) crypta (Hauer, 1937/38) (ref. ID; 1345, 2905, 2998) or (Hauer, 1938) Voigt, 1957 (ref. ID; 2016)
    See; Lecane bifurca
    Syn; Monostyla crypta Hauer, 1937/38 (ref. ID; 1345)
  104. Lecane cupha (Gosse, 1887) (ref. ID; 2016)
  105. Lecane curvicerata Yamamoto, 1951 (ref. ID; 3054 original paper)
    See; Lecane aculeata (ref. ID; 2016)
  106. Lecane curvicornis (Murray, 1913) (ref. ID; 689, 696, 1345, 2016, 2064, 2265, 2339, 2385, 2599, 2714, 2867, 3180, 3514) reported year? (ref. ID; 2889, 2890, 3387, 3397, 3502, 3688)
    Syn; Cathypna curvicornis Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 2385, 3514); Cathypna lofuana Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 2016); Cathypna nitida Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane curvicornis Harring, 1914 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016); Lecane acronycha Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane bondi Edmondson, 1934 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane chankensis Bogoslovsky, 1958 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane curvilinealis Arora, 1965 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane lofuana (Murray, 1913) Harring, 1914 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane longidactylus Arora, 1965 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane nitida (Murray, 1913) Harring, 1914 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane tesselata Arora, 1965 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane triloba Yamamoto, 1951 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane ungulata curvicornis Berzins, 1959 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane zwaiensis Bryce, 1931 (ref. ID; 2016)
  107. Lecane curvicornis f. typica (ref. ID; 1831)
  108. Lecane curvicornis lofuana (Murray, 1913) (ref. ID; 3083)
  109. Lecane curvicornis nitida (Murray, 1913) (ref. ID; 1847, 3083), var. nitida (Murray, 1913) (ref. ID; 3180, 3514) reported year? (ref. ID; 1345) or Hauer, 1938 (ref. ID; 2064)
    Syn; Cathypna nitida Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 3514)
  110. Lecane curvicornis var. miamensis Myers, 1941 (ref. ID; 696, 2714), var. miamiensis Myers, 1941 (ref. ID; 3180)
  111. Lecane curvilinealis Arora, 1965
    See; Lecane curvicornis (ref. ID; 2016)
  112. Lecane decipiens (Daday, 1913) (ref. ID; 1847)
  113. Lecane (Monostyla) decipiens (Murray, 1913) (ref. ID; 696, 1345, 2016, 2385, 2597, 2599, 2704, 2714, 3180) reported year? (ref. ID; 1450)
    Syn; Lecane decipiens Wiszniewski, 1954 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla decipiens Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016)
  114. Lecane decipiens serrata Wiszniewski, 1954
    See; Lecane serrata (ref. ID; 2016)
  115. Lecane dentiserrata (Mola, 1913) Voigt, 1957 (ref. ID; 2016)
  116. Lecane depressa (Bryce, 1891) (ref. ID; 1345, 1923, 2016)
    Syn; Cathypna amban Stewart, 1908 (ref. ID; 2016); Cathypna brachydactyla Stenroos, 1898 (ref. ID; 2016); Cathypna brachydactyla Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 2016); Cathypna depressa Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 2016); Distyla depressa Bryce, 1891 (ref. ID; 1345); Distyla truncata Leissling, 1914 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane amban Stewart, 1908 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane brachydactyla (Stenroos, 1898) Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane depressa Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016); Lecane tudicola Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane truncata (Leissling, 1914) Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane truncata Yamamoto, 1953 (ref. ID; 2016)
  117. Lecane deridderae Jose de Paggi, 1989
    See; Comments of Lecane harringi (ref. ID; 2935), Lecane margarethae (ref. ID; 2016)
  118. Lecane deridderae Koste, 1972 (ref. ID; 2016)
    See; Comments of Lecane harringi (ref. ID; 2935)
  119. Lecane deridderi Koste, 1972 (ref. ID; 2545 original paper)
  120. Lecane diadema Hauer, 1931
    See; Lecane kluchor (ref. ID; 2016, 2906, 3688)
  121. Lecane diomis (Gosse, 1887) Mola, 1928 (ref. ID; 2016)
  122. Lecane diophthalma (Iroso, 1910) (ref. ID; 2016)
  123. Lecane donneri Chengalath & Mulamoottil, 1974 (ref. ID; 2016, 2599 original paper)
  124. Lecane donnerianus (Dhanapathi, 1976) (ref. ID; 689 original paper)
    See; Lecane ungulata (ref. ID; 2016)
  125. Lecane donyanaensis Mazuelos & Segers, 1994 (ref. ID; 2016, 2845 original paper)
    Syn; Lecane cf. leontina after Mazuelos et al., 1993 (ref. ID; 2845)
  126. Lecane dorsicalis Arora, 1965
    See; Lecane luna (ref. ID; 2016)
  127. Lecane dorsicornuta (Van Oye, 1926) Wiszniewski, 1954 (ref. ID; 2016)
  128. Lecane doryssa Harring, 1914 (ref. ID; 1324, 1806, 1847, 2016, 2545, 2797, 2834, 3263, 3514) reported year? (ref. ID; 3449, 3502)
  129. Lecane dumonti Segers, 1993 (ref. ID; 2016, 2844 original paper, 2914)
  130. Lecane dysorata Myers (ref. ID; 3036)
  131. Lecane eichsfeldica (Kunne, 1926) (ref. ID; 1345)
    See; Lecane closterocerca (ref. ID; 2016)
  132. Lecane (Monostyla) elachis (Harring & Myers, 1926) (ref. ID; 1345, 1847, 2064, 2714) reported year? (ref. ID; 3502) or (Harring & Myers, 1926) Myers, 1942 (ref. ID; 2016)
    See; Lecane furcata (ref. ID; 2016)
    Syn; Monostyla elachis Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2016)
  133. Lecane elasma Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 1345, 1923, 2016, 2285, 3335, 3688)
  134. Lecane elegans Harring, 1914 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 2703, 2797, 3180)
  135. Lecane elliptoides (Rodewald, 1937) (ref. ID; 1345, 3688) or (Rodewald, 1937) Voigt, 1957 (ref. ID; 2016)
    Syn; Lecane elliptoides Voigt, 1957 (ref. ID; 3688); Monostyla elliptoides Rodewald, 1937 (ref. ID; 3688)
  136. Lecane elongata Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 1345, 1806, 2016, 3144, 3688)
    Syn; Lecane murrayi Korde, 1927 (ref. ID; 1345)
  137. Lecane elongata Pawlowski, 1938
    See; Lecane tenuiseta (ref. ID; 3688)
  138. Lecane elsa Hauer, 1931 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 2265, 2545, 2787, 2807, 3516)
  139. Lecane emarginata (Eichwald, 1847)
    See; Lecane luna (ref. ID; 2016)
  140. Lecane ephestra Harring, 1921 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 3449)
    See; Lecane intrasinuata (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3688), Lecane muscicola (ref. ID; 3449)
  141. Lecane ercodes Harring, 1914
    See; Lecane ludwigii (ref. ID; 2016)
  142. Lecane eswari (Dhanapathi, 1976) (ref. ID; 690 original paper, 2016)
  143. Lecane eupsammophila Koste, 1992
    See; Lecane copeis (ref. ID; 2016)
  144. Lecane eutarsa Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2016)
    See; Lecane curvicerata
    Syn; Lecane amazoniana Koste & Robertson, 1983 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane amazonica Koste & Bottger, 1992 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane stichaea var. amazonica Koste, 1978 (ref. ID; 2016)
  145. Lecane eylesi Russell, 1953 (ref. ID; 1709, 2016, 3127 original paper)
    Syn; Lecane tasmaniensis Shiel & Koste, 1985 (ref. ID; 2016)
  146. Lecane fadeevi (Neiswestnova-Shadina, 1935) (ref. ID; 2418 redescribed paper) or (Neiswestnova-Shadina, 1935) Voigt, 1957 (ref. ID; 2016)
    See; Lecane psammophila (ref. ID; 2016)
    Syn; Lecane closterocerca after Pawlowski (1956, 1958), partly. (ref. ID; 2418); Lecane fadeevi Segers, 1994 (p.145) (ref. ID; 2418); Lecane fadeewi Voigt, 1957 (p.238) (ref. ID; 2418); Monostyla fadeevi Neiswestnova-Shadina, 1935 (p.561-562 figs.7, 8), Kutikova, 1970 (p.469) (ref. ID; 2418); Monostyla fadeewi Wiszniewski, 1954 (p.69), Koste, 1978 (p.245) (ref. ID; 2418)
  147. Lecane falcata (Murray, 1913) (ref. ID; 1345) or (Murray, 1913) Voigt, 1957 (ref. ID; 2016)
  148. Lecane fernandoi Chengalath & Mulamoottil, 1974 (ref. ID; 2599 original paper)
    See; Lecane hamata (ref. ID; 2016)
  149. Lecane flabellata Edmondson, 1936 (ref. ID; 2771 original paper)
  150. Lecane flexilis (Gosse, 1886) (ref. ID; 2016, 2276, 2599, 2998, 3275, 3514, 3688) or 1889 (ref. ID; 696, 1312, 1345, 1351, 2268, 2841, 2994, 3263) reported year? (ref. ID; 1450, 2064, 2196, 2642, 2787, 2823, 2890, 2932, 3141, 3208, 3502)
    Syn; Cathypna brevis Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 2016, 3263, 3688); Cathypna flexilis Stenroos, 1898 (ref. ID; 2016, 3688); Dystyla flexilis Gosse, 1886 (ref. ID; 2016, 2276) or 1889 (ref. ID; 1345, 1351, 2841, 3514) reported year? (ref. ID; 3141, 3208) or Hudson & Gosse, 1886 (ref. ID; 3263, 3275, 3688); Distyla lipara Gosse, 1887 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane brevis (Murray, 1913) or Voigt, 1957 (ref. ID; 2016) or Wiszniewski, 1930 (ref. ID; 3263, 3688); Lecane compta Harring, 1914 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane flexilis Harring, 1914 (ref. ID; 1345, 3263) or Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 2016, 3688); Lecane glypta Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2016, 3263, 3688); Lecane lipara (Gosse, 1887) (ref. ID; 2016)
  151. Lecane formosa Harring & Myers (ref. ID; 4606)
  152. Lecane fracida Berzins, 1982
    See; Lecane ungulata (ref. ID; 2016, 2936)
  153. Lecane (Monostyla) furcata (Murray, 1913) (ref. ID; 696, 1312, 1345, 1923, 2016, 2265, 2268, 2269, 2281, 2599, 3263, 3271, 3335, 3514, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 1450, 3239, 3449, 3502, 3523, 6846) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 3063)
    Syn; Lecane elachis (Harring & Myers, 1926) Myers, 1942 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane furcata elachis (Harring & Myers, 1926) (ref. ID; 3514); Lecane mologensis (Bogoslovsky, 1935) Kutikova, 1970 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane ovalis (Jakubski, 1914) (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane tethis (Harring & Myers, 1926) Wiszniewski, 1954 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane vanoyei De Ridder, 1960 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla elachis Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 3263, 3514, 3688) or Smirnov, 1929 (ref. ID; 3688); Monostyla furcata Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3263, 3271, 3514, 3688); Monostyla ovalis Jakubski, 1914 (ref. ID; 3688); Monostyla tethis Harring & Myers (ref. ID; 3449, 3502)
  154. Lecane furcata elachis Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 3514) reported year? (ref. ID; 3039)
    See; Lecane furcata (ref. ID; 3514)
  155. Lecane furcata var. rugosa (Harring, 1914) (ref. ID; 1836)
    See; Lecane rugosa
  156. Lecane fusilis Myers, 1936
    See; Lecane bifurca (ref. ID; 2016)
  157. Lecane (Monostyla) galeata (Bryce, 1892) (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 2064, 2824, 3275, 3508, 3514, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 4607)
    Syn; Lecane beningi Tarnogradski, 1961 (ref. ID; 2016, 3508); Lecane galeata Myers, 1942 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane parva Daday, 1897 (ref. ID; 2016, 3508); Lecane pygmaea Daday, 1897 (ref. ID; 3508), (Daday, 1897) Myers, 1937 (ref. ID; 2016, 2064), Myers, 1937 (ref. ID; 3688) or Pawlowski, 1938 (ref. ID; 3688); Lecane turbo Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 2016, 3508); Monostyla galeata Bryce, 1892 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3275, 3514, 3688) or Bryce & Myers, 1940 (ref. ID; 1345); Monostyla parva Daday, 1897 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3688); Monostyla pygmaea Daday, 1897 (ref. ID; 1345, 3275, 3514, 3688), Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2016) or Wulfert, 1940 (ref. ID; 2064); Monostyla turbo Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3688)
  158. Lecane gillardi Berzins, 1960 (ref. ID; 2016)
  159. Lecane gillardi armata Koste, 1978
    See; Lecane armata (ref. ID; 2016)
  160. Lecane gillardi armata (Thomasson) 1971 n. comb. (ref. ID; 2703) (Thomasson) (ref. ID; 2787)
  161. Lecane gissensis (Eckstein, 1883) (ref. ID; 1345, 1351, 3688), (Eckstein, 1883) Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 2016) or (Hudson & Gosse, 1886) (ref. ID; 3127)
    Syn; Dystyla gissensis Eckstein, 1883 (ref. ID; 1351, 3688); Distyla gissensis Hudson & Gosse, 1886 (ref. ID; 3127), Mola, 1913 (ref. ID; 3688) or Sachse, 1912 (ref. ID; 3688)
  162. Lecane glumiformis (Bory de St. Vincent, 1827)
    See; Lecane cornuta (ref. ID; 2016)
  163. Lecane glypta Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2016, 3145, 3263, 3514) reported year? (ref. ID; 1345)
    See; Lecane flexilis (ref. ID; 2016, 3263, 3688)
  164. Lecane goniata (Harring & Myers, 1926) (ref. ID; 3514) or (Harring & Myers, 1926) Myers, 1942 (ref. ID; 2269)
    See; Lecane bulla (ref. ID; 2016)
    Syn; Monostyla goniata Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 3514)
  165. Lecane gossei (Lord, 1890) Voigt, 1957 (ref. ID; 2016)
  166. Lecane gracilis (Sachse, 1914) (ref. ID; 1345, 2016)
    Syn; Cathypna grandis (Murray, 1913) (ref. ID; 1345, 2016); Lecane grandis Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 1345)
  167. Lecane grandis (Murray, 1913) (ref. ID; 1312, 1345, 2016, 3160, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 3502)
    Syn; Cathypna grandis (Murray, 1913) (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3688); Lecane grandis Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 1345)
  168. Lecane grandulosa (Stokes, 1897)
    See; Lecane ungulata (ref. ID; 2016)
  169. Lecane (Monostyla) gwileti (= gwilety) (Tarnogradsky, 1930) (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 2906, 3449 original paper) reported year? (ref. ID; 3502), Tarnogradski (ref. ID; 6164)
    Syn; Lecane gwileti Wiszniewski, 1954 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla gwileti Tarnogradsky, 1930 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016); Monostyla kieferi Hauer, 1931 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016)
  170. Lecane haliclysta Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 1324, 1351, 2016, 2265, 2807, 3514)
    Syn; Lecane stichaeoides Hauer, 1938 (ref. ID; 2016)
  171. Lecane (Monostyla) hamata (Stokes, 1859) (ref. ID; 2704) or 1896 (ref. ID; 689, 696, 1312, 1345, 2016, 2064, 2265, 2282, 2317, 2385, 2545, 2599, 2640, 2683, 2757, 2823, 2825, 3060, 3127, 3275, 3512, 3514, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 2890, 2898, 3037, 3039, 3239, 3274, 3448, 3501, 3502), hamata hamata (Stokes, 1896) (ref. ID; 3083)
    Syn; Lecane arcuata f. magna Koste, 1978 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane fernandoi Chengalath & Mulamoottil, 1974 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane hamata victoriensis Koste & Shiel, 1980 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane sinuata (Hauer, 1938) Voigt, 1957 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla hamata Stokes, 1896 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 2757, 3274, 3275, 3514, 3688); Monostyla sinuata Hauer, 1938 (ref. ID; 2016)
  172. Lecane hamata var. sinuata Koste, 1978
    See; Lecane sinuata (ref. ID; 2807)
  173. Lecane hamata var. thienemanni (ref. ID; 2758)
  174. Lecane hamata victoriensis Koste & Shiel, 1980 (ref. ID; 2758 original paper)
    See; Lecane hamata (ref. ID; 2016)
  175. Lecane harringi Ahlstrom, 1934 (ref. ID; 2812 2935, 3125) reported year? (ref. ID; 1312, 2064, 2269) or (Ahlstrom, 1934) Wiszniewski, 1954 (ref. ID; 2016)
    See; Lecane punctata (ref. ID; 2016, 2935)
    Syn; Monostyla punctata Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 2064)
  176. Lecane hastata (Murray, 1913) (ref. ID; 1312, 1345, 1837, 2016, 2064, 2545, 2803, 3000, 3180) reported year? (ref. ID; 3502)
    Syn; Cathypna hastata Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane hastata Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane hegurensis Yamamoto, 1951 (ref. ID; 2964) or 1956 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane jana Abdullaev, 1989 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane namibiensis (Koste & Brain, 1993) (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane plesia Myers, 1936 (ref. ID; 2016)
  177. Lecane hegurensis Yamamoto, 1951 (ref. ID; 3054 original paper) or 1956 (ref. ID; 2016)
    See; Lecane hastata (ref. ID; 2016)
  178. Lecane herzigi Koste, Shiel & Tan, 1988 (ref. ID; 1709, 2016)
  179. Lecane hoffmanni De Ridder, 1960
    See; Lecane paradoxa (ref. ID; 2016)

    Lecane hornemanni-group

    [ref. ID; 2922]
    Lecane hornemanni (Ehrenberg), Lecane latissima Yamamoto, Lecane nelsoni Segers, Lecane rutttneri Hauer
  180. Lecane hornemanni (Ehrenberg, 1833) (ref. ID; 2599, 2714, 3127), 1834 (ref. ID; 1345, 1351, 1847, 2016, 2064, 2261 , 2281, 2797, 3514, 3688), 1838 (ref. ID; 2268) or 1881 (ref. ID; 689, 3180) reported year? (ref. ID; 2936, 3040, 3502), hornemanni hornemanni Ehrenberg (ref. ID; 4606)

    Quote from ref. ID; 2261

    See; Lecane nodosa Hauer 1937/38 (ref. ID; 2797), Lecane nelsoni (ref. ID; 2016)
    Syn; Cathypna hornemanni Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3688); Distyla hornemanni Hudson & Gosse, 1889 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3688); Euchlanis hornemanni Ehrenberg, 1833 (ref. ID; 3127) or 1834 (ref. ID; 1345, 1351, 2016, 2281, 3688); Lecane camptica Berzins, 1982 (ref. ID; 2016, 2936); Lecane ceylonensis Chengalath & Fernando, 1973 (ref. ID; 2016, 2936); Lecane hornemanni Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 3688) or 1914 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016); Lecane lamiranoensis Berzins, 1982 (ref. ID; 2016, 2936); Lecane nodosa Hauer, 1938 (ref. ID; 2016, 2936)

  181. Lecane hospes Donner, 1951 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 2628, 2824, 2935, 3275) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 2972)
  182. Lecane hudsoni (Lord, 1890) Voigt, 1957 (ref. ID; 2016)
  183. Lecane hummelincki De Ridder, 1977 (ref. ID; 2016)
  184. Lecane ichthyoura (Anderson & Sephard, 1892) (ref. ID; 1345, 2749, 2797, 3255) or (Anderson & Shephard) (ref. ID; 2751, 2757) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 3197)
    See; Lecane Ludwigii (ref. ID; 2016)
    Syn; Distyla ichthyoura Anderson & Sephard, 1892 (ref. ID; 1345) Anderson & Shephard, 1892 (ref. ID; 2757); Lecane ichthyoura Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345); Lecane ohioensis f. ichthyoura (Anderson & Shephard, 1892) nach Koste (1978) (ref. ID; 2797)
  185. Lecane imbricata Carlin, 1939 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3263 original paper, 3275, 3532)
  186. Lecane incisa (Daday, 1897)
    See; Lecane bulla (ref. ID; 2016)
  187. Lecane incisa (Daday, 1905)
    See; Lecane leontina (ref. ID; 2016)
  188. Lecane inconspicua Segers & Dumont, 1993 (ref. ID; 2016)
  189. Lecane inermis (Bryce, 1892) (ref. ID; 1345, 1847, 2016, 2268, 2640, 2787, 2823, 2825, 2994, 3036, 3275, 3514, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 2890)
    Syn; Cathypna inermis Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3688); Distyla amorpha Karsinkin, 1925 (ref. ID; 3688); Distyla inermis Bryce, 1892 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3275, 3688); Lecane amorpha Harring, 1914 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3688) or Hauer, 1924 (ref. ID; 3688); Lecane inermis Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345, 3688); Lecane supinoi Manfredi, 1929 (ref. ID; 2016)
  190. Lecane infula Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 1351, 2016, 2393)
  191. Lecane (Hemimonostyla) inopinata Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 689, 696, 1312, 1345, 2016, 2265, 2283, 2797, 2820, 2825, 2914, 3125)
    See; Lecane braziliensis
    Syn; Lecane inopinata sympoda Wiszniewski, 1954 (ref. ID; 2825); Lecane sympoda Hauer, 1929 and 1938 (ref. ID; 2825), Lecane sympoda Wiszniewski, 1931 (ref. ID; 2825); Lecane sympoda Wulfert, 1966 (ref. ID; 2825)
  192. Lecane inopinata acanthinula Wiszniewski, 1954
    See; Lecane acanthinula (ref. ID; 2016)
  193. Lecane inopinata sympoda Wiszniewski, 1954
    See; Lecane inopinata (ref. ID; 2825)
  194. Lecane inopinata sympoda Hauer (ref. ID; 3039), f. sympoda (Hauer, 1929) (ref. ID; 1847)
  195. Lecane inquieta Myers, 1936 (ref. ID; 2016)
    See; Lecane clara
  196. Lecane intrasinuata (Olofsson, 1917) (ref. ID; 1345, 1351, 2016, 2268, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 3502)
    See; Lecane muscicola (ref. ID; 3449)
    Syn; Cathypna intrasinuata Olofsson, 1917 (ref. ID; 2016, 3688); Lecane ephestra Harring, 1921 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3688); Lecane muscicola Fadeew, 1927 (ref. ID; 1345, 3688); Lecane saginata Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 3688)
  197. Lecane islandica De Ridder, 1967 (ref. ID; 3275)
    See; Lecane mira (ref. ID; 2016)
  198. Lecane (Monostyla) ivli (Wiszniewski, 1935) (ref. ID; 1345, 2016)
    Syn; Lecane ivli Wiszniewski, 1954 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane vargai (Torok, 1935) Bancsi, 1988 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla ivli Wiszniewski, 1935 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016); Monostyla vargai Torok, 1935 (ref. ID; 2016)
  199. Lecane jaintiaensis Sharma, 1987 (ref. ID; 2016)
  200. Lecane jana Abdullaev, 1989
    See; Lecane hastata (ref. ID; 2016)
  201. Lecane janetzkyi Koste, Janetzky & Vareschi, 1991
    See; Lecane asymmetrica (ref. ID; 2016)
  202. Lecane jessupi Harring, 1912 (ref. ID; 1345) or Harring, 1921 (ref. ID; 2016, 2593)
    See; Lecane ligona (ref. ID; 2016)
  203. Lecane jobloti (Bory de St. Vincent, 1827)
    See; Lecane luna (ref. ID; 2016)
  204. Lecane jorroi (Arevalo, 1918) Wiszniewski, 1932
    See; Lecane ludwigii (ref. ID; 2016)
  205. Lecane (Hemimonostyla) junki Koste, 1975 (ref. ID; 2016, 2839 original paper)
  206. Lecane kahouteki Chengalath et al., 1974 (ref. ID; 2016)
  207. Lecane kieferi (Hauer, 1931)
    See; Lecane gwileti (ref. ID; 2016, 2906)
  208. Lecane (Hemimonostyla) kluchor Tarnogradsky, 1930 (ref. ID; 1412, 3449 original paper, 3688) or 1961 (ref. ID; 1856) reported year? (ref. ID; 2906, 3502) or Tarnogradski, 1930 (ref. ID; 2016)
    Syn; Lecane diadema Hauer, 1931 (ref. ID; 2016, 2906, 3688)
  209. Lecane (Hemimonostyla) kluchor syngenes Hauer, 1938 (ref. ID; 2807)
    Syn; Lecane (H.) syngenes nach Hauer, 1938 (ref. ID; 2807)
  210. Lecane korchelti (Mola, 1913) Mola, 1930 (ref. ID; 2016)
  211. Lecane kostei De Ridder, 1966 (ref. ID; 2823 original paper, 3275)
    See; Lecane latissima (ref. ID; 2016)
  212. Lecane kutikowa Koste, 1972 (ref. ID; 2016, 2545 original paper)
    Syn; Lecane kutikova Koste, 1978 (ref. ID; 2016)
  213. Lecane lamellata (Daday, 1893) (ref. ID; 1312, 1345, 2016, 2621, 3688) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 3197)
    Syn; Lecane appendiculata (Skorikov, 1898) (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla appendiculata Skorikov, 1898 (ref. ID; 2016) or Skorikow, 1898 (ref. ID; 3688); Monostyla lamellata Daday, 1893 (ref. ID; 2016, 2621, 3688)
  214. Lecane lamellata thalera (Harring & Myers, 1926) (ref. ID; 1806, 1847)
  215. Lecane lamiranoensis Berzins, 1982
    See; Lecane hornemanni (ref. ID; 2016, 2936)
  216. Lecane lankae Chengalath et al., 1974 (ref. ID; 2016)
  217. Lecane lateralis Sharma, 1978 (ref. ID; 688, 1324, 2016)
  218. Lecane latifrons (Gosse, 1887) (ref. ID; 1345) or (Gosse, 1887) Remane, 1932 (ref. ID; 2016)
    Syn; Cathypna latifrons Gosse, 1887 (ref. ID; 1345); Cathypna luna var. latifrons Sachse, 1912 (ref. ID; 1345)
  219. Lecane latissima Yamamoto, 1953 (ref. ID; 1312, 1448) or Yamamoto, 1955 (ref. ID; 2016)
    See; Lecane abanica
    Syn; Cathypna rotundata Oloffson, 1918 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane kostei De Ridder, 1966 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane rotundata (Olofsson, 1918) Remane, 1932 (ref. ID; 2016)
  220. Lecane latvica (Berzins, 1943) Voigt, 1957
    See; Lecane closterocerca (ref. ID; 2016)
  221. Lecane lauterborni Hauer, 1924 (ref. ID; 689, 1345, 1351, 1856, 2016, 2797, 3127, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 1450)
    Syn; Lecane rhytida Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2797)
  222. Lecane leontina (Turner, 1892) (ref. ID; 686, 696, 1345, 1351, 1836, 1847, 2016, 2261, 2265, 2599, 2704, 2714, 2749, 2757, 2787, 3145, 3180, 3181, 3514) reported year? (ref. ID; 2898, 3040) or (Tubner, 1892) (ref. ID; 3512)

    Quote from ref. ID; 2261

    Syn; Cathypna biloba Daday, 1905 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3145); Cathypna incisa Daday, 1905 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3145); Cathypna leontina Turner, 1892 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 2757, 3145, 3181, 3514); Cathypna leontina bisimata Daday, 1905 (ref. ID; 3145); Cathypna leontina var. bisinuata Daday, 1905 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016); Cathypna macrodactyla Daday, 1898 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3145); Cathypna scutaria Stokes, 1897 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3145); Lecane biloba (Daday, 1905) (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane incisa (Daday, 1905) (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane leontina Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3145); Lecane leontina bisinuata (Daday, 1905) (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane macrodactyla (Daday, 1898) (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane scutaria (Stokes, 1897) (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane thomassoni Wulfert, 1965 (ref. ID; 2016, 3514)

  223. Lecane levistyla (Olofsson, 1917) (ref. ID; 1345, 1836, 2016, 2268, 3147, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 1450, 3297) or Olofson (ref. ID; 2545)
    Syn; Cathypna levistyla Olofsson, 1917 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3688); Lecane levistyla Retowski, 1933 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3688); Lecane metopidia lepadella Jakubski, 1914 (ref. ID; 1345); Lecane mitis Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane scobis Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3297, 3688); Metopidia lepadella Jakubski, 1914 (ref. ID; 2016, 3688)
  224. Lecane ligona Dunlop, 1901 (ref. ID; 1345, 1814, 2016, 2599, 3688)
    Syn; Cathypna ligona Dunlop, 1901 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016); Lecane abnobensis Hauer, 1929 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane jessupi Harring, 1921 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane ligona Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016)
  225. Lecane lipara (Gosse, 1887)
    See; Lecane flexilis (ref. ID; 2016)
  226. Lecane lofuana (Murray, 1913) Harring, 1914
    See; Lecane curvicornis (ref. ID; 2016)
  227. Lecane logona (Dunlop) (ref. ID; 1345)
  228. Lecane longidactylus (or -la) Arora, 1965
    See; Lecane curvicornis (ref. ID; 2016)
  229. Lecane longidactyla (Edmondson, 1948) Segers, 1993
    See; Lecane clara (ref. ID; 2016)
  230. Lecane lordii (Gosse, 1886) Voigt, 1957 (ref. ID; 2016)
  231. Lecane ludwigi (Eckstein, 1833) (ref. ID; 2599) or 1883 (ref. ID; 689, 696, 1345, 1837, 2261, 2268, 2545, 2714, 2723, 2867, 3083, 3335, 3514) reported year? (ref. ID; 2683)

    Quote from ref. ID; 2261

    See; Lecane ludwigii comments (ref. ID; 2016)
    Syn; Cathypna ludwigi Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345); Distyla ludwigi Eckstein, 1883 (ref. ID; 1345, 3514); Distyla ornata Daday, 1897 (ref. ID; 1345); Distyla oxycauda Stenroos, 1898 (ref. ID; 1345); Lecane ludwigi Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345)

  232. Lecane ludwigii (Eckstein, 1883) (ref. ID; 2016, 2277, 2704, 3058, 3180, 3512) reported year? (ref. ID; 2932)
    Syn; Cathypna appendiculata Levander, 1894 (ref. ID; 2016); Cathypna jorroi Arevalo, 1918 (ref. ID; 2016); Cathypna stokesi Pell, 1890 (ref. ID; 2016); Diplax ornata Daday, 1897 (ref. ID; 2016); Distyla ichthyoura Anderson & Shephard, 1898 (ref. ID; 2016); Distyla ludwigii Eckstein, 1883 (ref. ID; 2016, 2277, 3058); Distyla ohioensis Herrick, 1885 (ref. ID; 2016); Distyla oxycauda Stenroos, 1898 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane appendiculata (Levander, 1894) Wiszniewski, 1954 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane ichthyoura (Anderson & Shephard, 1898) Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane jorroi (Arevalo, 1918) Wiszniewski, 1932 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane ludwigii Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane ercodes Harring, 1914 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane marshi Harring, 1914 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane ohioensis (Herrick, 1885) Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane ornata (Daday, 1897) (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane oxycauda Stenroos, 1898 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane stokesi (Pell, 1890) Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 2016)
  233. Lecane ludwigi ercodes (Harring 1914) n. comb. (ref. ID; 2703)
  234. Lecane ludwigi f. abrupta Hauer, 1938 (ref. ID; 1837) reported year? (ref. ID; 3688)
  235. Lecane ludwigi f. brevicaudata Hauer, 1937/38 (ref. ID; 696, 1345) reported year? (ref. ID; 3688)
  236. Lecane ludwigi f. lacinulata Hauer, 1937/38 (ref. ID; 696, 1345, 1839, 3688)
  237. Lecane ludwigi f. laticaudata Hauer, 1937/38 (ref. ID; 696, 1345) reported year? (ref. ID; 3688)
  238. Lecane ludwigi f. typica Hauer, 1937-1938 (ref. ID; 3688)
    Syn; Distyla ornata Daday, 1897 (ref. ID; 3688); Distyla oxycauda Stenroos, 1898 (ref. ID; 3688)
  239. Lecane ludwigi jorroi Wiszniewski, 1954 (ref. ID; 2803)
    See; Lecane ohioensis var. jorroi
  240. Lecane luna (O.F. Muller, 1776) (ref. ID; 689, 696, 1312, 1345, 1923, 1948, 2016, 2196, 2261, 2268, 2276, 2317, 2599, 2640, 2714, 2787, 2823, 2841, 2867, 2998, 3058, 3083, 3180, 3271, 3275, 3514, 3688) or 1786 (ref. ID; 2704) reported year? (ref. ID; 2890, 2932, 3141, 3208) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 3071, 3114, 3292), luna luna (ref. ID; 2757, 2898, 3039, 3255, 4606)

    Quote from ref. ID; 2261

    Quote from ref. ID; 3114

    Syn; Brachionus luna Blainville, 1830 (ref. ID; 3271) or Bleinville, 1830 (ref. ID; 3688); Cathypna latifrons Gosse, 1887 (ref. ID; 3271); Cathypna luna Gosse, 1886 (ref. ID; 1345, 2276, 2757, 2841, 3208, 3271, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 3141) or (O.F. Muller, 1776) (ref. ID; 3514); Cercaria luna O.F. Muller, 1776 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 2276, 2317, 3058, 3271, 3275, 3514, 3688); Euchlanis emarginata Eichwald, 1847 (ref. ID; 2016); Euchlanis luna Ehrenberg, 1832 (ref. ID; 1345, 3271, 3688); Furcocerca luna Lamarck, 1815 (ref. ID; 3688) or Lauterborn, 1815 (ref. ID; 3271); Furcularia jobloti Bory de St. Vincent, 1827 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane dorsicalis Arora, 1965 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane emarginata (Eichwald, 1847) (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane jobloti (Bory de St. Vincent, 1827) (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane luna balatonica Varga, 1945 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane luna Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 2016) or Nitzsch, 1827 (ref. ID; 1345, 3058, 3271); Lecane submagna De Ridder, 1960 (ref. ID; 2016); Trichocerca luna Bory de St. Vincent, 1826 (ref. ID; 3271, 3688)

  241. Lecane luna f. balatonica Varga, 1944 (ref. ID; 3688)
  242. Lecane luna f. dorsicalis (ref. ID; 696)
    Syn; Lecane dorsicalis Arora, 1965 (ref. ID; 696)
  243. Lecane luna var. presumpta Ahlstrom, 1938 (ref. ID; 1345, 2280, 2803) reported year? (ref. ID; 3502)
    See; Lecane papuana (ref. ID; 2016)

    Lecane (Monostyla) lunaris-group

    [ref. ID; 1450]
    Pejler shall here deal with L. lunaris (Ehrbg), L. constricta (Murray) and L. perplexa (Ahlstrom). These three species can be distinguished from one another partly by the shape of the lorica, partly by their size. However, since the shape of the lorica seems to a large degree to be a function of the size and is moreover dependent on the state of contraction, he has in attempting analyse the variation in the first place concentrated on size, more particularly the length of the lorica. The variation of the latter in the various waters appears. (ref. ID; 1450)
  244. Lecane (Monostyla) lunaris (Ehrenberg, 1832) (ref. ID; 696, 1312, 1345, 1923, 2016, 2064, 2196, 2198, 2265, 2268, 2317, 2599, 2640, 2700, 2757, 2787, 2823, 2841, 3060, 3127, 3180, 3271, 3275, 3514, 3688) or 1932 (ref. ID; 2714) reported year? (ref. ID; 1473, 2683, 2890, 2932, 2936, 3063, 3126, 3141, 3208, 3274, 3295, 3334, 3501, 3502) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 2825), lunaris lunaris (Ehrenberg) (ref. ID; 2834)
    Syn; Lecane acus (Harring, 1913) Myers, 1937 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane constricta (Murray, 1913) Myers, 1942 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane crenata (Harring, 1913) Edmondson, 1935 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane lunaris arthrodactyla Berzins, 1982 (ref. ID; 2016, 2936); Lecane lunaris australis Berzins, 1982 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane lunaris obserata (Steinecke, 1916) Voigt, 1957 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane perplexa (Ahlstrom, 1938) Myers, 1942 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane quennerstedti (Bergendal, 1892) (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane sylvatica (Harring, 1913) Wiszniewski, 1954 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane virga (Harring, 1914) (ref. ID; 2016); Lepadella lunaris Ehrenberg, 1832 (ref. ID; 1345, 2276, 2317, 3060, 3126, 3127, 3271, 3275, 3514, 3688); Monostyla bicornis Stenroos, 1898 (ref. ID; 3271); Monostyla constrida Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 3688); Monostyla lunaris Ehrenberg, 1832 (ref. ID; 2757, 3514) or 1838 (ref. ID; 1345, 3271, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 3208, 3274); Monostyla lunaris virga Fadeew, 1929 (ref. ID; 3688); Monostyla quennerstedti Bergendal, 1892 (ref. ID; 1345, 3271, 3688); Monostyla stenroosi Meissner, 1906 (ref. ID; 3271); Monostyla virga Fadeew, 1924 (ref. ID; 3688), Harring, 1914 (ref. ID; 1345, 3688) or Oparina-Charitonova, 1925 (ref. ID; 3688)
  245. Lecane lunaris arthrodactyla Berzins, 1982
    See; Lecane lunaris (ref. ID; 2016, 2936)
  246. Lecane lunaris f. aperta (Steinecke, 1916) Voigt, 1957
    See; Lecane obtusa (ref. ID; 2016)
  247. Lecane lunaris australis Berzins, 1982 (ref. ID; 4606 original paper)
    See; Lecane lunaris (ref. ID; 2016)
  248. Lecane lunaris constricta (Murray) (ref. ID; 1468)
  249. Lecane lunaris crenata Harring (ref. ID; 4606) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 1839), f. crenata (Harring, 1913) (ref. ID; 2016)
    See; Lecane crenata (ref. ID; 2016)
  250. Lecane lunaris crenorta (Harring, 1913) (ref. ID; 1847)
  251. Lecane lunaris obserata (Steinecke, 1916) Voigt, 1957
    See; Lecane lunaris (ref. ID; 2016)
  252. Lecane (Monostyla) lunaris perplexa Wiszniewski, 1954, f. perplexa (Ahlstrom, 1938) (ref. ID; 1472, 1837)
    See; Lecane perplexa (Ahlstrom, 1938) (ref. ID; 2802)

  253. Lecane macrodactyla (Daday, 1898)
    See; Lecane leontina (ref. ID; 2016)
  254. Lecane macrognatha (Schmarda, 1859) (ref. ID; 1345) or (Schmarda, 1859) Voigt, 1957 (ref. ID; 2016)
  255. Lecane magna (Stenroos, 1898) (ref. ID; 1345, 2824, 3275, 3572, 3688)
    Syn; Cathypna magna Stenroos, 1898 (ref. ID; 1345, 3275, 3688); Cathypna magna tenuior Stenroos, 1898 (ref. ID; 3688); Lecane magna Wulfert, 1940 (ref. ID; 1345); Lecane ungulata Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 1345)
  256. Lecane marchantaria Koste & Robertson, 1983 (ref. ID; 2016, 2808 original paper)
  257. Lecane margalefi (ref. ID; 1312 original paper, 2016)
  258. Lecane margarethae Segers, 1991 (ref. ID; 2016, 3508)
    See; Comments of Lecane harringi (ref. ID; 2935)
    Syn; Lecane deridderae Jose de Paggi, 1989 (ref. ID; 2016, 3508)
  259. Lecane marlieri Gillard, 1967 (ref. ID; 2016)
  260. Lecane marshi Harring, 1914 (ref. ID; 1345)
    See; Lecane ludwigii (ref. ID; 2016)
  261. Lecane matsaluensis Riikoja, 1933 (ref. ID; 2016, 3379 original paper)
  262. Lecane mawsoni Russell, 1958 (ref. ID; 2016, 3521 original paper)
  263. Lecane melini Thomasson, 1953 (ref. ID; 2016, 3089 original paper) or 1954 (ref. ID; 2265)
  264. Lecane methoria Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2599) reported year? (ref. ID; 3502)
    See; Lecane stichaea (ref. ID; 2016, 3263, 3688)
  265. Lecane minnesotensis (Herrick, 1885) (ref. ID; 2016)
  266. Lecane minnessotensis Decksbach, 1921
    See; Lecane ungulara Gosse, 1887 (ref. ID; 3688)
  267. Lecane minuta Segers, 1994 (ref. ID; 2016, 2922 original paper)
  268. Lecane mira (Murray, 1913) (ref. ID; 1345, 1352, 1474, 2016, 2994, 3036, 3144, 3263, 3514, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 1450)
    Syn; Cathypna mira Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345, 1351, 2016, 3688); Lecane islandica De Ridder, 1967 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane mira Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016)
  269. Lecane mitis Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 1345)
    See; Lecane levistyla (ref. ID; 2016)
  270. Lecane mollis (Gosse, 1887) (ref. ID; 2016)
  271. Lecane mologensis (Bogoslovsky, 1935) Kutikova, 1970
    See; Lecane furcata (ref. ID; 2016)
    Syn; Monostyla mologensis Bogoslovsky, 1935 (ref. ID; 2016)
  272. Lecane monostyla (Daday, 1897) (ref. ID; 1345, 1847, 2016, 2545, 2997, 3437) or 1905 (ref. ID; 3514)
    Syn; Diarthra monostyla Daday, 1897 (ref. ID; 2016, 3437) or 1905 (ref. ID; 3514); Lecane monostyla Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane spinifera (Idelson, 1924) (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla monostyla Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 2016, 3437); Monostyla spinifera Idelson, 1924 (ref. ID; 2016, 3437)
  273. Lecane mucronata Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2016, 2593, 2599)
  274. Lecane murrayi Hauer, 1965 (ref. ID; 2265, 2545)
    See; Lecane amazonica (ref. ID; 2016)
  275. Lecane murragi Korde (ref. ID; 3449)
    See; Lecane subtilis (ref. ID; 3449)
  276. Lecane murrayi Korde, 1927
    See; Lecane subtilis (ref. ID; 1345, 2016)
  277. Lecane muscicola (Bryce, 1891) (ref. ID; 1345) reported year? (ref. ID; 3449, 3501) or (Bryce, 1891) Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 2016)
    Syn; Lecane ephestra Harring (ref. ID; 3449); Lecane intrasinuata (Olofsson) (ref. ID; 3449)
  278. Lecane muscicola Fadeew, 1927
    See; Lecane intrasuinuata (ref. ID; 1345, 3688)
  279. Lecane myersi Segers, 1993 (ref. ID; 2016)
    Syn; Lecane ornata Voigt, 1957 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla ornata Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla ornata Wang, 1961 (ref. ID; 2016)
  280. Lecane mylacris Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 1345, 1814)
  281. Lecane myriophilli (Varga, 1945) Voigt, 1957 (ref. ID; 2016)
  282. Lecane namibiensis (Koste & Brain, 1993)
    See; Lecane hastata (ref. ID; 2016)
  283. Lecane nana (Murray, 1913) (ref. ID; 696, 1312, 1345, 1352, 2016, 2064, 2268, 2269, 2599, 2640, 2757, 2823, 2886, 2905, 2922, 3271, 3275, 3512, 3514, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 3502, 4606)
    See; Lecane abanica
    Syn; Cathypna nana Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345, 1351, 2016, 2757, 3271, 3275, 3688); Lecane nana Harring, 1914 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3688)
  284. Lecane nana var. monostyla Rodewald, 1940 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 2621 original paper, 3688)
  285. Lecane neali Wulfert, 1966 (ref. ID; 2064 original paper)
    See; Lecane crepida (ref. ID; 2016)
  286. Lecane nelsoni Segers, 1994 (ref. ID; 2016, 2922 original paper)
  287. Lecane nigeriensis Segers, 1993 (ref. ID; 2016, 2844 original paper)
  288. Lecane niothis Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2016, 3036)
  289. Lecane nitida (Murray, 1913) Harring, 1914
    See; Lecane curvicornis (ref. ID; 2016)
  290. Lecane nodosa Hauer, 1938 (ref. ID; 1352, 2016, 2064, 2393, 2545, 3083, 3514) or 1937/1938 (ref. ID; 2797) reported year? (ref. ID; 2834, 4606)
    See; Lecane hornemanni (ref. ID; 2016, 2936)
    Syn; Lecane hornemanni (Ehrenberg, 1834) (ref. ID; 2797)
  291. Lecane nwadiaroi Segers, 1993 (ref. ID; 2016, 2844 original paper)
  292. Lecane (Monostyla) obtusa (Murray, 1913) (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 2135, 2545, 3514), obtusa obtusa (ref. ID; 2807)
    Syn; Lecane lunaris f. aperta (Steinecke, 1916) Voigt, 1957 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane vastita (Harring & Myers, 1926) Wiszniewski, 1954 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla lunaris f. aperta Steinecke, 1916 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla obtusa Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3514); Monostyla vastita Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2016)
  293. Lecane ohioensis (Herrick, 1885) (ref. ID; 696, 1312, 1345, 1923, 2265, 2599, 2714, 2825, 3146, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 3021)
    See; Lecane ludwigii (ref. ID; 2016)
    Syn; Cathypna ohioensis Turner, 1892 (ref. ID; 1345, 3688); Distyla ohioensis Herrick, 1885 (ref. ID; 1345, 3688); Lecane ohioensis Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345, 3688)
  294. Lecane ohioensis appendiculata (Levander, 1894) (ref. ID; 2886)
  295. Lecane ohioensis f. ichthyoura (Anderson & Shepard) (ref. ID; 1312) or (Anderson & Shephard) (ref. ID; 6846)
    See; Lecane ichthyoura (ref. ID; 2797)
  296. Lecane ohioensis var. jorroi Arevalo, 1918 (ref. ID; 1345, 2803, 3044) reported year? (ref. ID; 3502)
    Syn; Lecane ichthyoura Hauer, 1925 (ref. ID; 2803); Lecane ludwigi jorroi Wiszniewski, 1954 (ref. ID; 2803)
  297. Lecane oophthalma (Schmarda, 1859) (ref. ID; 1345) or (Schmarda, 1859) Voigt, 1957 (ref. ID; 2016)
  298. Lecane (Monostyla) opias (Harring & Myers, 1926) (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 2824, 3144, 3275, 3335, 3437, 3506, 3688)
    Syn; Lecane opias Myers, 1942 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla opias Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3275, 3688)
  299. Lecane ordwayi Bienert, 1986 (ref. ID; 2016)
  300. Lecane ornata (Daday, 1897)
    See; Lecane ludwigii (ref. ID; 2016)
  301. Lecane (Monostyla) ornata (Harring & Myers, 1926) (ref. ID; 1345, 2834)
    See; Lecane myersi (ref. ID; 2016)
  302. Lecane ovalis (Jakubski, 1914)
    See; Lecane furcata (ref. ID; 2016)
    Syn; Monostyla ovalis Jakubski, 1914 (ref. ID; 2016)
  303. Lecane ovata (Forbes, 1893) Voigt, 1957 (ref. ID; 2016)
  304. Lecane oxycauda Stenroos, 1898
    See; Lecane ludwigii (ref. ID; 2016)
  305. Lecane ozensis Yamamoto, 1953 (ref. ID; 3055 original paper)
    See; Lecane paradoxa (ref. ID; 2016)
  306. Lecane ozolini (Berzins, 1943) Kutikova, 1970
    See; Lecane bulla (ref. ID; 2016)
  307. Lecane palinacis Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2016, 3127)
  308. Lecane papuana (Murray, 1913) (ref. ID; 689, 696, 1352, 1448, 2016, 2064, 2251, 2265, 2339, 2385, 2545, 2714, 3083, 3180, 3514) reported year? (ref. ID; 3039, 3387, 3502, 3513), misspelling? pupuana Murray (ref. ID; 3449)
    Syn; Cathypna papuana Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 1351, 2016, 2064, 2385); Lecane luna var. presumpta Ahlstrom, 1938 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane papuana Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2064); Lecane yamunensis Novotna-Dvorakova, 1962 (ref. ID; 2016)
  309. Lecane paraclosterocerca Pennac, 1939 (ref. ID; 3083) reported year? (ref. ID; 1345) or (Pennak, 1939) Voigt, 1957 (ref. ID; 2016)
    See; Lecane pyriformis (ref. ID; 2016)
  310. Lecane paradecipiens (Nayar, 1968)
    See; Lecane thalera (ref. ID; 2016)
  311. Lecane paradoxa (Steinecke, 1924) (ref. ID; 1345) or (Steinecke, 1916) (ref. ID; 2016, 2628)
    Syn; Lecane hoffmanni De Ridder, 1960 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane ozensis Yamamoto, 1953 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane paradoxa Voigt, 1957 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla lunaris var. paradoxa Steinecke, 1916 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 2628); Monostyla paradoxa Steinecke, 1924 (ref. ID; 2016, 2628)
  312. Lecane parva Daday, 1897
    See; Lecane galeata (ref. ID; 2016)
  313. Lecane pauliana Berzins, 1960 (ref. ID; 2016)
  314. Lecane (Monostyla) pawlowskii Wulfert, 1966 (ref. ID; 696, 2016, 2064 original paper)
  315. Lecane paxiana Hauer, 1940 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 2720, 2905 original paper)
    See; Lecane abanica
  316. Lecane pelatis Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2894)
  317. Lecane (Monostyla) perplexa (Ahlstrom, 1938) (ref. ID; 1345, 1473, 2064, 2281, 2802, 3275, 3335, 3514) reported year? (ref. ID; 3402) or (Ahlstrom, 1938) Myers, 1942 (ref. ID; 2016)
    See; Lecane lunaris (ref. ID; 2016)
    Syn; Lecane lunaris perplexa Wiszniewski, 1954 (ref. ID; 2802); Monostyla perplexa Ahlstrom, 1938 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3275, 3514)
  318. Lecane (Monostyla) perpusilla (Hauer, 1929) (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3180, 3335, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 3449, 3501, 3502)
    Syn; Lecane brevita Myers, 1942 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane perpusilla Wiszniewski, 1936 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane subulata f. perpusilla Koste, 1978 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla perpusilla Hauer, 1929 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3688); Monostyla subulata perpusilla Koste & Shiel, 1990 (ref. ID; 2016)
  319. Lecane pertica Harring, 1914 (ref. ID; 1839), Harring & Myers, 1901 (ref. ID; 3514) or 1926 (ref. ID; 2016, 2545)
  320. Lecane physalis Wulfert, 1939 (ref. ID; 1345)
    See; Lecane bulla (ref. ID; 2016)
  321. Lecane piepelsi De Smet & Bafort, 1990
    See; Lecane arcuata (ref. ID; 2016)
  322. Lecane pideis (Harring & Myers, 1926) (ref. ID; 1345, 2016)
    Syn; Monostyla pideis Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2016)
  323. Lecane piovanellii Bartos, 1957 (ref. ID; 2016, 2718 original paper)
  324. Lecane plesia Myers, 1936 (ref. ID; 1345)
    See; Lecane hastata (ref. ID; 2016)
  325. Lecane plesiaides Chengalath & Fernando, 1973 (ref. ID; 2016, 2714 original paper)
  326. Lecane ploenensis (Voigt, 1902) (ref. ID; 2714, 3181, 3275, 3514, 3688), 1904 (ref. ID; 3512) or 1912 (ref. ID; 696, 1345, 2064, 2265, 2268, 2599, 3180) reported year? (ref. ID; 2977, 3387)
    See; Lecane signifera (ref. ID; 3514)
    Syn; Cathypna ploenensis Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345, 3688); Diglena ploenensis Voigt, 1902 (ref. ID; 3275); Distyla affinis Lucks, 1912 (ref. ID; 1345, 3688); Distyla ploenensis Voigt, 1902 (ref. ID; 1345, 3181, 3688); Lecane ploenensis Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345); Lecane ploenensis Wiszniewski, 1954 (ref. ID; 3688)
  327. Lecane pomiformis Edmondson, 1938 (ref. ID; 2016, 2772 original paper, 3126)
    See; Lecane pyriformis (ref. ID; 2016)
  328. Lecane prehensor (Gosse, 1887) (ref. ID; 2016)
  329. Lecane proiecta Hauer, 1956 (ref. ID; 2016, 2265) or 1952 (ref. ID; 3125 original paper)
  330. Lecane (Monostyla) psammophila (Wiszniewski, 1932) (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3297, 3688)
    Syn; Lecane psammophila Myers, 1942 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane fadeewi Voigt, 1957 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla fadeevi Neiswestonova-Shadina, 1935 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla fadeewi Neiswestonova-Shadina, 1935 (ref. ID; 1345) or Neiswestnowa-Shadina, 1935 (ref. ID; 3688); Monostyla psammophila Wiszniewski, 1932 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3297, 3688)
  331. Lecane pumila (Rousselet, 1906) (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 2886, 3688)
    Syn; Notommata pumila Rousselet, 1906 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3688); Lecane pumila Hauer, 1936 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3688)
  332. Lecane punctata Carlin-Nilsson, 1934
    See; Lecane tenuiseta (ref. ID; 2016, 3263, 3688)
  333. Lecane (Monostyla) punctata (Murray, 1913) (ref. ID; 1312, 1345, 2016, 2317, 2935) reported year? (ref. ID; 3502)
    Syn; Lecane aguessei De Ridder, 1960 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane harringi (Ahlstrom, 1934) Wiszniewski, 1954 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla harringi Ahlstrom, 1934 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla punctata Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016)
  334. Lecane pupuana (Murray) (ref. ID; 3449) misspelling? (= papuana)
  335. Lecane pusilla Harring, 1914 (ref. ID; 696, 2016, 2317, 2714) reported year? (ref. ID; 3039)
  336. Lecane pygmaea Daday, 1897 (ref. ID; 1345, 2280, 3060, 3508) or 1901 (ref. ID; 3688), (Daday, 1897) Myers, 1937 (ref. ID; 2016, 2064)
    See; Lecane galeata (ref. ID; 2016, 2064, 3508)
    Syn; Monostyla pygmaea Daday, 1901 (ref. ID; 3688)
  337. Lecane (Monostyla) pygmaea (Murray) (ref. ID; 3502)
  338. Lecane pygmaea Myers, 1937
    See; Lecane galeata (ref. ID; 3688)
  339. Lecane pygmaea Pawlowski, 1938
    See; Lecane galeata (ref. ID; 3688)
  340. Lecane (Monostyla) pyriformis (Daday, 1905) (ref. ID; 696, 1312, 1345, 2016, 2261, 2269, 2284, 2317, 2385, 2545, 2599, 2922, 3180, 3514, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 2890, 3449, 3501, 3502, 3523, 4606, 4607), (Daday, 1905) Edmondson, 1936 (ref. ID; 6846)

    Quote from ref. ID; 2261

    See; Lecane minuta
    Syn; Lecane paraclosterocerca Pennak, 1939 (ref. ID; 6846), (Pennak, 1939) Voigt, 1957 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane pomiformis Edmondson, 1938 (ref. ID; 2016, 6846); Lecane pyriformis Edmondson, 1936 (ref. ID; 3688); Monostyla pyriformis Daday, 1905 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3514, 3688, 6846); Monostyla truncata Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345, 3688), Turner 1892 sensu Murray 1913 (ref. ID; 6846)

  341. Lecane pyrrha Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2016, 2593) reported year? (ref. ID; 4606)
  342. Lecane (Monostyla) quadridentata (Ehrenberg, 1832) (ref. ID; 689, 696, 1312, 1345, 1923, 2016, 2064, 2261, 2265, 2268, 2269, 2339, 2385, 2599, 2642, 2704, 2714, 2757, 2787, 2816, 2825, 2867, 3060, 3180, 3255, 3271, 3437, 3512, 3514, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 2889, 2936, 3239, 3241, 3502, 3523) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 3292, 6846)

    Quote from ref. ID; 2261

    Syn; Lecane bicornis (Daday, 1897) (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane quadridentata Edmondson, 1935 (ref. ID; 2016, 3688); Lecane quadridentata arthrodactyla Berzins, 1982 (ref. ID; 2016, 2936); Lecane sexidentata (Van Oye, 1926) Wiszniewski, 1954 (ref. ID; 2016); Lepadella cornuta Schmarda, 1859 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3271, 3688); Metopidia cornuta Hudson & Gosse, 1889 (ref. ID; 1345, 3271, 3688); Monostyla bicornis Daday, 1897 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3271, 3514, 3688); Monostyla quadridentata Ehrenberg, 1832 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 2757, 3271, 3514, 3688); Monostyla sexidentata Van Oye, 1926 (ref. ID; 2016)

  343. Lecane quadridentata arthrodactyla Berzins, 1982 (ref. ID; 4606 original paper)
    See; Lecane quadridentata (ref. ID; 2016, 2936)
  344. Lecane quadridentata f. gigantea Koste, 1988 (ref. ID; 2797 original paper)
  345. Lecane quadridentatus (ref. ID; 3114)

    Quote from ref. ID; 3114

  346. Lecane quennerstedti (Bergendal, 1892)
    See; Lecane lunaris (ref. ID; 2016)
  347. Lecane remanei Hauer, 1964 (ref. ID; 2016, 2265, 2545)
  348. Lecane rhacois Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2016, 3128)
  349. Lecane rhenana Hauer, 1929 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 2797)
  350. Lecane rhopalura (Harring & Myers, 1926) (ref. ID; 2016) reported year? (ref. ID; 2913, 4604)
    Syn; Lecane aspersa Kutikova & Arov, 1985 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane rhopalura Wiszniewski, 1954 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla rhopalura Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref, ID; 2016)
  351. Lecane rhytida Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 1324, 2016, 2265, 2545, 3514) reported year? (ref. ID; 4606)
    See; Lecane lauterborni Hauer, 1924 (ref. ID; 2797)
  352. Lecane robertsonae Segers, 1993 (ref. ID; 2016)
    Syn; Lecane aspasia amazonica Koste & Robertson, 1983 (ref. ID; 2016)
  353. Lecane robusta (Stokes, 1896) (ref. ID; 1345)
    See; Lecane cornuta (ref. ID; 2016)
    Syn; Monostyla robusta Stokes, 1896 (ref. ID; 2016)
  354. Lecane rotunda (Fadeev, 1927) Voigt, 1957 (ref. ID; 2016)
    Syn; Monostyla rotunda Fadeev, 1927 (ref. ID; 2016)
  355. Lecane rotundata (Jakubski, 1914)
    See; Lecane cornuta (ref. ID; 2016)
    Syn; Monostyla rotundata Jakubski, 1914 (ref. ID; 2016)
  356. Lecane rotundata Olofsson, 1918 (ref. ID; 1345, 1450, 1499) reported year? (ref. ID; 2936) or (Olofsson, 1918) Remane, 1932 (ref. ID; 2016)
    See; Lecane latissima (ref. ID; 2016)
  357. Lecane rudescui Hauer, 1965 (ref. ID; 2016, 2265, 2809)
  358. Lecane (Monostyla) rugosa (Harring, 1914) (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 2282, 2545, 2703, 2797)
    Syn; Lecane rugosa Wisznieski, 1954 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla rugosa Harring, 1914 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016)
  359. Lecane rusticola (Gosse, 1886) (ref. ID; 1345) or (Gosse, 1886) Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 2016)
    Syn; Cathypna rusticula Gosse, 1886 (ref. ID; 1345); Lecane rusticola Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345)
  360. Lecane ruttneri Hauer, 1938 (ref. ID; 1831, 2016, 2261, 2545, 2923, 3083) reported year? (ref. ID; 2936)

    Quote from ref. ID; 2261

    See; Lecane abanica

  361. Lecane rylovi Tarnogradsky, 1961 (ref. ID; 3502 original paper) reported year? (ref. ID; 3502) or Tarnogradski, 1961 (ref. ID; 2016)
    See; Lecane subulata
  362. Lecane saginata Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 1345, 1847, 3144)
    See; Lecane intrasinuata (ref. ID; 3688), Lecane stichaea (ref. ID; 2016)
  363. Lecane sagula Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 1856, 2016) reported year? (ref. ID; 3502)
  364. Lecane satyrus Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 1352, 2016, 2393, 2593, 2787, 2796)
  365. Lecane schraederi Wulfert, 1966 (ref. ID; 2016, 2064 original paper)
  366. Lecane scobis Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 3239)
    See; Lecane levistyla (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3297, 3688)
  367. Lecane scutaria (Stokes, 1897)
    See; Lecane leontina (ref. ID; 2016)
  368. Lecane (Monostyla) scutata (Harring & Myers, 1926) (ref. ID; 1345, 1450, 2016, 2371, 2545, 2597, 3514, 3688)
    Syn; Lecane scutata Myers, 1942 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane stroeszneri (Torok, 1935) Bancsi, 1988 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla scutata Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 1345, 3514, 3688); Monostyla stroeszneri Torok, 1935 (ref. ID; 2016)
  369. Lecane (Monostyla) serrata (Hauer, 1933) (ref. ID; 1324, 1345, 2016)
    Syn; Lecane decipiens serrata Wiszniewski, 1954 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla serrata Hauer, 1933 (ref. ID; 2016)
  370. Lecane serrata f. echinata Koste, 1988 (ref. ID; 2797 original paper)
  371. Lecane sexidentata (Van Oye, 1926) Wiszniewski, 1954
    See; Lecane quadridentata (ref. ID; 2016)
  372. Lecane shieli Segers & Sanoamuang, 1994 (ref. ID; 1831, 2016, 2199 original paper)
  373. Lecane sibina Harring, 1914 (ref. ID; 1830, 2016, 2891)
  374. Lecane signifera (Jennings, 1896) (ref. ID; 1324, 2016, 2599, 3295 original paper Distyla signifera, 3514) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 3370), signifera signifera Jennings (ref. ID; 4604)
    Syn; Cathypna ploenensis Myers, 1913 (ref. ID; 2016); Cathypna signifera Myers, 1913 (ref. ID; 2016); Distyla signifera Jennings, 1896 (ref. ID; 2016, 3295); Distyla ploenensis Voigt, 1902 (ref. ID; 2016, 3514); Lecane aquila Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane ploenensis (Voigt, 1902) (ref. ID; 3514) or (Voigt, 1902) Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane signifera Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane signifera glandulosa Sudzuki, 1991 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane signifera ploenensis (Voigt, 1902) (ref. ID; 3514)
  375. Lecane signifera glandulosa Sudzuki, 1991 (ref. ID; 3083 original paper)
    See; Lecane signifera (ref. ID; 2016)
  376. Lecane signifera ploenensis Voigt, 1902 (ref. ID; 1324, 1847, 3514) reported year? (ref. ID; 4606), var. ploenensis (ref. ID; 2834)
    See; Lecane signifera (ref. ID; 3514)
    Syn; Distyla ploenensis Voigt, 1902 (ref. ID; 2834)
  377. Lecane similis Russell, 1958 (ref. ID; 1709, 2016, 2284 original paper)
  378. Lecane simonneae Segers, 1993 (ref. ID; 2016, 2844 original paper, 2923)
  379. Lecane (Monostyla) sinuata (Hauer, 1938) (ref. ID; 696, 1345, 2064) or (Hauer, 1937/38) (ref. ID; 2807)
    Syn; Lecane hamata var. sinuata Koste, 1978 (ref. ID; 2807); Monostyla sinuata Hauer, 1938 (ref. ID; 2064)
  380. Lecane sinuata (Hauer, 1938) Voigt, 1957
    See; Lecane hamata (ref. ID; 2016)
  381. Lecane sinuosa Nogrady, 1957 (ref. ID; 2016, 2751 original paper)
  382. Lecane sola Hauer, 1936 (ref. ID; 1831, 2016, 2064, 2797, 2903 original paper)
  383. Lecane solfatara (Hauer, 1938) (ref. ID; 2016)
    Syn; Monostyla solfatara, 1938 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane solfatara Wiszniewski, 1954 (ref. ID; 2016)
  384. Lecane spenceri (Shepard, 1892) (ref. ID; 1829, 2016)
  385. Lecane (Monostyla) spinifera Edmondson, 1934 (ref. ID; 2939 original paper)
    See; Lecane spinulifera (ref. ID; 2016, 2760)
  386. Lecane spinifera Harring, 1913
    See; Wolga spinifera (ref. ID; 1345)
  387. Lecane (Monostyla) spinifera (Idelson, 1924) (ref. ID; 2760)
    See; Lecane monostyla (ref. ID; 2016)
    Syn; Monostyla monostyla Daday, 1897 (ref. ID; 2760)
  388. Lecane spiniventris Segers, 1994 (ref. ID; 2016, 2922 original paper)
  389. Lecane spinulifera Edmondson, 1935 (ref. ID; 2016, 2760, 2833)
    Syn; Lecane aliger Nogrady, 1983 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane spinifera Edmondson, 1934 (ref. ID; 2016, 2760)
  390. Lecane (Monostyla) stenroosi (Meissner, 1908) (ref. ID; 689, 696, 1345, 2016, 2064, 2135, 2251, 2317, 2599, 2640, 2714, 2723, 3180, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 3448, 3502) or (Meiszner, 1908) (ref. ID; 3335, 3514)
    Syn; Lecane bicornis (Stenroos, 1898) (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane stenroosi Wiszniewski, 1953 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla bicornis Stenroos, 1898 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3688); Monostyla stenroosi Meissner, 1908 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3688) or Meiszner, 1908 (ref. ID; 3514)
  391. Lecane stephensae (Hutchinson, 1931) (ref. ID; 2016)
    Syn; Lecane stephensae Wiszniewski, 1954 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla stephensae Hutchinson, 1931 (ref. ID; 2016)
  392. Lecane stichaea Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345, 1450, 2016, 2808, 3263, 3506, 3514, 3688)
    Syn; Lecane methoria Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2016, 3263, 3688); Lecane saginata Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane stichaeoides Hauer, 1938 (ref. ID; 3514); Lecane stichnaeoides Hauer, 1938 (ref. ID; 3688)
  393. Lecane stichaea var. amazonica Koste, 1978
    See; Lecane eutarsa (ref. ID; 2016)
  394. Lecane stichaeoides Hauer, 1938 (ref. ID; 1830, 2808)
    See; Lecane haliclysta (ref. ID; 2016), Lecane stichaea (ref. ID; 3514)
    Syn; Lecane aspasia Myers, 1917 (ref. ID; 2808); Lecane stichaea after Koste, 1981 (ref. ID; 2808); Lecane stichaea f. stichoides (Hauer 1938) after Koste, 1978; (ref. ID; 2808)
  395. Lecane stichnaeoides Hauer, 1938
    See; Lecane stichaea (ref. ID; 3688)
  396. Lecane stichoclysta Segers, 1993 (ref. ID; 2016, 2844 original paper)
  397. Lecane stokesi (Pell, 1890) (ref. ID; 1345) or (Pell, 1890) Harring, 1913, stokesii (Pell, 1890) (ref. ID; 2599)
    See; Lecane ludwigii (ref. ID; 2016)
    Syn; Cathypna stokesi Pell, 1890 (ref. ID; 1345); Distyla stokesi Jennings, 1894 (ref. ID; 1345); Lecane stokesi Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345)
  398. Lecane strandi Berzins, 1943
    See; Lecane arcula (ref. ID; 2016)
  399. Lecane striata (Gosse, 1887) Voigt, 1957 (ref. ID; 2016)
  400. Lecane stroeszneri (Torok, 1935) Bancsi, 1988
    See; Lecane scutata (ref. ID; 2016)
  401. Lecane (Monostyla) styrax (Harring & Myers, 1926) (ref. ID; 689, 2284, 2317, 2385, 3127, 3181) or (Harring & Myers, 1926) Wiszniewski, 1954 (ref. ID; 2016)
    See; Lecane bulla styrax, Lecane bulla (ref. ID; 2016)
  402. Lecane styrax longistyla (Weisig, 1928) Kutikova, 1970
    See; Lecane bulla (ref. ID; 2016)
  403. Lecane submagna De Ridder, 1960 (ref. ID; 2935)
    See; Lecane luna (ref. ID; 2016)
  404. Lecane subtilis Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3180, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 3449, 3501, 3502)
    Syn; Lecane apatinensis Zivkovic, 1987 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane murragi Korde (ref. ID; 3449); Lecane murrayi Korde, 1927 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016)
  405. Lecane (Monostyla) subulata (Harring & Myers, 1926) (ref. ID; 2016, 3006, 3506, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 1345, 3449, 3501, 3502)
    Syn; Lecane rylovi Tarnogradski, 1961 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane subulata Hauer, 1929 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla subulata Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2016)
  406. Lecane sulcata (Gosse, 1886) (ref. ID; 1345, 3688) or (Gosse, 1886) Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 2016)
    Syn; Cathypna sulcata Gosse, 1886 (ref. ID; 1345) or Hudson & Gosse, 1886 (ref. ID; 3688); Lecane sulcata Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345, 3688)
  407. Lecane supinoi Manfredi, 1929
    See; Lecane inermis (ref. ID; 2016)
  408. Lecane sverigis Ahlstrom, 1934
    See; Lecane ungulata (ref. ID; 2016, 3688)
  409. Lecane syerigis Ahlstrom, 1934 (ref. ID; 1352)
  410. Lecane sylvatica (Harring, 1913) Wiszniewski, 1954
    See; Lecane lunaris (ref. ID; 2016)
  411. Lecane sylviae Segers, 1993 (ref. ID; 2016, 2844 original paper)
  412. Lecane symoensi De Ridder, 1981 (ref. ID; 3514 original paper)
  413. Lecane (Hemimonostyla) sympoda Hauer, 1929 (ref. ID; 696, 1345, 1923, 2016, 2064, 2268, 2545, 2599, 2714, 2914, 3125, 3180, 3514) reported year? (ref. ID; 3502)
    See; Lecane braziliensis
  414. Lecane syngenes (Hauer, 1938) (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 2545) reported year? (ref. ID; 2646)
    See; Lecane kluchor syngenes (ref. ID; 2807)
    Syn; Monostyla syngenes Hauer, 1938 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane (H.) kluchor var. syngenes Koste, 1978 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane (M.) syngenes Koste, 1972 (ref. ID; 2016)
  415. Lecane tabida Harring & Myers (ref. ID; 1830, 2016, 2265, 2683)
  416. Lecane tabulifera Edmondson, 1936 (ref. ID; 2771 original paper)
  417. Lecane tasmaniensis Shiel & Koste, 1985 (ref. ID; 1709)
    See; Lecane eylesi (ref. ID; 2016)
  418. Lecane tenua Myers, 1936 (ref. ID; 2016)
    See; Lecane clara
  419. Lecane tenuiseta Harring, 1914 (ref. ID; 1312, 1345, 1836, 1909, 2016, 2268, 2371, 2787, 2837, 2994, 3128, 3263, 3514, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 3271, 3449, 3502, 4607)
    Syn; Lecane aeganea Harring, 1914 (ref. ID; 1345, 3688); Lecane aegenea Fadeew, 1924 (ref. ID; 3263, 3688); Lecane elongata Pawlowski, 1938 (ref. ID; 3688); Lecane punctata Carlin-Nilsson, 1934 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3263, 3688)
  420. Lecane tenuiseta f. punctata (Carlin-Nilsson) (ref. ID; 3502)
  421. Lecane terracianoi (Mola, 1913) Mola, 1930 (ref. ID; 2016)
  422. Lecane tesselata Arora, 1965
    See; Lecane curvicornis (ref. ID; 2016)
  423. Lecane testudinea (Mola, 1913) Voigt, 1957 (ref. ID; 2016)
  424. Lecane (Monostyla) tethis (Harring & Myers, 1926) (ref. ID; 689, 2281) or (Harring & Myers, 1926) Wiszniewski, 1954 (ref. ID; 2016)
    See; Lecane furcata (ref. ID; 2016)
    Syn; Monostyla tethis Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2016)
  425. Lecane thailandesis Segers & Sanoamuang, 1994 (ref. ID; 1831, 2016, 2199 original paper)
  426. Lecane (Monostyla) thalera Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 696, 1345, 2016, 2621, 2812, 3125, 3688)
    Syn; Lecane conspicua (Hauer, 1936) Wiszniewski, 1954 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane lamellata thalera Koste, 1978 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane paradecipiens (Nayar, 1968) (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla conspicua (Hauer, 1936) (ref. ID; 2016, 3125); Monostyla lamellata var. Bryce, 1924 (ref. ID; 3688); Monostyla paradecipiens Nayar, 1968 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla thalera Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 2621, 3688); Monostyla thalera Rodewald, 1940 (ref. ID; 3688)
  427. Lecane thetis (Harring & Myers, 1926) (ref. ID; 1345, 2268)
  428. Lecane (Monostyla) thienemanni (Hauer, 1938) (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 2064, 3180) or 1937 (ref. ID; 2797)
    Syn; Lecane thienemanni Wiszniewski, 1954 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla thienemanni Hauer, 1938 (ref. ID; 2016)
  429. Lecane thomassoni Wulfert, 1965 (ref. ID; 2135 original paper)
    See; Lecane leontina (ref. ID; 2016, 3514)
  430. Lecane triloba Yamamoto, 1951 (ref. ID; 3054 original paper)
    See; Lecane curvicornis (ref. ID; 2016)
  431. Lecane triphema Harring & Myers (ref. ID; 2922)
    See; Lecane abanica
  432. Lecane truncata (Leissling, 1914) Harring & Myers, 1926
    See; Lecane depressa (ref. ID; 2016)
  433. Lecane truncata (Turner, 1892) (ref. ID; 2016)
  434. Lecane truncata Yamamoto, 1953 (ref. ID; 3055 original paper)
    See; Lecane depressa (ref. ID; 2016)
  435. Lecane tryphema Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3688)
  436. Lecane tudicola Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 1345, 1474, 2599, 2787, 2906, 3127, 3335) reported year? (ref. ID; 3502)
    See; Lecane depressa (ref. ID; 2016)
    Syn; Metopidia lepadella Jakubski, 1915 (ref. ID; 1345)
  437. Lecane (Monostyla) turbo Murray, 1913
    See; Lecane galeata (ref. ID; 2016)
  438. Lecane tuxeni De Ridder, 1970 (ref. ID; 2016, 3275, 3532 original paper)
  439. Lecane uenoi Yamamoto, 1951 (ref. ID; 2016, 2914, 2922, 3054 original paper)
    See; Lecane minuta
    Syn; Lecane rugosa (Harring, 1914) after Koste (1974) (ref. ID; 2914)
  440. Lecane (Hemimonostyla) undulata Hauer 1937/38 (ref. ID; 1324, 1345) or Hauer, 1938 (ref. ID; 2016, 3180, 3512, 3514)
  441. Lecane (Monostyla) unguitata (Fadeew, 1925) (ref. ID; 696, 1324, 2064, 2797) or (Fadeev, 1925) (ref. ID; 2016, 3180, 3514)
    Syn; Lecane unguitata Wiszniewski, 1954 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane unguitata africana Koste, 1978 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla unguitata Fadeev, 1925 (ref. ID; 2016, 3514) or Fadeew, 1925 (ref. ID; 2064)
  442. Lecane unguitata africana (ref. ID; 1839)
    See; Lecane unguitata (ref. ID; 2016)
  443. Lecane ungulata (Gosse, 1887) (ref. ID; 689, 696, 1345, 2016, 2064, 2265, 2268, 2599, 2704, 2714, 2787, 2816, 2891, 2894, 3083, 3180, 3275, 3335, 3512, 3514, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 2932, 2936, 3040, 3502), ungulata ungulata (Gosse, 1887) (ref. ID; 1837, 2757)
    Syn; Cathypna glandulosa Stokes, 1897 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3688); Cathypna magna Lucks, 1912 (ref. ID; 2016); Cathypna magna Stenroos, 1898 (ref. ID; 2016); Cathypna magna tenuior Stenroos, 1898 (ref. ID; 2016); Cathypna minnesotensis Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345, 3688); Cathypna ungulata Gosse, 1887 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 2757, 3275, 3512, 3514, 3688); Cathypna ungulata magna Lucks, 1912 (ref. ID; 3688), var. magna Sachse, 1912 (ref. ID; 1345); Distyla minnessotensis Herrick, 1885 (ref. ID; 3688); Lecane donnerianus Dhanapathi, 1976 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane grandulosa (Stokes, 1897) (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane fracida Berzins, 1982 (ref. ID; 2016, 2936); Lecane minnessotensis Decksbach, 1921 (ref. ID; 3688); Lecane sverigis Ahlstrom, 1934 (ref. ID; 2016, 3688); Lecane ungulata Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3688); Lecane ungulata magna Rylov, 1926 (ref. ID; 3688); Lecane ungulata var. australiensis Koste & Shiel, 1990 (ref. ID; 2016)
  444. Lecane ungulata (Mola, 1913) Voigt, 1957 (ref. ID; 2016)
  445. Lecane ungulata curvicornis Berzins, 1959
    See; Lecane curvicornis (ref. ID; 2016)
  446. Lecane ungulata curvicornis (Murray, 1913) (ref. ID; 3516) reported year? (ref. ID; 2898, 3039)
  447. Lecane ungulata magna Rylov, 1926
    See; Lecane ungulata Gosse, 1887 (ref. ID; 3688)
  448. Lecane ungulata var. australiensis Koste, 1979 (ref. ID; 2891 original paper)
  449. Lecane (Monostyla) unquitata Fadeew, 1925 (ref. ID; 2714)
    See; Lecane blachei
  450. Lecane urna Nogrady, 1962 (ref. ID; 2016, 2597 original paper)
  451. Lecane vandenbrandei (Gillard, 1957) (ref. ID; 2016, 3512 original paper)
  452. Lecane vanmeeli De Ridder, 1960 (ref. ID; 2016, 2821 original paper)
  453. Lecane vanoyei De Ridder, 1960 (ref. ID; 2016)
    See; Lecane furcata (ref. ID; 2016)
  454. Lecane vargai (Torok, 1935) Bancsi, 1988
    See; Lecane ivli (ref. ID; 2016)
  455. Lecane vasishti Sharma, 1980 (ref. ID; 3339 original paper)
    See; Lecane crepida (ref. ID; 2016)
  456. Lecane vastita (Harring & Myers, 1926) (ref. ID; 1345) or (Harring & Myers, 1926) Wiszniewski, 1954
    See; Lecane obtusa (ref. ID; 2016)
  457. Lecane venusta Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2016)
  458. Lecane verecunda Chengalath & Fernando (1973) (ref. ID; 2016)
  459. Lecane verecunda Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 696, 2016, 2283, 2317, 2599, 2714, 3688)
  460. Lecane virga (Harring, 1914)
    See; Lecane lunaris (ref. ID; 2016)
  461. Lecane weberi (Mola, 1913) Mola, 1930 (ref. ID; 2016)
  462. Lecane weisseri (Eichwald, 1847) (ref. ID; 2016)
  463. Lecane (Monostyla) wulferti Hauer, 1952 (ref. ID; 2545, 3125 original paper) or Hauer, 1956 (ref. ID; 2016) reported year? (ref. ID; 2683)
    See; Lecane closterocerca (ref. ID; 2016)
  464. Lecane yamunensis Novotna-Dvorakova, 1962 (ref. ID; 2724 original paper)
    See; Lecane papuana (ref. ID; 2016)
  465. Lecane zwaiensis Bryce, 1931
    See; Lecane curvicornis (ref. ID; 2016)

Lecane abanica Segers, 1994 (ref. ID; 2016, 2922 original paper)

Diagnosis

L. abanica n. sp., is diagnosed by the following characters: - the species has a relatively elongate, soft lorica, with a consistently broader dorsal than ventral plate, the ventral with lateral margins diverging anteriorly to meet the dorsal in the antero-lateral corners; - its foot pseudosegment is nearly rectangular, not or scarcely projecting, and preceded by a narrow, elongate prepedal fold; -two parallel- sided toes, bearing incompletely separated claws are present. (ref. ID; 2922)

Descriptions

Comments

L. abanica n. sp., appears most closely related to L. nana (Murray), L. triphema Harring & Myers and L. paxiana Hauer. All of these have a relatively soft lorica, with a narrower ventral than dorsal lorica, and with lateral margins of the ventral lorica, diverging anteriorly. Of these four, only L. paxiana has its toe fused at their basis, while both L. nana and L. triphema have toes without claws. L. abanica n. sp., is distinctive by its elongate lorica, and the presence of incompletely separated claws on its toes. The species can be confused with L. latissima Yamamoto (= L. rotundata (Olofsson) non (Jakubski) and with L. ruttneri Hauer. It differs from the first by its elongate lorica and by its diverging lateral margins. From the second it deviates by, again, its more elongate lorica, by the shape of its ventral lorica, by its squarish foot pseudosegment (with strong bilateral constriction in L. ruttneri) and by the rather weak, incomplete transverse fold on its ventral lorica (strong in L. ruttneri). (ref. ID; 2922)

Etymology

The species name abanica is an adjective, derived from the name of the species' type locality, Al-Aba. (ref. ID; 2922)

Type locality

Saudi Arabia (26 degrees 45'N-49 degrees 46'E), 22 October 1992. Leg. H.J. Dumont. (ref. ID; 2922)

Measurements

Dorsal plate 69-69 (79); dorsal plate width 54-61 (64); ventral plate length 64-69 (83); ventral plate width 44-47 (50); toe length 21-22 (31); claw length 5-6 (7) (Madagascar specimen) um. (ref. ID; 2922)

Lecane acronycha Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 1837, 2317, 3514)

See

Lecane curvicornis (ref. ID; 2016)

Measurements

Total length from 200-250 um. (ref. ID; 2317)

Lecane aculeata (Jakubski, 1912) (ref. ID; 696, 1345, 1351, 2016, 2135, 2199, 2787, 2894, 3037, 3083, 3514) reported year? (ref. ID; 3039), aculeata aculeata (ref. ID; 2545)

Synonym

Distyla aculeata Jakubski, 1912 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016); ?Distyla gissensis Eckstein, 1883 (ref. ID; 3514); Lecane aculeata Wiszniewski, 1932 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane arcula Harring, 1914 (ref. ID; 3514); Lecane curvicerata Yamamoto, 1951 (ref. ID; 2016)

Descriptions

This species can be separated from Lecane arcula by its greater lorica length and more prominent anterior spines. (ref. ID; 696)

Measurements

Length dorsal plate 54; length ventral plate 60; width dorsal plate 47; width ventral plate 44; toe 20; claw 6 um. (ref. ID; 696)
Dorsal lorica length 57; dorsal lorica width 54; ventral lorica length 61; ventral lorica width 43; anterior lorica width 46-47; toe length 22-25; claw length 5.5-6 um. (ref. ID; 2808)
Total length 96-100; dorsal lorica length 60-65; width at the basis of occipital lateral spines 44-45; widest part 45; foot 5-8x10-13; toes 20; claw 5-8 um. (ref. ID; 3083)

Lecane (Monostyla) acus (Harring, 1913) (ref. ID; 1345, 2339, 2994, 3275, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 3385) or (Harring, 1913) Myers, 1937 (ref. ID; 2016) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 3532)

See

Lecane lunaris (ref. ID; 2016)

Synonym

Monostyla acus Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3275, 3688); Monostyla lunaris obserata Steinecke, 1916 (ref. ID; 3688)

Measurements

Length of dorsal plate of lorica 105 to 106; width of dorsal plate of lorica 72-75; length of ventral plate of lorica 80-82; width of ventral plate of lorica 50; length of toe 34-53; length of claw 9 um. (ref. ID; 3275)

Lecane (Hemimonostyla) agilis (Bryce, 1892) (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 2683, 2787, 2807, 3058, 3506, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 3449, 3501, 3502)

Synonym

Distyla agilis Bryce, 1892 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3058, 3688); Lecane agilis Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3688); Lecane bryophila nach Bartos, 1959 (ref. ID; 2807)

Descriptions

This is a non-swimming species, generally found among Sphagnum (Harring & Myers 1926). (ref. ID; 2683)

Measurements

The lorica length was about 65 um and the partly fused toes reached a length of 17 um. (ref. ID; 2683)

Lecane aliger (ref. ID; 1807)

Descriptions

Measurements

Length of dorsal plate 76-92; length of ventral plate 82-95; width of dorsal plate 48-67; width of ventral plate 48-75; distance of anterior points 40-57, their length 5; coxal plates 8-15; toe with claw 30-40 um. (ref. ID; 1807)

Lecane althausi Rudescu (ref. ID; 1806, 2016, 2628)

Descriptions

Lorica long with straight anterior margin. Toes short, with uniform thickness up to 1/2 their length, afterwards quickly thinned, pointed. (ref. ID; 1806)

Lecane amazoniana Koste & Robertson, 1983 (ref. ID; 1837, 2808 original paper)

See

Lecane eutarsa (ref. ID; 2016)

Synonym

Lecane rhytida after Hauer, 1965 (ref. ID; 2808); Lecane rhytida after Koste, 1972 (ref. ID; 2808); Lecane stichaea var. amazonica after Koste, 1978 (ref. ID; 2808)

Diagnosis

There is still a great deal of confusion with respect to this taxon found in the Amazon and misidentified by Hauer (1965). Lecane rhytida has extremely long tips of toes, but no claws or pseudoclaws. L. amazoniana has pseudoclaws which are sharply indented on the outer edge of the toes. Furthermore, while the margin of the lorica between the anterior corner spines in L. rhytida is concave, in L. amazoniana it is straight. L. amazoniana also has special distinct characteristics when compared to the L. stichaea group. (ref. ID; 2808)

Descriptions

This species might be confused with L. rhytida (Harring & Myers). However as Koste & Robertson pointed out, the margin of the lorica between the anterior corner spines is straight and the toes have psedoclaws indented on the outer edge. (ref. ID; 1837)
Claw form: straight, outer edge indented by sharp step. Anterior lorica: margin between anterior spines straight. (ref. ID; 2808)

Measurements

Dorsal plate length 110; dorsal plate width 70; ventral plate length 120; ventral plate width 60; toes length 42; pseudoclaws 12 um. (ref. ID; 1837)
Dorsal lorica length 72-78; dorsal lorica width 58-60; ventral lorica length 120; ventral lorica width 50-53; toes length 36; claw length 12-14 um. (ref. ID; 2808)

Lecane (Monostyla) arcuata (Bryce, 1891) (ref. ID; 1345, 1847, 2016, 2064, 2196, 2282, 2339, 2597, 2608, 2640, 2757, 2824, 2929, 3060, 3275, 3514, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 3448, 3501, 3502, 4607)

Synonym

Lecane arcuata Wiszniewski, 1953 (ref. ID; 2016, 3688); Lecane piepelsi De Smet & Bafort, 1990 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla arcuata Bryce, 1891 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 2757, 3275, 3514, 3688)

Descriptions

The body is oval and the anterior dorsal margin is straight. (ref. ID; 2282)
The outline of the ventral plate are irregularly wavy. The frontal edges of the dorsal and ventral plates coincide completely, but the more or less deep ventral sinus was not observed. (ref. ID; 2597)

Measurements

Total length 110 um. (ref. ID; 2282)
Dorsal plate length 62-67; dorsal plate width 68-73; dorsal plate anterior points 27; ventral plate length 70-72; ventral plate width 55; ventral plate anterior points 28-35; toe length 27-32 um. (ref. ID; 2597)
Length of lorica 68-71; width of lorica 45-52; length of toe 25-28 um. (ref. ID; 3275)

Lecane arcula Harring, 1914 (ref. ID; 1345, 1847, 2016, 2064, 2135, 2265, 2280, 2599, 2825, 2906, 3144, 3335, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 2890, 3502)

See

Lecane aculeata (ref. ID; 3514)

Synonym

Cathypna aculeata Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 2064, 3688); Lecane aculeata arcula Wiszniewski, 1953 (ref. ID; 3688); Lecane strandi Berzins, 1943 (ref. ID; 2016)

Measurements

Length over all 146 um. (ref. ID; 2280)

Lecane arcula Murray, 1914 (ref. ID; 696)

Measurements

Length dorsal plate 49; length ventral plate 54; width dorsal plate 44; width ventral plate 40; toe 18; claw 5 um. (ref. ID; 696)

Lecane aspasia Myers, 1917 (ref. ID; 690, 1847, 2016, 2808, 2923) reported year? (ref. ID; 3271, 4606)

See

Lecane hegurensis

Comments

Lecane aspasia was first described by Myers (1917) from material collected in the surroundings of Los Angeles, California, and since then there have not been any more records. It is possible that L. aspasia has been overlooked up until now because it occupies that same habitat as L. signifera ploenensis (Voigt, 1902), and also because it presents similar toes and pattern on the dorsal lorica to L. stichaeoipdes. (ref. ID; 2808)

Measurements

Dorsal lorica length 82; dorsal lorica width 75; ventral lorica length 94; toe length 38; claw length 8 um. (ref. ID; 2808)
Dorsal lorica length 190; dorsal lorica width 74; ventral lorica length 97; ventral lorica width 67; frontal margin width 62; toe & claw 40 um. (ref. ID; 4606)

Lecane aspasia amazonica Koste & Robertson, 1983 (ref. ID; 2808 original paper)

See

Lecane robertsonae (ref. ID; 2016)

Descriptions

The new subspecies is slimmer than the forma typica, has longer toes, and long, sharply indented pseudoclaws. (ref. ID; 2808)

Measurements

Dorsal lorica length 101; dorsal lorica width 73; ventral lorica length 111; ventral lorica width 58; toe length 49; claw length 11 um. (ref. ID; 2808)

Lecane bidentata (Dhanapathi, 1976) (ref. ID; 689 original paper, 2016)

Descriptions

Body is oval, anterior dorsal margin with two blunt median short spines ventral margin slightly convex. Dorsal plate is oval, truncate posteriorly and with characteristic surface markings. Ventral plate is broad with a transverse ridge at some distance in front of the first foot joint. Posterior segment is small, obtusely pointed on either side of posterior rounded margin and just projects over the foot. Coxal plates are small and rounded. First foot joint is indistinct and the second pyriform. Toes are slender, slightly enlarged towards the ends, terminating in short claws without spicule. The species resemble L. curvilineatus Arora (1965) but differs by its anterior margins, characteristics surface markings of the dorsal plate, pyriform second foot joint and differently shaped toes. Characteristic of L. bidentata is abtuse teeth-like projections of the anterior dorsal margin. (ref. ID; 689)

Measurements

Total length 196; length of dorsal plate 126; length of ventral plate 140; width of dorsal plate 84; width of ventral plate 98; width at anterior points 56; length of anterior dorsal median spines 7; toe 56; claw 7 um. (ref. ID; 689)

Lecane (Monostyla) bifurca (Bryce, 1892) (ref. ID; 1312, 1345, 1806, 2016, 3263, 3335, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 3449, 3502)

Synonym

Lecane bifurca entome Berzins, 1982 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane crypta (Hauer, 1938) Voigt, 1957 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane fusilis Myers, 1936 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla bifurca Bryce, 1892 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3263, 3688); Monostyla crypta Hauer, 1938 (ref. ID; 3263, 3688); Monostyla monostylaeformis Fadeew, 1925 (ref. ID; 3263); Monostyla monostylaeformis Iroso, 1910 (ref. ID; 1345); Monostyla monostylaeformis (Stenroos, 1898) Iroso, 1910 (ref. ID; 2016, 3688); Notommata monostylaeformis Stenroos, 1898 (ref. ID; 1345, 3263, 3688)

Descriptions

A flexible integument and 2 posterolateral spines at sides of foot. The toe is short and is terminated by a double claw. (ref. ID; 1312)

Measurements

Length 49 um; toe 22 um. (ref. ID; 1312)

Lecane bifurca entome Berzins, 1982 (ref. ID; 4606 original paper)

See

Lecane bifurca (ref. ID; 2016)

Descriptions

The lorica does not a straight frontal margin. It has a very small sting on the frontal corners, and the dorsal lorica has a short fold on the occipital end. The dorsal frontal margin has two nothes and the ventral margin has a shallow sinus in the middle. (ref. ID; 4606)

Measurements

Lorica length 50; lorica width 45; ventral lorica length 55; ventral lorica width 43; toe 18 um. (ref. ID; 4606)

Lecane (Hemimonostyla) blachei Berzins (ref. ID; 1806, 1831, 2016, 2797, 3019 original paper)

Descriptions

Lorica oval with deep anterior sinus. Dorsal plate stippled in patches. Toe short, incompletely split in middle; tip split. (ref. ID; 1806)
The dorsal plate is narrower and shorter than the ventral plate, which is a little elongated posteriorly. The dorsal plate has a wide pattern. The whole lorica is fine pustulated. The occipital ventral margin is straight, but seems uneven owing to the small pustules. The occipital margin has a stout spine. The toes are grown together at the basis and at the end, but in the middle there is a channel between them. The toes are not enlarged but on the contrary a bit narrowed at the end. There is one claw. (ref. ID; 3019)

Comments

In the material from Mekong at Chrui-Changvar I found some specimens of a Lecane belonging to the subgenus Hemimonostyla. My specimens look a little like Fadeev's L. unguitata, but is different in the form of lorica and the occipital border of this. The animals differ about all in the shape of the distal segment of the reduced foot. Fadeev's animal is more like the specimens of Hauer, but not Wulfert's from Africa and India. The Indian animals are more like the organisms from Cambodia. According to Wulfert Lecane unguitata is variable, but this question should be proved on la large material. (ref. ID; 3019)

Etymology

I name this new species after the collector of the this valuable rotifer material Dr. J. Blache. (ref. ID; 3019)

Measurements

Total length 162; length of dorsal plate 104; width of dorsal plate 105; length of ventral plate 128; width of ventral plate 114; length of toe with claw 40; length of claw 15; lorica width occipital 35; depth of occipital sinus 8 um. (ref. ID; 3019)

Lecane boliviana Segers, 1994 (ref. ID; 2913 original paper)

Descriptions

Comments

Lecane boliviana n. sp. is closet to L. closterocerca (Schmarda). However, they differ from each other by the antero-lateral corners of their lorica being provided with sharp spines in L. boliviana n. sp., and exist. L. boliviana n. sp. keys out to L. opias Harring & Myers following the key of Segers (1994). L. boliviana n. sp. has a distinctively rounded lorica and a characteristic pattern of longitudinal folds on the ventral plate. L. boliviana n. sp. is a close relative of the common, cosmopolitan L. closterocerca. The decisive character differentiating between them, viz. presence or absence of antero-lateral spines, has proved to be one of the most reliable in the genus. Moreover, both these species were found in abundance and co-occurring: one of the samples contained hundreds of specimens of both species. A similarity of the new species with L. opias is only superficial, as their general lorica sharp is different. In fact, whereas L. boliviana n. sp. is close to L. closterocerca, L. opias is close to L. arcuata (Bryce). Considering this, the non-illustrated record of L. opias from Lake Titicaca by De Beauchamp (1939), which is the only record of this species from South America, may concern L. boliviana n. sp. (ref. ID; 2913)

Etymology

The species name boliviana is an adjective, derived from the name of the country from which the species is described. (ref. ID; 2913)

Type locality

Abundant parthenogenetic females in samples from Kothia Lagoon, and surroundings (La Paz Sur, 68 degrees 27'W- 16 degrees 21'S). (ref. ID; 2913)

Measurements

Dorsal plate length 74-81, width 65-72; ventral plate length 77-81, width 58-61; head aperture width 38-41; ant. spine length 3.5-5; toe length 33-36 um. (ref. ID; 2913)

Lecane bondi Edmondson, 1934 (ref. ID; 2939 original paper)

See

Lecane curvicornis (ref. ID; 2016)

Descriptions

Lorica pyriform, slightly gibbous dorsally; anterior margins not quite coincident even in fully contracted specimens, with prominent lateral cusps; dorsal plate ovoid, squarely truncate behind, concave anteriorly, with rounded anterior lateral corners, with well marked sculpture, narrower and shorter than ventral plate; ventral plate pyriform, elongate, with very deep transverse fold foot, anterior margin slightly concave; posterior segment fairly small, broad, rounded; toes long, parallel-sided, clawed, with external spicule; claws fairly long, acutely pointed. (ref. ID; 2939)

Comments

Lecane bondi resembles L. curvicornis and L. acronycha from which it differs in the shape of the anterior margin relative size of the posterior segment and the present of sculpturing in this species. The size of the spicule on the toe is very variable; in some specimens it is very long and sharp, while in others, it is hardly noticeable. (ref. ID; 2939)

Measurements

Length of dorsal plate 127; length of ventral plate 131; width of dorsal plate 103; width of ventral plate 107; length of toe 60 um. (ref. ID; 2939)

Lecane boorali Koste & Shiel, 1983 (ref. ID; 1417 original paper, 2016)

Descriptions

Outline of smooth, unornamented lorica widely oval. Dorsal anterior margin almost horizontal, but in contracted animal shows a medial perpendicular line and a converging symmetrical trapezoidal pattern. Anterior margin of ventral plate roundish, sometimes with v-shaped groove. Dorsal plate narrower and shorter than ventral plate. On ventral lorica surface a short transverse fold, over it an indistinct longitudinal, oval, medially situated pattern. Below this to lower margin a triangular to pear-shaped flat depression, enclosed by a cuticular ridge. Wide oval sectioned second foot joint, covered by symmetrical coxal plate, fits into this cavity. Foot plate clearly laterally deposed from the lorica body. First foot segment trapezoidal. Toes with laterally opposed claws without accessory claws. (ref. ID; 1417)

Comments

In ecological affinities, the n. sp. resembles Lecane grandis (Murray), 1913, which also has similar measurements. It lives equally in brackish and saline water pools. Lecane pyrrha Harring & Myers, 1926 also has similarities. The new species is distinguished, however, through the construction of the lower ventral lorica, particularly through the hitherto singular configuration of the foot-joint region. The extended foot plate and toe tips also are distinctive. (ref. ID; 1417)

Etymology

"booral" is of Aboriginal derivation, meaning large (Reed 1977). (ref. ID; 1417)

Type locality

Roadside pool 15 km south of Meekatharra, W.A. (26 degrees 44'S/118 degrees 25'E). (ref. ID; 1417)

Measurements

Total length 260; length of dorsal plate 180; dorsal lorica width 120; ventral lorica length 200; ventral lorica width 132; anterior margin width 100; toe length 82; claw 10 um. (ref. ID; 1417)

Lecane brachydactyla (Stenroos, 1898) (ref. ID; 1345, 1351, 2757, 2894, 3216) reported year? (ref. ID; 3063, 3502)

See

Lecane depressa (ref. ID; 2016), L. truncata

Synonym

Cathypna brachydactyla Stenroos, 1898 (ref. ID; 1345, 2757, 3216); Cathypna luna brachydactyla Sachse, 1912 (ref. ID; 1345); Distyla truncata Leissling, 1914 (ref. ID; 1345)

Descriptions

The lorica is ovate, truncated posteriorly, overlapping the foot. Anterior margin straight sometimes slightly wavy, with two lateral cusps. First foot join oblong, hardly visible, second joint trapezoidal. Coxal plates large, circular. Toes short, straight on the inner edges with long sharp points. Unlike in most description of the species, the lorica shows a pattern resembling short wavy hairs, which on the edges actually look like short cilia. (ref. ID; 2894)
The hyaline lorica is broad and oval in shape, but flat and compressed dorso-ventrally, with but a slight convexity dorsally. The dorsal plate is less wide and considerably shorter than the ventral plate, terminating posteriorly in a straight line just over the foot opening. Anteriorly this plate has a wide, straight, and slightly undulate margin, with sharp points on either side, which are clearly seen when the animal is contracted, contrary to Stenroos's description. The ventral plate is more deeply excavated anteriorly, and posteriorly terminates in a fairly wide, short and flat appendage, which is cur off nearly straight, with a very slight curve inward; it extends some little distance beyond the foot-opening. The two plates of the lorica are connected with a flexible membrane on both sides and also posteriorly, and the line of inangulation can readily be traced all round. Stenroos does not mention these details, but they are clearly indicated in his figure. The foot-opening is situated on the under side of the flat ventral plate, some little distance from the posterior margin. The foot consists of a single, short, square joint, and carries two very short stiletto-shaped, acutely pointed toes, which project only with their points beyond the posterior appendage; the toes are cylindrical, not flat blades. Stenroos further states that in life in this Rotifer projections head considerably through the wide frontal opening of the lorica; he has also seen a red eye over the anterior part of the large mastax, which I have been unable to find in the preserved and retracted specimens. The stomach and intestine lie on the right side, and the ovary, with large nuclei, on the left side of the body cavity. (ref. ID; 3216)

Measurements

Dorsal plate 102 long, 90 wide; ventral plate 122 long, 96 wide; frontal cusps 6; toes 39 um. (ref. ID; 2894)
The size of the three specimens which I have seen measured 1/169 in. (150 um) in length; 1/220 in. (115 um) in width, and the toes 1/635 in. (40 um) long. Stenroos's animals appear to have been a little larger - namely 174 long, 135 wide and the toes 34 um long. (ref. ID; 3216)

Lecane braziliensis Segers, 1993 (ref. ID; 2016, 2914 original paper)

Descriptions

Comments

L. braziliensis n. sp., resembles L. inopinata Harring & Myers, 1926 and L. sympoda Hauer, 1929. The species, however, has a more elongate lorica than these two, and lacks the triangular antero-lateral projections of L. sympoda. The great length of its claws (8-14 um, versus 3-5 um in L. inopinata and 5-7 um in L. sympoda), and the presence of strong longitudinal folds in the anterior region of the dorsal lorica provide an easily diagnostic feature for the species. (ref. ID; 2914)

Etymology

The specific name braziliensis is an adjective, derived from the name of the country where the species was found, Brazil. (ref. ID; 2914)

Type locality

Pond of Maraca Island, Roraima, Brazil. (ref. ID; 2914)

Measurements

Dorsal plate length 67-74; dorsal plate width 46-57; ventral plate length 69-79; ventral plate width 43-50; toe length (without claws) 24-27 (fused part:13-14); claw length 8-14 um. (ref. ID; 2914)

Lecane (Monostyla) bulla (Gosse, 1851) (ref. ID; 689, 2016, 2064, 2251, 2265, 2599, 2704, 2714, 2867, 3060, 3127, 3128, 3180, 3271, 3275, 3512, 3592, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 2640, 2787, 2825, 2890, 3141, 3274, 3502, 6846) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 3292), bulla bulla (ref. ID; 2757, 3039)

Synonym

Lecane bipes (Stokes, 1896) (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane bulla constricta (Sudzuki, 1992) (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane bulla dentata (Sudzuki, 1992) (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane bulla diana Abdullaev, 1989 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane bulla kutikovae Naberezhniyi & Irmasheva, 1975 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane goniata (Harring & Myers, 1926) Myers, 1942 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane incisa (Daday, 1897) (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane ozolini (Berzins, 1943) Kutikova, 1970 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane physalis Wulfert, 1939 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane styrax (Harring & Myers, 1926) Wiszniewski, 1954 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane styrax longistyla (Weisig, 1928) Kutikova, 1970 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla bipes Stokes, 1896 (ref. ID; 2016, 3271, 3688); Monostyla bulla Gosse, 1851 (ref. ID; 2016, 2757, 3128, 3274, 3271, 3275, 3688); Monostyla bulla longistyla Weisig, 1928 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla goniata Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla incisa Daday, 1897 (ref. ID; 2016, 3271, 3688); Monostyla lunaris Perty, 1852 (ref. ID; 3688); Monostyla styrax Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2016)

Descriptions

A common rotifer which shows a varying width of lorica, and usually of this width is more than two-thirds the length of the lorica. (ref. ID; 2599)
Lorica elongated ovate with narrow anterior margin, dorsal anterior notch present for the protrusion of dorsal antenna. (ref. ID; 2867)
Several differences from the type specimens were found. Some specimens had a distinct annulation on the toe at about half its length, and the claw had a broad median line. In addition to the usual transverse ventral fold some specimens had a semi-circular fold on the dorsal plate at about one quarter its length. (ref. ID; 3127)
Outline of the very firm lorica somewhat elongate-ovate, its width about three-fifths of the length. Anterior dorsal margin with a shallow V-shaped anterior sinus with a large median notch. Ventral margin with a very deep anterior sinus, rounded at the posterior end. Posterior segment small and rounded, slightly projecting beyond the dorsal plate. Toe very long and slender, almost half of the total length, slightly enlarged in the middle, ending in a long, slender, acute claw with distinct basal spicules. Claw divided. (ref. ID; 3180)

Measurements

Total length 168; length of dorsal plate 98; length of ventral plate 112; width of lorica 70; toe 42; claw 14 um. (ref. ID; 689)
Length 130; width 90; toes 68.2 um. (ref. ID; 2251)
Length of dorsal plate 104; length of ventral plate 126; width of dorsal plate 96; width of ventral plate 96; width at anterior end 51; toe 48; claw 21 um. (ref. ID; 2599)
Length dorsal plate 118; length ventral plate 122; width dorsal plate 80; width ventral plate 80; toes 57; claw 18 um. (ref. ID; 2704)
Length of dorsal plate 92; length of ventral plate 97; width of dorsal plate 60; width of ventral plate 60; width of anterior end 51; foot 12; toe 42; claw 18 um. (ref. ID; 2714)
Total length 170; length of lorica 120; maximum width 80; length of toe with claw 60; length of claw 20 um. (ref. ID; 2867)
Total length 186 um. (ref. ID; 3127)
Total length about 180 um. (ref. ID; 3128)

Lecane (Monostyla) bulla (Gosse, 1886) (ref. ID; 696, 1312, 1345, 2268, 3083, 3335, 3514)

Synonym

Monostyla bipes Stokes, 1896 (ref. ID; 1345); Monostyla bulla Gosse, 1886 (ref. ID; 1345, 3514); Monostyla incisa Daday, 1897 (ref. ID; 1345)

Measurements

Length dorsal plate 112; length ventral plate 118; width dorsal plate 84; width ventral plate 80; toe 50; claw 6 um. (ref. ID; 696)
Total length 180-186; dorsal lorica length 120-124; width at the anterior extremity 22-26; widest part 80-82; anterior median sinus 20x10; toes 60-70; claw 21-22 um. (ref. ID; 3083)

Lecane (Monostyla) bulla constricta (Sudzuki, 1992) (ref. ID; 2874 original paper)

See

Lecane bulla (ref. ID; 2016)

Synonym

Monostyla bulla constricta (ref. ID; 2874)

Descriptions

This new subspecies resembles bulla group in most character, but different from all the subspecies hitherto described in having a strong constriction between median hornlike projection and lateral extremities of the occipital region. The lorica is swollen as in goniata Harring-Myers but provided with a pair of small projection at the base of the claw, which are the same in width. The claw tapers toward the tip and never divided even at the base. (ref. ID; 2874)

Type locality

Hateruma Jima site 4. (ref. ID; 2874)

Measurements

Lorica length 110-125; widest part 90-100; toe 60-65 um. (ref. ID; 2874)

Lecane (Monostyla) bulla constricta f. triangulata (Sudzuki, 1992) (ref. ID; 2261, 2874 original paper)

Synonym

Monostyla bulla constricta f. triangulata Sudzuki, 1992 (ref. ID; 2874)

Descriptions

This form is distinguishable from typical constricta with a triangular lorica. (ref. ID; 2874)

Measurements

Lorica length 100-110; widest part 95-105; toe 55 um. (ref. ID; 2874)

Lecane (Monostyla) bulla dentata (Sudzuki, 1992) (ref. ID; 2874 original paper)

See

Lecane bulla (ref. ID; 2016)

Synonym

Monostyla bulla dentata Sudzuki, 1992 (ref. ID; 2874)

Descriptions

This subspecies is easily distinguishable in having denticulate pectoral sinus. (ref. ID; 2874)

Type locality

Hateruma Jima site 7. (ref. ID; 2874)

Measurements

Lorica length 120-130; widest part 85-90 um. (ref. ID; 2874)

Lecane (Monostyla) bulla styrax (Harring & Myers, 1926) (ref. ID; 1836, 2834)

Synonym

Monostyla styrax Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2834)

Comments

This subspecies differs from L. bulla bulla by its claws which are on an average longer, grown together, and are pointed (ref. ID; 2834)

Measurements

Total length 200-216; length of dorsal shell 124-132; width of shell 90-100; width of posterior margin 25-32; toe length (total) 76-78; length of claw 24-28 um. (ref. ID; 2834)

Lecane ceylonensis Chengalath & Fernando, 1973 (ref. ID; 2714 original paper, 3180)

See

Lecane hornemanni (ref. ID; 2016, 2936)

Descriptions

Anterior end of lorica widest and gradually tapering towards posterior end. Anterior dorsal margins coincident and convex. Dorsal plate with elevated ridges on the sides. Ventral plate slightly larger than dorsal plate. Width of dorsal and ventral plates equal. Lateral sulci not distinct. Posterior segment short and extends only little beyond the dorsal plate. The first joint of the foot fairly large. The second joint very large, rounded posteriorly. Toes long, fairly stout and tapering into an acute point, without any claw. (ref. ID; 2714)
Lorica widest at anterior end and gradually tapering toward posterior end. Anterior dorsal and ventral margins coincident and convex. Dorsal plate with elevated ridges on the sides. Ventral plate slightly larger than dorsal plate. Posterior segment short and extending only little beyond the dorsal plate. Toes long, fairly stout, and tapering into an acute point, without any claw. (ref. ID; 3180)

Comments

Lecane ceylonensis is closely related to Lecane nodosa (Hauer), and Lecane hornemanni (Ehrenberg). In L. ceylonensis the anterior end is much broader than the middle of lorica unlike in L. nodosa or L. hornemanni where the greatest width is in the middle lorica. Also in both L. nodosa and L. hornemanni the width of the lorica is greater than its length. The width of the lorica of L. ceylonensis is approximately two-thirds the length. The posterior segment of L. ceylonensis is small compared to that in L. nodosa or L. hornemanni. In view of all these differences we propose that this species be designated L. ceylonensis sp. nov. (ref. ID; 2714)

Locality

This species was first reported in Sri Lanka. (ref. ID; 3180)

Measurements

Length of dorsal plate 76; length of ventral plate 80; width of dorsal plate 48; width of ventral plate 48; width of anterior end 58; foot 16; toe 30 um. (ref. ID; 2714)

Lecane chankensis Bogoslovsky, 1958 (ref. ID; 3452 original paper)

See

Lecane curvicornis (ref. ID; 2016)

Descriptions

Closely related to L. triloba described in Japan by K. Yamamoto (1951), but the size and form of the dorsal plate, character of the anterior margin of the abdominal one, situation of the second joint of the leg and the structure of coaxal plates differ considerably in the above two species. (ref. ID; 3452)

Type locality

This species found in a plankton sample of the Lake Khanka in the collection of the Amur expedition, 1945-1949. (ref. ID; 3452)

Type collections

The type is to be found in the collections of Biological Laboratory of Biological-Pedological Faculty of Moscow State University. (ref. ID; 3452)

Lecane clara (Bryce, 1892) (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 2740, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 3297, 3502, 4607)

Synonym

Cathypna sulcata Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345); Cathypna clara Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 2016, 3688); Diaschiza cupha Gosse, 1887 (ref. ID; 3688); Diglena beauchampi von Hofsten, 1923 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3688); Distyla clara Bryce, 1892 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3688); Lecane beauchampi (von Hofsten, 1923) (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane clara Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3688); Lecane longidactyla (Edmondson, 1948) Segers, 1993 (ref. ID; 2016); Proales longidactyla Edmondson, 1948 (ref. ID; 2016)

Descriptions

This species is a veritable parasite which, living on the sponge, subsists on its upper layer of tissue, gnawing notches into it. These indentations are not deep, usually from 30 to 50 um. They are of irregular shape, like wide passages with changing directions, because a rotifer is not in the habit of gnawing its way in one definite direction. The animal itself is in restless motion on the sponge surface, frequently and abruptly shifting its direction of movement and quite often leaving off gnawing at one place in order to start nibbling in another. (ref. ID; 2740)

Measurements

The total length of the individuals found on sponges varied from 192 to 196; the length of the toes from 40 to 41; the length of the trophes from 37 to 38 um. (ref. ID; 2740)

Lecane climacois Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2016, 2844)

Comments

The species was until now only known from three localities in the U.S., as listed by Harring & Myers (1926). It was considered a synonym of L. stichaea Harring by Koste (1978) in the combination L. stichaea var. climacois. I found several specimens of this rare species in and near Oguta Lake on 13 February 1992. Based on the material at hand, a synonymy of L. climacois with L. stichaea Harring can be ruled out, and the taxon is hereby reestablished as a valid species. It is diagnosed by its claws being swollen at their basis and by the shape of its projecting foot pseudosegment being elongate and having lateral extensions. L. climacois differs from L. hastata (Murray) by its elongate lorica, relatively longer anterior spines, its shorter toes and by the shape of its foot pseudosegment. (ref. ID; 2844)

Measurements

Dorsal lorica length 44-57 (64), width 43-56 (51); ventral lorica length 52-67 (70), width 39-49 (45); toe length 13-14 (15); claw length 8-9 (7) um (Of Harring & Myers (1926) between brackets). (ref. ID; 2844)

Lecane (Monostyla) closterocerca (Schmarda, 1853) (ref. ID; 2998), 1859 (ref. ID; 696, 1312, 1345, 1923, 2016, 2064, 2196, 2265, 2268, 2269, 2277, 2385, 2599, 2700, 2704, 2714, 2787, 3083, 3154, 3180, 3271, 3275, 3512, 3514, 3688) or 1895 (ref. ID; 2757, 2841) reported year? (ref. ID; 1450, 1473, 2703, 2890, 2913, 2932, 2933, 3039, 3239, 3274, 3334, 3501, 3502, 4607) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 3114, 3411, 3412), closterocerca closterocerca Schmarda (ref. ID; 4606)

Synonym

Lecane brodskii (Muraveisky, 1937) Wiszniewski, 1954 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane closterocerca amazonica Koste, 1978 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane closterocerca Wulfert, 1931 (ref. ID; 3688) or 1939 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016); Lecane cornuta f. anglica (Bryce, 1924) (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane eichsfeldica (Kunne, 1926) (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane latvica (Berzins, 1943) Voigt, 1957 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane wulferti Hauer, 1956 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla brodskii Muraveisky, 1937 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla closterocerca Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2757); Monostyla closterocerca Schmarda, 1859 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3271, 3274, 3275, 3514, 3688); Monostyla cornuta Olofsson, 1918 (ref. ID; 3688); Monostyla cornuta f. anglica Bryce, 1924 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3688); Monostyla eichsfeldica Kunne, 1926 (ref. ID; 2016, 3688); Monostyla latvica Berzins, 1943 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla truncata Turner, 1892 (ref. ID; 3688)

Descriptions

A common rotifer which shows wide variation in size of the lorica and of the anterior opening. (ref. ID; 2599)
Lorica subcircular, anterior margins coincident and forming a shallow, broadly V-shaped sinus. Posterior segment very broad and semicircular and projecting slightly beyond the dorsal plate. Toe long, parallel-sided for more than half its length and tapering to a slender acute point. (ref. ID; 3180)

Measurements

Length dorsal plate 58; length ventral plate 68; width dorsal plate 55; width ventral plate 50; toe 24 um. (ref. ID; 696)
Length of dorsal plate 75; max. width 70; toes 27 um. (ref. ID; 2277)
Length of dorsal plate 60; length of ventral plate 64; width of dorsal plate 60; width of ventral plate 56; toe and claw 24 um. (ref. ID; 2385)
Length of dorsal plate 72; length of ventral plate 79; width of dorsal plate 69; width of ventral plate 62; width at anterior end 41; toe 33 um. (ref. ID; 2599)
Length dorsal plate 58; length ventral plate 64; width dorsal plate 56; width ventral plate 50; toe 25 um. (ref. ID; 2704)
Length of dorsal plate 86; length of ventral plate 95; width of dorsal plate 69; width of ventral plate 60; width of anterior end 36; foot 7; toe 18; claw 10 um. (ref. ID; 2714)
Total length 88; dorsal lorica length 53; width at the anterior extremity 39; widest part 57; toes 31 um. (ref. ID; 3083)
Length of dorsal plate of lorica 75-76; width of dorsal plate of lorica 62-68; length of ventral plate of lorica 68-73; width of ventral plate of lorica 50-53; length of toe 28-35 um. (ref. ID; 3275)
It is a small rotifer, with dorsal plate 93 um long and 82 um wide and ventral plate 96 um long. The anterior margin, which is straight, was 46 um wide. The toe, which is single and fused, was 32 um long. Although the lorica is slightly larger than the published measurement for this species, the foot and toe are within the range quoted by Koste (1978). (ref. ID; 3334)
Dorsal lorica length 60; dorsal lorica width 61; ventral lorica length 68; ventral lorica width 47; frontal margin width 38; toe 26 um. (ref. ID; 4606)

Lecane (Monostyla) constricta (Murray, 1913) (ref. ID; 1345, 3036, 3263) or (Murray, 1913) Myers, 1942 (ref. ID; 2016)

See

Lecane lunaris (ref. ID; 2016)

Synonym

Monostyla constricta Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345, 3036); Monostyla constricta Carlin, 1939 (ref. ID; 3036); Monostyla lunaris Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 1345, 3036); Monostyla lunaris Hauer, 1929 (ref. ID; 1345, 3036)

Comments

Some are of opinion that M. lunaris and M. constricta are identical species. My observations in the Aneboda district (a humus-rich, chiefly oligotrophic area) and in Skane (an eutrophic, lime-rich area) cause me to agree with Carlin's (1939, p.28) opinion, which supports the differences between these two species. In my constricta specimens the lorica has a large sinus on the anterior margin; the anterior part of the lorica is very thin (dorsoventrally flattened), but the trunk is very highly arched and thick. The coxal plates are very easily seen, especially in lateral view. Usually the dorsal and ventral plates are evenly oreolated. (ref. ID; 3036)

Measurements

Length of dorsal plate 100-122; width of dorsal plate 97-119; length of ventral plate 114-137; width of ventral plate 70-104; width between anterior spines 32-53; depth of dorsal anterior sinus 25-29; thickness of trunk 66-90; depth of ventral anterior sinus 25-27; length of distal foot joint 22-25; width of distal foot joint 12-15; length of toe (without claw) 56-70; length of claw 8-10 um. (ref. ID; 3036)

Lecane (Monostyla) cornuta (O.F. Muller, 1786) (ref. ID; 1345, 1830, 2016, 2265, 2276, 2599, 2757, 2824, 3125, 3275, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 2890, 3502)

Synonym

Diceratella cornuta Deshayen & Milne Edwards, 1835 (ref. ID; 3688); Lecane cornuta Edmondson, 1936 (ref. ID; 2016, 3688); Lecane cornuta f. oidipus (Hauer, 1956) (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane glumiformis (Bory de St. Vincent, 1827) (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane robusta (Stokes, 1896) (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane rotunda (Fadeev, 1927) Voigt, 1957 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane rotundata (Jakubski, 1914) (ref. ID; 2016); Lepadella cornuta Bory de St. Vincent, 1826 (ref. ID; 1345, 3688); Lepadella glumiformis Bory de St. Vincent, 1827 (ref. ID; 3688); Monostyla cornuta Ehrenberg, 1830 (ref. ID; 1345, 2276, 2757, 3688); Monostyla robusta Ehrenberg, 1830 (ref. ID; 2757); Monostyla robusta Stokes, 1896 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3688); Monostyla rotunda Fadeev, 1927 (ref. ID; 2016) or Fadeew, 1927 (ref. ID; 3688); Monostyla rotundata Jakubski, 1914 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3688); Monostyla truncata Turner, 1892 (ref. ID; 1345, 3688); Notommata cornuta Ehrenberg, 1830 (ref. ID; 1345, 3688); Trichocerca cornuta Gravenhorst, 1832 (ref. ID; 3688); Tricoda cornuta O.F. Muller, 1786 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 2276, 2757, 3275, 3688)

Measurements

Length of dorsal plate 117; length of ventral plate 123; width of dorsal plate 117; width of ventral plate 117; width at anterior end 54; toe 45; claw 12 um. (ref. ID; 2599)
Length of dorsal plate of lorica 70; width of dorsal plate of lorica 65; length of ventral plate of lorica 72; width of ventral plate lorica 57; length of toes 38; length of claw 10 um. (ref. ID; 3275)

Lecane (Monostyla) crenata (Harring, 1913) (ref. ID; 696, 1345, 1839, 2265, 2599, 2757, 3060, 3128, 3379, 3514, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 2890, 3063, 3502) or (Harring, 1913) Edmondson, 1935 (ref. ID; 2016)

See

Lecane lunaris (ref. ID; 2016)

Synonym

Monostyla crenata Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345, 2757, 3128, 3379, 3514, 3688)

Descriptions

Considered a good species by Voigt, 1957 and Kutikova, 1970, but reduced to the rank of subspecies by Koste, 1978. (ref. ID; 1839)
The posterior segment of my animals does not reach beyond the dorsal plate, just as the second foot joint does not look out from underneath it. As to its shape the second joint corresponds more to Harring's and Hauer's figures than to those given by Harring & Myers. According to Harring & Myers the toe terminates in a short claw with two minute basal spicules. These spicules are not mentioned at all in Harring's earlier description; it is only said that "the claw is very small". I did not succeed in finding the basal spicules in question. They are also absent in Hauer's figure. (ref. ID; 3379)

Measurements

Length dorsal plate 122; length ventral plate 130; width dorsal plate 93; width ventral plate 81; toe 52; claw 6 um. (ref. ID; 696)
Length of dorsal plate 112; length of ventral plate 114; width of dorsal plate 90; width of ventral plate 82; width at anterior end 60; toe 75; claw 15 um. (ref. ID; 2599)
Total length 240; length of dorsal plate 130; length of ventral plate 140; width of dorsal plate 110; width of ventral plate 100; length of toe 100 um. (ref. ID; 3128)
Total length 268 um (Harring & Myers 200 um, Hauer 193 um), toe with claw 118 um (Harring & Myers 92 um, Hauer 74 um), length of the dorsal plate 150 um (Harring & Myers 108 um, Hauer 112 um). (ref. ID; 3379)

Lecane crepida Harring, 1914 (ref. ID; 1345, 1806, 2016, 2064, 2265, 2317, 2599, 2703, 2714, 2797, 2825, 3083, 3180, 3514)

Synonym

Lecane crepida longidactyla Koste, 1972 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane neali Wulfert, 1966 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane vasishti Sharma, 1980 (ref. ID; 2016)

Descriptions

The toes are incurved. (ref. ID; 2317)
Lorica very flexible, parallel-sided for one half of its length, anterior margins coincident or nearly so. Toe very stout, inwardly curved spines present at the external angles. First foot joint large and bulbous, the second joint subsquare and projecting with more than half its length beyond the lorica. Toes very long and slender, more than one fourth of the total length, straight and slightly tapering, terminating in a long, slender, acutely pointed claw, sharply constricted at the base. (ref. ID; 3180)

Measurements

Length dorsal plate 76-78; length ventral plate 85-95; width dorsal plate 48-55; width ventral plate 50-55; toe 38-40 including claws; anterior points 55-57 um. (ref. ID; 696)
Length of dorsal plate 76; length of ventral plate 84; width of dorsal plate 56; width of ventral plate 64; length of toes and claw 32; length of claw 16; maximum depth of body 50 um. (ref. ID; 2317)
Length of dorsal plate 72; length of ventral plate 85; width of dorsal plate 53; width of ventral plate 54; width at anterior end 61; toe 30; claw 8 um. (ref. ID; 2599)
Length of dorsal plate 73; length of ventral plate 86; width of dorsal plate 49; width of ventral plate 56; width of anterior end 58; foot 12; toe 29; claw 9 um. (ref. ID; 2714)
Total length 122; dorsal lorica length 80; width at the basis of occipital lateral spines 51; widest part 48; distance between caudal protuberances at the base 11; anterior lateral spines 7-8; toes 40; claw 9-10 um. (ref. ID; 3083)

Lecane crepida Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 696, 2704)

Measurements

Length dorsal plate 75; length ventral plate 86; width dorsal plate 46; width ventral plate 50; anterior width 52; toe 28; claw 8 um. (ref. ID; 696)
Length dorsal plate 73; length ventral plate 82; width dorsal plate 45; width ventral plate 52; toe 30; claw 8 um. (ref. ID; 2704)

Lecane crepida f. bengalensis Sharma, 1978 (ref. ID; 688)

Descriptions

These species differ from Lecane crepida nominate form in (i) having a truncate dorsal plate, (ii) the absence of markings on the dorsal plate. (ref. ID; 688)

Measurements

Length of dorsal plate 75; length of ventral plate 86; width of dorsal plate 42; width of ventral plate 45; toe 24; claw 6; anterior width 42 um. (ref. ID; 688)

Lecane curvicerata Yamamoto, 1951 (ref. ID; 3054 original paper)

See

Lecane aculeata (ref. ID; 2016)

Descriptions

Lorica ovate in outline; anterior margins almost coincident and slightly convex, at external angles provided with two spines, each of which is curved slightly inwards and strongly upwards. Dorsal plate ovate, truncated posteriorly; anterior half of side smooth, but other half slightly undulating. Surface markings consist of four rows of facettings of ordinary pattern. Ventral plate narrower than dorsal plate. Second foot-joint irregular in form. Toes long, slender and parallel-sided; each toe terminating in a spine-like claw which bears small basal spicules. (ref. ID; 3054)

Comments

It resembles Lecane eutarsa in some respects; for instance, the state of the markings on the dorsal surface, and the form of the second foot-joint. However, there are many points of differences between Lecane eutarsa and the present species; that is to say, the size of the latter is much smaller than the former; the anterior margin is concave in the former but convex in the latter; the posterior half of the side of the latter is undulated, while the side of the former is entirely smooth. Especially, the form of the anterior spine of the latter is quite peculiar. (ref. ID; 3054)

Type locality

This species is found in the collection from Rokujizo Pond made by Prof. T. Kawamura on October 14, 1925. (ref. ID; 3054)

Measurements

Total length 130; length of dorsal plate 64; width of dorsal plate 48; length of ventral plate 70; width of ventral plate 43; width of between anterior spines 35; length of anterior spine 10; length of toe without claw 20; length of claw 7 um. (ref. ID; 3054)

Lecane curvicornis (Murray, 1913) (ref. ID; 689, 696, 1345, 2016, 2064, 2265, 2339, 2385, 2599, 2714, 2867, 3180, 3514) reported year? (ref. ID; 2889, 2890, 3387, 3397, 3502, 3688)

Synonym

Cathypna curvicornis Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 2385, 3514); Cathypna lofuana Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 2016); Cathypna nitida Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane curvicornis Harring, 1914 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016); Lecane acronycha Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane bondi Edmondson, 1934 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane chankensis Bogoslovsky, 1958 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane curvilinealis Arora, 1965 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane lofuana (Murray, 1913) Harring, 1914 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane longidactylus Arora, 1965 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane nitida (Murray, 1913) Harring, 1914 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane tesselata Arora, 1965 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane triloba Yamamoto, 1951 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane ungulata curvicornis Berzins, 1959 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane zwaiensis Bryce, 1931 (ref. ID; 2016)

Descriptions

Lorica is pyriform, anterior margins coincident with broad-V-shaped sinus, and with two large spines at the external angles. Dorsal plate is oval, truncate posteriorly and narrower than the ventral. Posterior segment is small and rounded posteriorly. First foot joint is large and indistinct, second large and subsquare. Toes are long slender, parallel sided and terminating in short claw with a basal spicule. (ref. ID; 689)
Antero-lateral spines prominent. Dorsal plate projecting beyond the ventral plate at postero-lateral angles. (ref. ID; 696)
Lorica is pyriform, anterior margin coincident with broad shaped sinus and with two large spines at the external angles which are prominent. Dorsal plate projecting beyond the ventral plate at the postero-lateral angles. Toes are long. (ref. ID; 2867)
Lorica pyriform, anterior margins coincident with broad V-shaped sinus, and with two large spines at the external angles. Dorsal plate oval, truncate posteriorly and narrower than the ventral. Posterior segment small and rounded posteriorly. Toes long, parallel-sided, and terminating in a short claw with a basal spicule. (ref. ID; 3180)

Measurements

Total length 220; length of dorsal plate 112-120; length of ventral plate 126-128; width of dorsal plate 84-100; width of ventral plate 98-105; toe 42-56; claw 7-9; width at anterior points 70 um. (ref. ID; 689, 696)
Length of dorsal plate 128; length of ventral plate 134; width of dorsal plate 108; width of ventral plate 112; width of anterior points 68; toe and claw 60; claw 10 um. (ref. ID; 2385)
Length of dorsal plate 114; length of ventral plate 117; width of dorsal plate 93; width of ventral plate 99; width at anterior end 63; toe 42; claw 9 um. (ref. ID; 2599)
Length of dorsal plate 111; length of ventral plate 117; width of dorsal plate 89; width of ventral plate 96; width of anterior end 66; foot 15; toe 54; claw 9 um. (ref. ID; 2714)
Total length 180; length of lorica 140; maximum width 110; length of toes 50 um. (ref. ID; 2867)
Length 160 um, toes 80 um. (ref. ID; 3387)

Lecane curvicornis lofuana (Murray, 1913) (ref. ID; 3083)

Measurements

Dorsal lorica length 124; width at the basis of occipital lateral spines 78; widest part 102 um. (ref. ID; 3083)

Lecane curvicornis nitida (Murray, 1913) (ref. ID; 1847, 3083), var. nitida (Murray, 1913) (ref. ID; 3180, 3514) reported year? (ref. ID; 1345) or Hauer, 1938 (ref. ID; 2064)

Synonym

Cathypna nitida Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 3514)

Descriptions

Fairly large and egg-shaped. Dorsal plate narrower than ventral. Anterior dorsal margin slightly convex and sinuate; ventral margin concave with frontal spines with broad base and incurved points. Dorsal surface with symmetrical wavy markings. Posterior edge of ventral plate serrated. Posterior segment large, with blunt end flanked by shallow sinuses. Toes long, more than a third of the total length, their claws with distinct basal spicules. (ref. ID; 3180)

Comments

The claw is different from Hauer's specimens (1937, Fig.37) in having a small spine at the base of normal claw. (ref. ID; 3083)

Measurements

Total length 198; dorsal lorica length 120; width at the basis of occipital lateral spines 72; widest part 102; toes 55; claw 10; subclaws (spines) 2 um. (ref. ID; 3083)

Lecane curvicornis var. miamensis Myers, 1941 (ref. ID; 696, 2714), var. miamiensis Myers, 1941 (ref. ID; 3180)

Descriptions

Characterised by the shape of the posterior segment and anterior portion of the foot. (ref. ID; 696)
This species was first described by Myers (1941) from Miami, Florida. It has not been reported from anywhere since. The form found in Ceylon is broader than the one described by Myers. Also there are other minor differences namely that the anterior margin of Ceylonese specimens are not exactly coincident and the antero-lateral spines are a little more prominent. The shape of the posterior segment and the anterior portion of the toe, which are characteristic of this variety agrees in both the specimens from Florida, United State and from Ceylon. (ref. ID; 2714)
Lorica ovate in outline, anterior margins not exactly coincident, the ventral margin slightly concave, with two small spines at the external angles. Posterior segment small, bounded by blunt lateral spines with a prominent rounded projection between them. Toes fairly long, enlarged, with an outward band near the base; claws short with basal spicules. (ref. ID; 3180)

Comments

Lecane curvicornis var. miamiensis differs from the type principally by the shape of the posterior segment and the toes. In L. curvicornis, the posterior segment is small and evenly rounded and the toes are parallel-sided and somewhat longer. (ref. ID; 3180)

Measurements

Length of dorsal plate 150; length of ventral plate 165; width of dorsal plate 115; width of ventral plate 100; toe 50; claw 15 um. (ref. ID; 696)
Length of dorsal plate 138; length of ventral plate 158; width of dorsal plate 121; width of ventral plate 130; width of anterior end 84; foot 15; toe 60; claw 12 um. (ref. ID; 2714)

Lecane (Monostyla) decipiens (Murray, 1913) (ref. ID; 696, 1345, 2016, 2385, 2597, 2599, 2704, 2714, 3180) reported year? (ref. ID; 1450)

Synonym

Lecane decipiens Wiszniewski, 1954 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla decipiens Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016)

Diagnosis

This species is easily mistaken for the common L. hamata Stokes. The distinguishing features are coincident frontal margins, lack of the two prominent frontal tusks, relative width of dorsal and ventral plates, shape of dorsal plate, and most important, total lack of dorsal facetting. (ref. ID; 2597)

Descriptions

Lorica broadly ovate, its width about four-fifths of the length, anterior margins coincident. Sinuses very deep and V-shaped, rounded posteriorly. No frontal spines present but two triangular, acute cusps are formed between the anterior sinus and the edges of the lorica. Posterior segment rather small and obtusely pointed, projecting considerably beyond the dorsal plate. Toe long and slender, about one-third of total length, parallel-sided for half of its length and tapering gradually to an acute point. (ref. ID; 3180)

Measurements

Length dorsal plate 82; length ventral plate 90; width dorsal plate 90; width ventral plate 54; toe 38 um. (ref. ID; 696)
Length of dorsal plate 73; length of ventral plate 78; width of dorsal plate 56; width of ventral plate 46; anterior points 30; toe and claw 26 um. (ref. ID; 2385)
Length of dorsal plate 82; length of ventral plate 89; width of dorsal plate 64; width of ventral plate 59; width at anterior end 37; toe 40 um. (ref. ID; 2599)
Length dorsal plate 94; length ventral plate 100; width dorsal plate 60; width ventral plate 52; toe 38 um. (ref. ID; 2704)
Length of dorsal plate 88; length of ventral plate 95; width of dorsal plate 64; width of ventral plate 60; width of anterior end 31; foot 10; toe 21; claw 12 um. (ref. ID; 2714)

Lecane donneri Chengalath & Mulamoottil, 1974 (ref. ID; 2016, 2599 original paper)

Diagnosis

The closest relative of this species seems to be Lecane crepida, Harring. However, there are a number of differences. The lorica of L. crepida is parallel-sided for half of its length and tapers to the foot, and the anterolateral spines are curved inwards. The posterior segment in L. crepida is narrow and small, and there is a claw at the end of the toes. The lorica of L. donneri is oval, and the anterolateral spines are straight. The claw is absent. (ref. ID; 2599)

Descriptions

Lorica oval-shaped. Anterior dorsal margin convex and ventral margin concave with two prominent spines at external angles. Dorsal plate convex and smaller than ventral plate. Lateral sulci not distinct. Posterior segment fairly prominent, semicircular. Posterior segment ventral, with an opening for the foot. Coxal plates visible. First foot segment very wide; second, rectangular and extending beyond the lorica. Toes long, straight and tapering to a point. (ref. ID; 2599)

Measurements

Length of dorsal plate 80; length of ventral plate 87; width of dorsal plate 66; width of ventral plate 60; width of anterior end 46; toe 36 um. (ref. ID; 2599)

Lecane donnerianus (Dhanapathi, 1976) (ref. ID; 689 original paper)

See

Lecane ungulata (ref. ID; 2016)

Descriptions

Lorica is broadly ovate, anterior dorsal margin straight ventral margin slightly concave, and with two small spines at the external angles. Dorsal plate is oval, without surface marking, smaller than the ventral, and truncate posteriorly. Ventral plate is broad with a transverse ridge in front of the first foot joint. Lateral sulci do not reach the anterior margin. Posterior segment is broad, truncate posteriorly and extends beyond the foot. First foot joint is small and indistinct, second large and subsquare. Coxal plates are large and obtusely pointed. Toes are long, parallel sided, with bulbous swellings at a little distance from the claw. Claws are very long, acutely pointed with basal spicules. The species resembles a brackish water form L. hastata Murray in the shape of the body and bulbous swellings for the toes; but differs by its large size, ventral plate with a prominent transverse ridge in front of the first foot joint, large posterior segment extending beyond the foot, presence of obtusely pointed coxal plates, and toes with very long, acutely pointed claw with short basal spicule. It also resembles L. ungulata Gosse, in its shape and long claws; but differs by its large size, absence of cusps, presence of bulbous swelling for the toes, and differently shaped second foot joint. (ref. ID; 689)

Measurements

Total length 308; length of dorsal plate 210; length of ventral plate 238; width of dorsal plate 154; width of ventral plate 168; toe 70; claw 42; width at anterior points 126 um. (ref. ID; 689)

Lecane donyanaensis Mazuelos & Segers, 1994 (ref. ID; 2016, 2845 original paper)

Synonym

Lecane cf. leontina after Mazuelos et al., 1993 (ref. ID; 2845)

Diagnosis

Lecane donyanaensis n. sp. is closely related to L. ungulata (Gosse). It is distinguished by the presence of a pair of sharp, pointed postero-lateral process on the foot plate. In L. ungulata, the posterior margin of the foot plate is truncate. L. donyanaensis n. sp. will key out to L. leontina following the key by Segers (1994). The resemblance between these two species is, however, only superficial: differences are in the shape of the head aperture margins (both concave in L. leontina, dorsal slightly convex in L. donyanaensis n. sp.), their absolute (specimens of L. donyanaensis n. sp. are generally larger than L. leontina) and relative dimensions (both lorica and toes relatively stout in L. donyanaensis n. sp.), and the length of their pseudoclaws (longer in L. donyanaensis). (ref. ID; 2845)

Descriptions

Lorica stiff, with domed dorsal and flat ventral plate. Ventral head aperture margin smoothly concave, dorsal slightly convex, occasionally irregular. Dorsal plate consistently narrower than ventral, with some irregular wrinkles anteriorly, otherwise smooth. Triangular antero-lateral projections present. Lateral sulci deep. Foot plate broad, with a pair of pointed postero-lateral projections and a smoothly curved medial part. Coxal plates rounded triangular. Prepedal fold broad, distally rounded. Foot pseudosegment trapezoidal, not projecting. Toes nearly parallel-sided, with weak basal swelling and occasional local constrictions. Pseudoclaws long, accessory claws present. (ref. ID; 2845)
  • Male: Male unknown. (ref. ID; 2845)

    Comments

    The status of L. donyanaensis as a separate species relative to L. ungulata appears controversial, when comparing the diagnostic characteristic between these two species with the known variability of the relevant structure in congeners such as L. leontina, L. ligona (Dunlop) and L. ludigii (Eckstein). However, the situation may not be the same as in these, where the common occurrence of several types of posterior projection has led to the conclusion that the phenomenon represents intraspecific variability without taxonomic significance. The situation here is probably one in which two clear cut taxa, one common, cosmopolitan and one rare, occur. It is, in fact, similar to the case of L. hamata (Stokes) and L. batillifer (Murray). In the light of above and until proof to the contrary, we concluded that L. donyanaensis n. sp. represents a separate species. (ref. ID; 2845)

    Etymology

    The species name -donyanaensis is derived from the name of the type locality, the Donana National Park. (ref. ID; 2845)

    Measurements

    Dorsal lorica length 207-250, width 178-204; ventral lorica length 200-278, width 180-232; head aperture width 119-150; toe length (without claw) 60-84; claw length 25-38 um. (ref. ID; 2845)

    Lecane doryssa Harring, 1914 (ref. ID; 1324, 1806, 1847, 2016, 2545, 2797, 2834, 3263, 3514) reported year? (ref. ID; 3449, 3502)

    Descriptions

    Lorica broader at anterior end. Dorsal plate with fold-like markings in preserved specimens. Toes short, bent laterally, narrowed at 3/5th of their length. (ref. ID; 1806)
    On the posterior margin of the dorsal lorica a vault was conspicuous which is bounded by a strong ledge. (ref. ID; 2834)

    Lecane dumonti Segers, 1993 (ref. ID; 2016, 2844 original paper, 2914)

    Diagnosis

    Lecane dumonti n. sp. cannot be mistaken for any of the known species of the genus. It superficially resembles L. inopinata Harring & Myers, but the characteristic and unusually strong pattern of ridges ventrally and dorsally, the row of minute spinules on the inner side of the head aperture, the shape of the foot pseudosegment, the basally swollen toe, and the relatively long claws distinguish the species easily. (ref. ID; 2844)

    Descriptions

    Lorica with domed dorsal and flat ventral plate, separated by lateral sulci. Dorsal lorica anteriorly narrower, medially wider than ventral lorica. Head aperture dorsally and ventrally straight, rows of minute spinules present on the inner sides of the dorsal and ventral lorica. Ventral lorica nearly parallel-sided, slightly longer than wide, divided into an anterior part with a characteristic pattern of strong folds and a posterior region by a narrow transversal fold. Foot plate broad, with complicated pattern of folds. Coxal plates inconspicuous, foot pseudosegment entirely covered by the posterior margin of the ventral lorica. Foot pseudosegment expanded distally, with lateral extensions. Toes partly fused, with a characteristic dorsal basal swelling. Claws relatively long. Dorsal lorica variably domed, with an unusually strong pattern of ridges. (ref. ID; 2844)
  • Male: Male unknown. (ref. ID; 2844)

    Comments

    This remarkable species was recently described from a single locality in Nigeria (Lake Oguta, Imo State: Segers, 1993), and can now also be cited from Brazil. The present specimens differ only slightly from Nigerian ones, in being smaller. (ref. ID; 2914)

    Etymology

    The species is named for Prof. Dr. H.J. Dumont. (ref. ID; 2844)

    Measurements

    Dorsal lorica length 59-69, width 58-67; ventral lorica length 66-71, width 53-65; toe length 23-25; fused part length 9-13; claw length 11-14 um. (ref. ID; 2844)
    Dorsal plate length 56 (59-69), width 50 (58-67); ventral plate length 59 (66-71), width 49 (53-65); toe length (without claws) 24 (23-25) (fused part: 9 (9-13)); claw length 8 (11-14) (Nigerian specimens between brackets) um. (ref. ID; 2914)

    Lecane dysorata Myers (ref. ID; 3036)

    Measurements

    Total length 66; length of toe 15 um. (ref. ID; 3036)

    Lecane (Monostyla) elachis (Harring & Myers, 1926) (ref. ID; 1345, 1847, 2064, 2714) reported year? (ref. ID; 3502) or (Harring & Myers, 1926) Myers, 1942 (ref. ID; 2016)

    See

    Lecane furcata (ref. ID; 2016)

    Synonym

    Monostyla elachis Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2016)

    Measurements

    Length of dorsal plate 76; length of ventral plate 81; width of dorsal plate 60; width of ventral plate 57; width of anterior end 55; foot 11; toe 25; claw 7 um. (ref. ID; 2714)

    Lecane elasma Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 1345, 1923, 2016, 2285, 3335, 3688)

    Measurements

    Length of body 130; length of toes 40; width of anterior points 50 um. (ref. ID; 2285)

    Lecane elegans Harring, 1914 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 2703, 2797, 3180)

    Descriptions

    Lorica elongate, slender, and parallel-sided, anterior dorsal margin convex, anterior ventral margin nearly straight. Posterior segment very large. Second foot joint large and subsquare, projecting almost with its entire length beyond the lorica. Toes very long and slender, about one third of the total length, and slightly recurved. In the posterior third; claw nearly half as long as the toe, outcurved and slightly recurved, with a conspicuous laterally directed basal spicule. (ref. ID; 3180)

    Lecane elongata Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 1345, 1806, 2016, 3144, 3688)

    Synonym

    Lecane murrayi Korde, 1927 (ref. ID; 1345)

    Descriptions

    Lorica long; anterior end broader than posterior. Toes narrowed at 1/4th of their length. (ref. ID; 1806)

    Lecane eswari (Dhanapathi, 1976) (ref. ID; 690 original paper, 2016)

    Descriptions

    Body slightly elongate, compressed and parallel sided anterior, gibbous dorsally and rounded posteriorly. Anterior dorsal and ventral margins of the lorica straight and coincident; with two moderately large spines at the external angles. Dorsal plate broad with four longitudinal ridges on the surface, and the ventral narrow and its sides ill-defined without prominent surface markings. Posterior segment long and narrow, projects beyond the dorsal plate. Coxal plates round and indistinct. Food does not extend beyond the lorica; first foot joint elongate and cylindrical and the second prominent and subsquare. Toes slender, parallel sided, tapering into small pointed claw without basal spicule. The species resembles L. flexilis Gosse, but differs by the characteristic shape of anterior spine, anterior dorsal and ventral margins of the lorica, surface markings of dorsal plate, shape of the second foot joint and in the absence of basal spicule for the claw. Also, it resembles L. aspasia Myers in shape, but differs by the narrow ventral plate with ill-defined margins, shape of the second foot joint and shape of the coxal plates. (ref. ID; 690)

    Measurements

    Length of the body 98; length of dorsal plate 70; length of ventral plate 84; toes 28; claw 7; width of dorsal plate 70; width of ventral plate 56; at anterior region 63 um. (ref. ID; 690)

    Lecane eylesi Russell, 1953 (ref. ID; 1709, 2016, 3127 original paper)

    Synonym

    Lecane tasmaniensis Shiel & Koste, 1985 (ref. ID; 2016)

    Descriptions

    The lorica is slightly flexible and generally ovate, its maximum width being about three quarters of its length. There are two minute anterior lateral spines. The dorsal plate is ovate and is broadly rounded posteriorly its anterior edge being straight to very slightly concave according to the state of contraction. The ventral plate follows the outline of the dorsal plate but is narrower with an anterior edge having a shallow shouldered sinus. There is a transverse surface marking in front of the first foot joint, and on some specimens there are two or three semi-circular markings on each lateral edge of the plate. The posterior segment is rounded and projects moderately beyond the dorsal plate. The co-axial plates are small and rounded posteriorly. The first foot joint is indistinct and somewhat reverse ovate. The second joint is sub-square. The toes are long, parallel, and terminate in fairly long acute claws, with strong basal spicules. (ref. ID; 3127)

    Etymology

    Lecane eylesi was collected by Mr. J. Eyles, in whose honour it is named. (ref. ID; 3127)

    Type locality

    This was collected from swampy pools at Hemokawa and Owenga, Chatham Island. (ref. ID; 3127)

    Measurements

    Total length 168; length of dorsal plate 106; length of ventral plate 118; width of dorsal plate 86; width of ventral plate 70; anterior margin 50; length of toes with claws 52; length of claw 10 um. (ref. ID; 3127)

    Lecane fadeevi (Neiswestnova-Shadina, 1935) (ref. ID; 2418 redescribed paper) or (Neiswestnova-Shadina, 1935) Voigt, 1957 (ref. ID; 2016)

    See

    Lecane psammophila (ref. ID; 2016)

    Synonym

    Lecane closterocerca after Pawlowski (1956, 1958), partly. (ref. ID; 2418); Lecane fadeevi Segers, 1994 (p.145) (ref. ID; 2418); Lecane fadeewi Voigt, 1957 (p.238) (ref. ID; 2418); Monostyla fadeevi Neiswestnova-Shadina, 1935 (p.561-562 figs.7, 8), Kutikova, 1970 (p.469) (ref. ID; 2418); Monostyla fadeewi Wiszniewski, 1954 (p.69), Koste, 1978 (p.245) (ref. ID; 2418)

    Diagnosis

    L. fadeevi can be distinguished from L. psammophila by its different lorica: in L. fadeevi, the dorsal plate is medially wider, anteriorly narrower than the ventral plate, whereas the dorsal is consistently wider than the ventral in L. psammophila. L. fadeevi is closely related to L. closterocerca (Schmarda, 1859) and L. boliviana Segers, 1995 by its similar lorica. It is characterised by the antero-lateral corners of its ventral plate being angulate (with sharp, triangular spines in L. boliviana), and by the peculiar shape of it toe (bulging medially, with short terminal fissure in L. fadeevi, parallel-sided, occasionally with a weak constriction in the basal part, the tip smoothly tapering to a sharp point distally in L. closterocerca and L. boliviana). The species also has a relatively broader for pseudosegment than L. closterocerca. (ref. ID; 2418)

    Descriptions

    Lorica stiff, smooth or slightly ornamented. Dorsal plate anteriorly narrower, medially wider than ventral plate. Head aperture margins nearly coincident, slightly concave or straight. Antero-lateral corners angulate. Lateral edges of dorsal plate scarcely reaching anterior edge. Ventral plate longer than wide, with incomplete transverse and weak longitudinal folds. Lateral margins smooth or irregularly folded, slightly curved. Lateral sulci deep. Foot plate short, with rounded triangular coxal plates. Prepedal fold narrow, elongate, posterior margin with median projection. Foot pseudosegment simple, slightly wider than long, scarcely projecting. Toe single, distinctly-bulging in the proximal half, then tapering to point. A short, scarcely visible terminal fissure present, no claw. Trophi malleate, modified. Fulcrum short, fan-shaped. Unci with weak preuncinal plates, and three unequal, fused teeth left and right. Manubria elongate, relatively wide in lateral view, with sharp, recurved distal hooks. (ref. ID; 2418)

    Comments

    Wiszniewski (1954) used a variant spelling of the species' name, 'fadeewi', instead of the original 'fadeevi' of Neiswestnowa-Shadina (1935). According to the rules governing Zoological Nomenclature, the spelling fadeevi is a correct original spelling (see Art. 32 (c)(ii), International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, 1985). On the other hand, fadeewi can not be considered an 'incorrect subsequent spelling' (without further nomenclatural consequences), but is 'demonstrably intentional', as Wiszniewski (1954) consistently transliterated the Cyrillic letter 'B' to the Latin 'W' throughout his work (see Art. 33(b)(i)). L. fadeewi has therefore to be treated as an 'unjustified emendation'. As such, L. fadeewi (Wiszniewski, 1954) in an available name, and a junior, objective synonym of L. fadeevi (Neiswestnowa-Shadina, 1935) (Art. 33(b)(iii))). A similar situation is that of L. kutikowa Koste, 1972 and L. kutikova Koste, 1978. Obviously, such cases represent unnecessary nomenclatural complications, which should be avoided. (ref. ID; 2418)

    Measurements

    Dorsal plate length 75-74, width 66-74; ventral plate length 76-90 (75); width 60-64; head aperture width 46 (45); toe length 29-32 (27), width 9-10 (75 um (lapsus; 7.5 um?)) (4 species; measurements of Neiswestnowa-Shadina (1935) between brackets). Trophi length 29-32; manubrium length 24-25, uncus length 9-10, incus width 14 um. (ref. ID; 2418)

    Lecane fernandoi Chengalath & Mulamoottil, 1974 (ref. ID; 2599 original paper)

    See

    Lecane hamata (ref. ID; 2016)

    Descriptions

    Lorica elongate and rectangular; anterior margins not coincident. Anterior end of dorsal plate narrow and lunate, and anterior end of ventral plate formed into a deep sinus, the external angles of which appear as two spine-like projections. Dorsal and ventral plates of same width, and the posterior ends more or less straight. Foot unsegmented. Coxal plates absent. (ref. ID; 2599)

    Comments

    Lecane hamata is probably the closest relative of Lecane fernandoi. The anterior sinus in L. hamata is not very deep and therefore no spines are formed in the external angles. Further, the lorica of L. hamata is distinctly oval, with a gradual tapering towards the posterior end, and the dorsal and ventral plates of that species are not of the same width. Also unlike L. fernandoi, the coxal plates are clearly discernible in Lecane hamata. (ref. ID; 2599)

    Etymology

    This species is named after Dr. C.H. Fernando, Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario. (ref. ID; 2599)

    Measurements

    Length of dorsal plate 81; length of ventral plate 88; width of dorsal plate 51; width of ventral plate 48; width at anterior end 33; toe 29 um. (ref. ID; 2599)

    Lecane flabellata Edmondson, 1936 (ref. ID; 2771 original paper)

    Descriptions

    The body is subquadrangular. The anterior dorsal margin is convex; the ventral margin is slightly concave. There are prominent cusps at the external anterior corners. The dorsal plate is subquadrangular and truncate behind. The ventral plate is elongate, with slightly converging, nearly straight sides in the anterior half. The posterior segment is large, thick, and fan-shaped. It is rounded behind and set off from the rest of the body by a deep constriction. The lateral sulci are well developed. Coxal plates are lacking. The posterior foot segment usually does not project beyond the posterior segment, although in one specimen observed, it did project slightly. The single toe is fairly long, and is bulbous near the end. It ends in a minute spicule. (ref. ID; 2771)

    Comments

    It has a general resemblance to L. batillifer (Murray) and L. lamellata (Daday), but is easily separated from them by the shape of the anterior margins and toe. (ref. ID; 2771)

    Measurements

    Length of dorsal plate 72; length of ventral plate 96; length of toe 36; width of dorsal plate 60; width of ventral plate 60; width of posterior segment 32 um. (ref. ID; 2771)

    Lecane flexilis (Gosse, 1886) (ref. ID; 2016, 2276, 2599, 2998, 3275, 3514, 3688) or 1889 (ref. ID; 696, 1312, 1345, 1351, 2268, 2841, 2994, 3263) reported year? (ref. ID; 1450, 2064, 2196, 2642, 2787, 2823, 2890, 2932, 3141, 3208, 3502)

    Synonym

    Cathypna brevis Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 2016, 3263, 3688); Cathypna flexilis Stenroos, 1898 (ref. ID; 2016, 3688); Distyla flexilis Gosse, 1886 (ref. ID; 2016, 2276) or 1889 (ref. ID; 1345, 1351, 2841, 3514) reported year? (ref. ID; 3141, 3208) or Hudson & Gosse, 1886 (ref. ID; 3263, 3275, 3688); Distyla lipara Gosse, 1887 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane brevis (Murray, 1913) or Voigt, 1957 (ref. ID; 2016) or Wiszniewski, 1930 (ref. ID; 3263, 3688); Lecane compta Harring, 1914 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane flexilis Harring, 1914 (ref. ID; 1345, 3263) or Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 2016, 3688); Lecane glypta Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2016, 3263, 3688); Lecane lipara (Gosse, 1887) (ref. ID; 2016)

    Comments

    The surface markings of this species are hard to distinguish and ought preferably to be studied from empty loricas. Such loricas are rarely found, however, and it is possible that details escaped Pejler in the pattern of the lorica of the two animals depicted in Figs.88-89, both of which were alive at the time of preservation. Even if we disregard Figs.88-89 in this essay, it is clear that the appearance of the lorica pattern varies considerably (cf. the drawings in Carlin 1939 and in the works referred to on p.18 in the same work, and Pax and Wulfert 1941, Fig.4a-b). For reason it is not at present possible to distinguish L. flexilis from closely related species by means of the lorica pattern. By its short body (when preserved in formalin!) L. flexilis can be distinguished from most other patterned Lecane species, including the closely related L. stichaea. However, this characteristic, too, is subject to variation. As far as the Lapland material is concerned more elongated specimens were sometime encountered, especially in two arctic waters. These specimens have a more stichaea-like appearance. In Voigt's (1956-57) identification table the characteristic distinguishing L. flexilis from L. stichaea is that in contracted animals the foot sticks out behind the lorica in L. stichaea but not in L. flexilis. How far the foot is drawn in varies in different flexilis specimens, however, and in one preserved individual from C 40 the posterior contour of the last foot joint coincident exactly with the edge of the lorica. (The latter specimens unfortunately got lost before Pejler had a chance to make a drawing of it.) On the whole, however, it was possible from the Lapland material to make a distinguish between L. flexilis and L. stichaea. The length of the lorica in L. flexilis varies between 75 and 85 um. (ref. ID; 1450)

    Measurements

    Length dorsal plate 58; length ventral plate 74; width dorsal plate 52; width ventral plate 44; anterior width 47; toe 12; claw 4 um. (ref. ID; 696)
    Length of lorica 68-82; width of lorica 62-83; length of toes 22-31; length of claws 8-12 um. (ref. ID; 3275)

    Lecane formosa Harring & Myers (ref. ID; 4606)

    Measurements

    Total length 64; dorsal lorica length 46; dorsal lorica width 45; ventral lorica length 47; ventral lorica width 44; frontal margin width 40; toe & claw 16; claw 3 um. (ref. ID; 4606)

    Lecane (Monostyla) furcata (Murray, 1913) (ref. ID; 696, 1312, 1345, 1923, 2016, 2265, 2268, 2269, 2281, 2599, 3263, 3271, 3335, 3514, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 1450, 3239, 3449, 3502, 3523, 6846) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 3063)

    Synonym

    Lecane elachis (Harring & Myers, 1926) Myers, 1942 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane furcata elachis (Harring & Myers, 1926) (ref. ID; 3514); Lecane mologensis (Bogoslovsky, 1935) Kutikova, 1970 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane ovalis (Jakubski, 1914) (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane tethis (Harring & Myers, 1926) Wiszniewski, 1954 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane vanoyei De Ridder, 1960 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla elachis Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 3263, 3514, 3688) or Smirnov, 1929 (ref. ID; 3688); Monostyla furcata Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3263, 3271, 3514, 3688); Monostyla ovalis Jakubski, 1914 (ref. ID; 3688); Monostyla tethis Harring & Myers (ref. ID; 3449, 3502)

    Measurements

    Length dorsal plate 64; length ventral plate 60; width dorsal plate 52; width ventral plate 46; toe 16; claw 4 um. (ref. ID; 696)
    Total length 94; length of dorsal plate 69; length of ventral plate 71; width of dorsal plate 67; width of ventral plate 58; toe and claw 23 um. (ref. ID; 2281)
    Length of dorsal plate 73; length of ventral plate 71; width of dorsal plate 65; width of ventral plate 60; width at anterior end 42; toe 19; claw 6 um. (ref. ID; 2599)

    Lecane (Monostyla) galeata (Bryce, 1892) (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 2064, 2824, 3275, 3508, 3514, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 4607)

    Synonym

    Lecane beningi Tarnogradski, 1961 (ref. ID; 2016, 3508); Lecane galeata Myers, 1942 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane parva Daday, 1897 (ref. ID; 2016, 3508); Lecane pygmaea Daday, 1897 (ref. ID; 3508), (Daday, 1897) Myers, 1937 (ref. ID; 2016, 2064), Myers, 1937 (ref. ID; 3688) or Pawlowski, 1938 (ref. ID; 3688); Lecane turbo Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 2016, 3508); Monostyla galeata Bryce, 1892 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3275, 3514, 3688) or Bryce & Myers, 1940 (ref. ID; 1345); Monostyla parva Daday, 1897 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3688); Monostyla pygmaea Daday, 1897 (ref. ID; 1345, 3275, 3514, 3688), Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2016) or Wulfert, 1940 (ref. ID; 2064); Monostyla turbo Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3688)

    Comments

    According to Myers 1940, L. galeata (Bryce) and L. pygmaea (Daday) are the same species, therefore the latter name falls before the former. (ref. ID; 3275)

    Measurements

    Length of dorsal plate 55; width of dorsal plate 45; length of ventral plate 52; length of toes 52; length of claws 4 um. (ref. ID; 3275)

    Lecane gissensis (Eckstein, 1883) (ref. ID; 1345, 1351, 3688), (Eckstein, 1883) Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 2016) or (Hudson & Gosse, 1886) (ref. ID; 3127)

    Synonym

    Dystyla gissensis Eckstein, 1883 (ref. ID; 1351, 3688); Distyla gissensis Hudson & Gosse, 1886 (ref. ID; 3127), Mola, 1913 (ref. ID; 3688) or Sachse, 1912 (ref. ID; 3688)

    Descriptions

    The body has the approximate form of a truncated ellipse and in cross section of an elliptical tube with straight ant4erior edges, and on the anterior lateral edges are two minute spines. Several contracted specimens were found with a sub-square membranous head sheath protruded. The first foot joint is large and pyriform, the second joint subcircular. The toes are straight and terminate in slightly recurved claws. Distyla gissensis Eckstein is unrecognisable but Gosse examined a number of specimens thought to be Eckstein's animal, and although the description and figure in "The Rotifera" is not entirely satisfactory the animals collected from the Chatham Islands agreed in may respect with Gosse's description and sufficient to warrant assigning the specimens to this species rather than forming another species for them. Gosse states that the toes are rod like and expanded, but all the specimens examined had straight toe without any distyl expansion. (ref. ID; 3127)

    Measurements

    Total length 124; maximum width 58; length of toes with claw 26; length of claw 10 um. (ref. ID; 3127)

    Lecane grandis (Murray, 1913) (ref. ID; 1312, 1345, 2016, 3160, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 3502)

    Synonym

    Cathypna grandis (Murray, 1913) (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3688); Lecane grandis Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 1345)

    Descriptions

    The dorsal anterior margin overlaps the ventral margin slightly and both are nearly straight. The toes are long, presenting a distinct constriction anterior to the claw. (ref. ID; 1312)
    There seems to be some variation in the degree to which the coxal plates project beyond the ventral plate of the lorica. The lateral spines were absent from the toes of one specimen, but this character is known to be variable in other species of the genus. (ref. ID; 3160)

    Measurements

    Length of dorsal plate 132 um; length of ventral plate 140 um; width of dorsal plate 113 um; length of toes 52 um; length of claws 11 um. (ref. ID; 1312)

    Lecane (Monostyla) hamata (Stokes, 1859) (ref. ID; 2704) or 1896 (ref. ID; 689, 696, 1312, 1345, 2016, 2064, 2265, 2282, 2317, 2385, 2545, 2599, 2640, 2683, 2757, 2823, 2825, 3060, 3127, 3275, 3512, 3514, 3688) or reported year? (ref. ID; 2890, 2898, 3037, 3039, 3239, 3274, 3448, 3501, 3502), hamata hamata (Stokes, 1896) (ref. ID; 3083)

    Synonym

    Lecane arcuata f. magna Koste, 1978 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane fernandoi Chengalath & Mulamoottil, 1974 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane hamata victoriensis Koste & Shiel, 1980 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane sinuata (Hauer, 1938) Voigt, 1957 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla hamata Stokes, 1896 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 2757, 3274, 3275, 3514, 3688); Monostyla sinuata Hauer, 1938 (ref. ID; 2016)

    Descriptions

    Lorica is ovate, anterior dorsal margin concave, ventral margin with deep-V-shaped sinus; with two triangular cusps present between the sinus and edges of the lorica. Dorsal plate is ovate and broader than the ventral. Posterior segment is small. First foot joint is indistinct, second subsquare. Toe is slender parallel sided for half its length and tapers into acute point without a claw. (ref. ID; 689)
    Dorsal plate not facetted. (ref. ID; 2317)

    Measurements

    Total length 112; length of dorsal plate 70; length of ventral plate 84; width of dorsal plate 56; width of ventral plate 49; toe 28 um. (ref. ID; 689)
    Total length 112; length of dorsal plate 67-70; length ventral plate 71-84; width of dorsal plate 46-56; width of ventral plate 40-49; toe 24-28 um. (ref. ID; 696)
    Total length 96 um. (ref. ID; 2282)
    Length of dorsal plate 60; length of ventral plate 70; width of dorsal plate 50; width of ventral plate 36; length of toe and claw 24 um. (ref. ID; 2317)
    Length of dorsal plate 73; length of ventral plate 80; width of dorsal plate 58; width of ventral plate 49; toe 30 um. (ref. ID; 2385)
    Length of dorsal plate 66; length of ventral plate 82; width of dorsal plate 56; width of ventral plate 53; width at anterior end 32; toe 32 um. (ref. ID; 2599)
    One had a lorica 68 um long and the other was 80 um long; the toe of each was 32 um long. (ref. ID; 2683)
    Length dorsal plate 65; length ventral plate 72; width dorsal plate 45; width ventral plate 40; toe 24 um. (ref. ID; 2704)
    Total length 96; dorsal lorica length 65; width at the anterior extremity 39; widest part 54 (dorsal), 43 (ventral); toes 30 um. (ref. ID; 3083)
    Total length 106; length of dorsal plate 66; length of ventral plate 76; width of dorsal plate 52; width of ventral plate 40; toe 30 um. (ref. ID; 3127)
    Length of dorsal plate of lorica 64-66; width of dorsal plate of lorica 50-64; length of ventral plate of lorica 67-72; width of ventral plate of lorica 48-50; length of toe 28-31 um. (ref. ID; 3275)

    Lecane hamata victoriensis Koste & Shiel, 1980 (ref. ID; 2758 original paper)

    See

    Lecane hamata (ref. ID; 2016)

    Descriptions

    Both anterior points of dorsal lorica at head aperture are congruent with ventral lorica, therefore not visible. Whereas this aperture in type flat or deeply curved, in spp. it is a deep trapezoid notch, basally 8 um wide, bordered by light, curved lines. Lorica outline widely oval. Ventral plate smaller than dorsal plate. Toe gradually tapering from point f insertion at second foot segment. (ref. ID; 2758)

    Comments

    Morphologically, this ssp. shows several characteristics in agreement with L. (M.) sinuata Hauer, 1938. A similar rotifer also was described from India by Wulfert (1966) as L. arcuata (Bryce), however the notch between the anterior spines in this latter form are otherwise shaped, and significant differences are seen in the measurements. (ref. ID; 2758)

    Measurements

    Measurements (in um) are given in the following sequence: overall length, dorsal plate, ventral plate anterior transverse width, toe length, form of neck opening for each form of In contrast to L. h. victoriensis, L. h. var. thienemanni has a characteristic horizontal dorsal lorica margin, and the toe is distended in the middle. (ref. ID; 2758)

    Lecane harringi Ahlstrom, 1934 (ref. ID; 2812, 2935, 3125) reported year? (ref. ID; 1312, 2064, 2269) or (Ahlstrom, 1934) Wiszniewski, 1954 (ref. ID; 2016)

    See

    Lecane punctata (ref. ID; 2016, 2935)

    Synonym

    Monostyla punctata Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 2064)

    Comments

    Taxonomy of L. harringi and L. punctata (Murray) has been confused until recently. Using biometrical analysis, Jose de Paggi (1989) and Turner (1990) demonstrated that two closely related species exist. (ref. ID; 1312)
    There is much confusion between these two species. De Ridder (1977, 1981) tried to bring order in the chaos, and considered L. punctata as neotropical, and L. harringi as pansubtropical. For Koste (1978) both species are synonyms, with priority for L. punctata. Recently, Jose de Paggi (1989) and Turner (1990) have taken up again, on a mathematical basis, the confusion between the two species. They both concluded that two species must be distinguished. The former author proposes the name L. deridderae for L. punctata as mentioned by Ahlstrom (1934), whereas Turner (1990) keeps on using the old names L. punctata and L. harringi. Judging from the original descriptions of L. punctata and L. harringi, we favor the solution proposed by Jose de Paggi (1989). Segers draws the attention to the fact, that L. deridderae is a junior homonym to L. deridderae Koste, 1972 and proposes the name L. margarethae for the species found in Florida and the Caribbean. (ref. ID; 2935)

    Lecane hastata (Murray, 1913) (ref. ID; 1312, 1345, 1837, 2016, 2064, 2545, 2803, 3000, 3180) reported year? (ref. ID; 3502)

    Synonym

    Cathypna hastata Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane hastata Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane hegurensis Yamamoto, 1951 (ref. ID; 2964) or 1956 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane jana Abdullaev, 1989 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane namibiensis (Koste & Brain, 1993) (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane plesia Myers, 1936 (ref. ID; 2016)

    Descriptions

    This species has broad dorsal plate with anterior margin somewhat convex, external angles with two spines. Ventral plate with anterior margin straight. The posterior segment is small and the second foot joint projects someway beyond the lorica. The toes are long and straight, with a bulbous swelling near the end. (ref. ID; 1837)
    Lorica broadly ovate, anterior dorsal margin very slightly convex, ventral margin straight. With two small anterior spines at the external angles. Posterior segment relatively small and rounded. Second foot joint subsquare, projecting beyond the posterior end of the lorica. Toes long and slender, more than one-fourth of the total length, straight, parallel-sided with a bulbous enlargement near the posterior end, and terminating in a long, slender, acutely pointed claw. (ref. ID; 3180)

    Comments

    L. hastata is probably related to L. crepida. The two agree in the peculiar structure of the lorica and the posterior segments and foot joints. (ref. ID; 3180)

    Measurements

    Dorsal plate length 88; dorsal plate width 80; ventral plate length 115; ventral plate width 97; toes length 30 um. (ref. ID; 1837)

    Lecane hegurensis Yamamoto, 1951 (ref. ID; 3054 original paper) or 1956 (ref. ID; 2016)

    See

    Lecane hastata (ref. ID; 2016)

    Descriptions

    Lorica ovate in outline; dorso-ventral depth considerable; anterior margins coincident, slightly convex at central portion, almost straight at lateral portions, at external angles with small spines. Dorsal plate broadly ovate, parallel-sided anteriorly and slightly undulated and truncated posteriorly; two pairs of longitudinal ridges situated on dorsal surface. Ventral plate as wide as dorsal plate; lateral sulci ordinary; posterior segment broad and round, projecting considerably beyond dorsal plate. First foot-joint small and inconspicuous, second foot-joint comparatively short and subtrapezoid. Toes fairly long, terminating in acutely pointed claws. Claw long and slender, two-thirds of length of claw, very thin a d slightly incurved. (ref. ID; 3054)

    Comments

    This species resembles Lecane aspasia in some respects, but the dorsal ridges, the form of the second foot-joint, the toes, and the very small size of the lorica are the chief different features from L. aspasia. (ref. ID; 3054)

    Type locality

    This species is found among material collected by Mr. Mashiko on August 3, 1948 from a brackish-water pool on Hegura Island in the Japan Sea. (ref. ID; 3054)

    Measurements

    Length of dorsal plate 70 (82); width of dorsal plate 60 (75); length of ventral plate 85 (94); width of ventral plate 60 (75); width between anterior spines 55 (63); length of spine 6; length of toe without claw 15 (30); length of claw 13 (8); maximum height of lorica 46 um (dimension of Lecane aspasia in bracket). (ref. ID; 3054)

    Lecane herzigi Koste, Shiel & Tan, 1988 (ref. ID; 1709, 2016)

    Measurements

    Dorsal plate 100x75; ventral plate 117x65; width anterior margin 48; toe 39 um. (ref. ID; 1709)

    Lecane hornemanni (Ehrenberg, 1833) (ref. ID; 2599, 2714, 3127), 1834 (ref. ID; 1345, 1351, 1847, 2016, 2064, 2261, 2281, 2797, 3514, 3688), 1838 (ref. ID; 2268) or 1881 (ref. ID; 689, 3180) reported year? (ref. ID; 2936, 3040, 3502), hornemanni hornemanni Ehrenberg (ref. ID; 4606)

    See

    Lecane nodosa Hauer 1937/38 (ref. ID; 2797), Lecane nelsoni

    Synonym

    Cathypna hornemanni Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3688); Distyla hornemanni Hudson & Gosse, 1889 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3688); Euchlanis hornemanni Ehrenberg, 1833 (ref. ID; 3127) or 1834 (ref. ID; 1345, 1351, 2016, 2281, 3688); Lecane camptica Berzins, 1982 (ref. ID; 2016, 2936); Lecane ceylonensis Chengalath & Fernando, 1973 (ref. ID; 2016, 2936); Lecane hornemanni Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 3688) or 1914 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016); Lecane lamiranoensis Berzins, 1982 (ref. ID; 2016, 2936); Lecane nodosa Hauer, 1938 (ref. ID; 2016, 2936)

    Descriptions

    Lorica is broad, ovate and its width slightly greater than the length. Anterior margins are coincident and convex. Dorsal plate broader than the ventral and rounded posteriorly. Ventral plate with wavy ill defined margins. Posterior segment small and projects very little. Coxal plates are obtusely pointed. First foot joint parallel sided and the second is large. Toes long, stout gradually tapering to acute slightly incurved points without claw. (ref. ID; 689)
    Lorica broadly ovate, its width greater than the length, anterior margins coincident and convex. Anterior spines absent. Posterior segment short, broad, and semicircular, projecting beyond the dorsal plate. Second foot joint very large, somewhat elongate, and projects considerably beyond the lorica. Toes long and fairly stout, one-fourth of the total length, very slightly tapering for about two-thirds of their length, terminating in long conical, acute points, very slightly outcurved, without any claw. (ref. ID; 3180)

    Consideration of synonym

    L. hornemanni is a variable species, especially in the following aspects: 1) Its size can vary considerably. 2) The presence or absence of knobby spheres on the dorsal and ventral lorica is also subject to variation. Hauer's (1938) figure of L. hornemanni shows a specimen with some spheres on the dorsal lorica. Wulfert (1966) also depicts such a specimen, and comments upon the specimen with "seltener Musterung des Ruckenplattes". 3) A projecting foot pseudosegment can be absent or present, depending on the degree of contraction of the specimen. 4) Due to the variable degree of stiffness of the lorica, it can deform by fixation forming artefacts. 5) The tips of the toes of L. hornemanni are asymmetrical, which can only be seen in lateral view or, when the toes are twisted, in ventral (or dorsal) view, thus depending on orientation. Therefore, the presence of "pseudoclaws" should, in this case, not be considered a good diagnostic characteristic. The original diagnosis of L. nodosa takes a combination of characters listed under (1) and (2) into account, together with a third diagnostic characteristic, which is the form of the foot pseudosegment. The latter can, however, not be appreciated on Hauer's (1938) drawings. As the remaining two characters vary independently, as is the case with the additional distinguishing characteristic listed by Koste & Shiel (1990), I conclude that L. nodosa is a synonym of L. hornemanni. This is in agreement with Koste (1988), but at variance with Koste (1978) and Koste & Shiel (1990). L. camptica and L. lamiranoensis are based on specimens which are laterally contracted, and the latter is reported to have "pseudoclaws". Berzins (1982) also takes the size of the animals under consideration. Another species described on laterally contracted animals is L. ceylonensis. As a consequence, those three names are here considered synonyms of L. hornemanni. (ref. ID; 2936)

    Measurements

    Total length 84; length of dorsal plate 70; width of dorsal plate 77; width of ventral plate 63; toes 28; width at anterior points 56 um. (ref. ID; 689)
    Total length 130; width of dorsal plate 96; width of ventral plate; toes 30 um. (ref. ID; 2281)
    Length of dorsal plate 72; length of ventral plate 82; width of dorsal plate 85; width of ventral plate 72; width of anterior end 69; foot 15; toe 29 um. (ref. ID; 2714)
    Total length 112; length of dorsal plate 78; length of ventral plate 80; width of dorsal plate 80; width of ventral plate 66; length of toes 30 um. (ref. ID; 3127)

    Lecane hospes Donner, 1951 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 2628, 2824, 2935, 3275) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 2972)

    Comments

    Donner described it from fallen beech foliage and stressed its affinity to L. mitis, L. tudicola and L. depressa. In Koste (1978) L. hospes was not included in the keys, but again its relationship to other species was indicated, in comparing Donner's figures with those of the so-called related species, and taking into consideration the author's remark about his inability to detect the exact morphology of the head opening, it is very probable that Lecane hospes is identical with the variety L. depressa Bryce of L. levistyla. The former species is therefore considered a synonym of the latter. (ref. ID; 2935)

    Measurements

    Dorsal plate of lorica 75x50; ventral plate of lorica 78x35 um; length of toes 28 um. (ref. ID; 3275)

    Lecane imbricata Carlin, 1939 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3263 original paper, 3275, 3532)

    Measurements

    Contracted specimens: body length 92; body width 57; length of toes 35 um. (ref. ID; 3275)

    Lecane inermis (Bryce, 1892) (ref. ID; 1345, 1847, 2016, 2268, 2640, 2787, 2823, 2825, 2994, 3036, 3275, 3514, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 2890)

    Synonym

    Cathypna inermis Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3688); Distyla amorpha Karsinkin, 1925 (ref. ID; 3688); Distyla inermis Bryce, 1892 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3275, 3688); Lecane amorpha Harring, 1914 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3688) or Hauer, 1924 (ref. ID; 3688); Lecane inermis Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345, 3688); Lecane supinoi Manfredi, 1929 (ref. ID; 2016)

    Measurements

    Length of ventral plate 60-62; width of ventral plate 39-40; length of toe with claw 22-23; length of claw 10-11 um. (ref. ID; 3036)
    Length of lorica (contracted) 60-80; width of lorica 36-48; length of toes 30-44; length of claws 10-12 um. (ref. ID; 3275)

    Lecane infula Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 1351, 2016, 2393)

    Descriptions

    The main patterns of surface markings on the dorsum consist of extraordinarily complicated dotted lines. (ref. ID; 2393)

    Lecane (Hemimonostyla) inopinata Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 689, 696, 1312, 1345, 2016, 2265, 2283, 2797, 2820, 2825, 2914, 3125)

    See

    Lecane braziliensis

    Synonym

    Lecane inopinata sympoda Wiszniewski, 1954 (ref. ID; 2825); Lecane sympoda Hauer, 1929 and 1938 (ref. ID; 2825); Lecane sympoda Wiszniewski, 1931 (ref. ID; 2825); Lecane sympoda Wulfert, 1966 (ref. ID; 2825)

    Descriptions

    Lorica is broadly ovate, anterior dorsal and ventral margins are coincident. Dorsal plate is slightly truncate posteriorly, without any surface markings. Ventral plate is nearly of the same size as dorsal with several longitudinal and two transverse ridges. Posterior segment is small and projects little beyond the dorsal. First foot joint pyriform, the second subsquare and prominent. Toes are slender, straight, fused nearly 1/3 of their length, ending in claw. (ref. ID; 689)
    Hauer (1938) and Wulfert (1966) stated that L. inopinata and L. sympoda could be variations of one species. Sharma (1978) and Dhanapathi (1976) considered L. inopinata as a distinct species. (ref. ID; 696)

    Comments

    It differs from L. sympoda Hauer, chiefly by the absence of spines at the anterior external angles, surface marking and length of toes. Very rare. It is true that species of Monostyla are unquestionably Lecanes with fused toes, but still more evidence is necessary to finally combine Monostyla with Lecane. (ref. ID; 689)
    As seen in the synonymy, we do not consider L. sympoda Hauer, 1929 as a good species. The distinction between inopinata and sympoda rests upon a) the absence of an ornamentation on the dorsal plate of the lorica in sympoda; b) the toes fused in their basal fourth in sympoda, in their basal third in inopinata; c) the presence of hooks on the anterior edges of the lorica in sympoda; these are absent in inopinata. Wiszniewski (1931) has reported specimens from Spain, recorded as sympoda, in which no anterior hooks are present. He also adds an additional structural detail: small contraction of the toes somewhat based of the point of fusion. This detail is well visible in our material also. However, the toes are fused in their basal third, thus being more like inopinata. There consequently remains only one distinctive character between both: the absence of an ornamentation on the dorsal plate in inopinata. We regard this as an insufficient basis for preserving the name sympoda at the species level. Wulfert (1966) indeed reports specimens from India in which the fusion of the toes varies enormously, and in which the sculpturing of the plates is said to be different of that described by Hauer (1929). It is therefore quite conceivable that, under certain ecological conditions, this ornamentations may disappear completely. (ref. ID; 2825)

    Measurements

    Total length 84; length of dorsal plate 70; width of dorsal plate 70; width of ventral plate 63; toes 28; claw 7; width at anterior points 56 um. (ref. ID; 689)
    Total length 84; length of dorsal plate 70-75; length of ventral plate 80; width of dorsal plate 60-70; width of ventral plate 57-63; toe 25-28; claw 5-7; width at anterior points 56 um. (ref. ID; 696)
    Length of body 80; length of toes and claws 23; width of anterior points 48 um. (ref. ID; 2283)

    Lecane islandica De Ridder, 1967 (ref. ID; 3275)

    See

    Lecane mira (ref. ID; 2016)

    Measurements

    Length of dorsal plate of lorica 125-140; width of dorsal plate of lorica 90-105; length of ventral plate of lorica 75-94; length of toes 35-50; length of claws 10-15 um. (ref. ID; 3275)

    Lecane jessupi Harring, 1912 (ref. ID; 1345) or Harring, 1921 (ref. ID; 2016, 2593)

    See

    Lecane ligona (ref. ID; 2016)

    Descriptions

    It can be recognized by the posterior segment of the lorica which is much narrower than the dorsal plate. This distinguishes it from the similar but much smaller L. ligona. The dorsal plate is much smaller than the ventral one and is cut off straight at its posterior edge. First foot joint large and distinct, second one square. Toes short, spindle-like with conical points, inner edge smooth. (ref. ID; 2593)

    Measurements

    Dorsal plate 90-102 long, 64-70 wide; ventral plate 110-130 long, 82-96 wide; frontal points 51-57; posterior points 41-48; toes 18-20 um. (ref. ID; 2593)

    Lecane (Heminostyla) kluchor (Tarnogradsky, 1930 (ref. ID; 1412, 3449 original paper, 3688) or 1961 (ref. ID; 1856) or reported year? (ref. ID; 2906, 3502), Tarnogradski, 1930 (ref. ID; 2016)

    Synonym

    Lecane diadema Hauer, 1931 (ref. ID; 2016, 2906, 3688)

    Measurements

    Length dorsal lorica 95-108; width dorsal lorica 94-100; length ventral lorica 102-111; width ventral lorica 78-82; toes 36-41; claws 3.5-4.6 um. (ref. ID; 1412)

    Lecane kostei De Ridder, 1966 (ref. ID; 2823 original paper, 3275)

    See

    Lecane latissima (ref. ID; 2016)

    Measurements

    Length of dorsal plate of lorica 105; width of dorsal plate of lorica 100; length of ventral plate of lorica 102-103; width of ventral plate of lorica 73-75; length of toes 34-35; length of claws 8-10 um. (ref. ID; 3275)

    Lecane lamellata thalera (Harring & Myers, 1926) (ref. ID; 1806, 1847)

    Descriptions

    Lorica oval, anterior margin strongly lunate with small lateral projections. Toe long, strong, not split at posterior end. (ref. ID; 1806)

    Lecane lateralis Sharma, 1978 (ref. ID; 688, 1324, 2016)

    Descriptions

    Lorica broadly ovate in outline, compressed dorsoventrally. Anterior dorsal margin concave, anterior ventral margin undulating and with a shallow median sinus. Dorsal plate almost circular, with maximum width in the middle and without any surface marking. Ventral plate with distinct external angles, marked by a distinct transverse fold in its posterior region; its ventrolateral angles produced into small lateral extensions. Posterior segment large, distinct, semicircular and projecting beyond the dorsal plate. Coxal plates large. First foot joint large, indistinct; second foot joint large, subsquare. Toes long, parallel sided along 3/4 of its length, then narrowing down and produced into long stout claws. Each claw with one basal spine. This species resembles Lecane luna, but differs from it in having (i) the dorsal plate smaller than the ventral plate, (ii) the anterior ventral margin undulating, (iii) a ventral plate with ventrolateral extensions, (iv) the posterior segment much larger, (v) toes not swollen at their bases. (ref. ID; 688)

    Measurements

    Length of dorsal plate 110; length of ventral plate 120; width of dorsal plate 112; width of ventral plate 115; anterior width 60; toe 42; claw 10 um. (ref. ID; 688)

    Lecane lauterborni Hauer, 1924 (ref. ID; 689, 1345, 1351, 1856, 2016, 2797, 3127, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 1450)

    Synonym

    Lecane rhytida Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2797)

    Descriptions

    Lorica firm and ovate, anterior margins nearly straight and coincident with two frontal spines at the external angles. Dorsal plate ovate and the ventral narrower, parallel sided. Posterior segment projects beyond the dorsal plate. Coxal plates are indistinct. First foot joint not clear and the second long and narrow. Toes are slender, long, parallel sided and ending in acute points. (ref. ID; 689)
    The toes are proportionally shorter. The first foot joint is also wider, and the transverse ventral markings not so distinct. (ref. ID; 3127)

    Measurements

    Total length 140; length of dorsal plate 84; length of ventral plate 98; width of dorsal plate 70; width of ventral plate 56; toes 42 um. (ref. ID; 689)
    Total length 100; length of dorsal plate 64; length of ventral plate 70; width of dorsal plate 60; width of ventral plate 52; width of anterior margin 48; length of toes 26 um. (ref. ID; 3127)

    Lecane leontina (Turner, 1892) (ref. ID; 689, 696, 1345, 1351, 1836, 1847, 2016, 2261, 2265, 2599, 2704, 2714, 2749, 2757, 2787, 3145, 3180, 3181, 3514) reported year? (ref. ID; 2898, 3040) or (Tubner, 1892) (ref. ID; 3512)

    Synonym

    Cathypna biloba Daday, 1905 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3145); Cathypna incisa Daday, 1905 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3145); Cathypna leontina Turner, 1892 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 2757, 3145, 3181, 3514); Cathypna leontina bisimata Daday, 1905 (ref. ID; 3145); Cathypna leontina var. bisinuata Daday, 1905 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016); Cathypna macrodactyla Daday, 1898 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3145); Cathypna scutaria Stokes, 1897 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3145); Lecane biloba (Daday, 1905) (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane incisa (Daday, 1905) (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane leontina Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3145); Lecane leontina bisinuata (Daday, 1905) (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane macrodactyla (Daday, 1898) (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane scutaria (Stokes, 1897) (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane thomassoni Wulfert, 1965 (ref. ID; 2016, 3514)

    Descriptions

    Lorica is pyriform, anterior dorsal margin slightly concave, ventral margin with a broad-V-shaped sinus; and with two triangular spines at the external angles. Dorsal plate is nearly of the same width and form as the ventral, rounded posteriorly without markings. Ventral plate is with a indistinct transverse fold in front of the foot. Posterior segment extends over the foot as a tail like projection, rarely with two long divergent spines. First foot joint indistinct and second subsquare. Toes are very long, straight, ending in a claw with basal spicule. (ref. ID; 689)
    Lorica pyriform, anterior dorsal margin slightly concave, ventral margin with a broad V-shaped sinus. Two triangular spines at the external angles. Dorsal plate nearly of the same width and form as the ventral, the former being rounded posteriorly. Posterior segment extending over the foot as a tail-like projection. Toes very long, straight, ending in a claw with a basal spicule. (ref. ID; 3180)

    Measurements

    Total length 252; length of dorsal plate 154; length of ventral plate 182; width of dorsal plate 126; width ventral plate 126; toes without claw 112; claw 14 um. (ref. ID; 689)
    Total length 252; length of dorsal plate 154-170; length of ventral plate 182-200; width of dorsal plate 126-140; width ventral plate 126-150; toe 38-112; claw 12-14 um. (ref. ID; 696)
    Length dorsal plate 180; length ventral plate 205; width dorsal plate 140; claws 15 um. (ref. ID; 2704)
    Length of dorsal plate 135; length of ventral plate 156; width of dorsal plate 97; width of ventral plate 108; width of anterior end 72; foot 15; toe 72; claw 9 um. (ref. ID; 2714)
    Length of plate 138; toes 31 um, spicules long. (ref. ID; 3181)

    Lecane ligona Dunlop, 1901 (ref. ID; 1345, 1814, 2016, 2599, 3688)

    Synonym

    Cathypna ligona Dunlop, 1901 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016); Lecane abnobensis Hauer, 1929 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane jessupi Harring, 1921 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane ligona Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016)

    Measurements

    Length of dorsal plate 78; length of ventral plate 105; width of dorsal plate 82; width of ventral plate 90; width of anterior end 56; toe 29 um. (ref. ID; 2599)

    Lecane ludwigi (Eckstein, 1833) (ref. ID; 2599) or 1883 (ref. ID; 689, 696, 1345, 1837, 2261, 2268, 2545, 2714, 2723, 2867, 3083, 3335, 3514) reported year? (ref. ID; 2683)

    See

    Lecane ludwigii comments (ref. ID; 2016)

    Synonym

    Cathypna ludwigi Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345); Distyla ludwigi Eckstein, 1883 (ref. ID; 1345, 3514); Distyla ornata Daday, 1897 (ref. ID; 1345); Distyla oxycauda Stenroos, 1898 (ref. ID; 1345); Lecane ludwigi Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345)

    Descriptions

    Lorica is oval, anterior margins coincident and slightly concave; with two stout spines at the external angles. Dorsal plate is oval truncate posteriorly with characteristic tesselations on the surface. Ventral plate is pyriform and narrower than the dorsal. Posterior segment is produced as a long triangular spine. First foot joint is narrow and overlaps the trapezoidal second joint. Toes are slender, parallel sided, ending in acute points without claws. (ref. ID; 689)
    L. ludwigi is closely related to L. ohioensis. The difference of two species are size, shape of posterior segment and second foot joint. The posterior segment of L. ludwigi has a prolongation with the end abruptly truncated. (ref. ID; 1837)
    The specimens were found with sharply pointed posterior projections, and others were found with blunt, truncated projections similar to those figured by Hauer (1937-8). (ref. ID; 2683)
    The anterior margins have a deep sinus and are not coincident. The posterior segment of L. ludwigi shows wide variation. In the specimens studied from Ceylon the posterior segment was rounded with the projection blunt and truncate. (ref. ID; 2714)
    Lorica oval, anterior margin with two stout spines at the external angles. Posterior portion of lorica is almost rounded and projecting into a spine. Toes are slender, parallel and ending in acute points without claws. (ref. ID; 2867)

    Measurements

    Total length 154; length of dorsal plate 112-120; length of ventral plate 140~166; width of dorsal plate 70-78; width of ventral plate 63-68; toe 42-44; width of anterior margins 42 um. (ref. ID; 689, 696)
    Length of dorsal plate 108; length of ventral plate 138; width of dorsal plate 78; width of ventral plate 72; width of anterior end 51; toe 42 um. (ref. ID; 2599)
    The lorica was about 120 um in length, including the posterior projection, and the toes were 37 um long. (ref. ID; 2683)
    Length of dorsal plate 97; length of ventral plate 138; width of dorsal plate 75; width of ventral plate 71; width of anterior end 49; foot 15; toe 44 um. (ref. ID; 2714)
    Total length 240; length of lorica 180; maximum width 125; length of toes 80 um. (ref. ID; 2867)
    Total length 158; dorsal lorica length 110; width at the basis of occipital lateral spines 48-58; widest part 65-78; distance between caudal protuberances at the base 20-22; height at the base of frontal spines 38; highest part 50-58; caudal projection or protuberance 30; toes 38-50; claw 10-12 um. (ref. ID; 3083)

    Lecane ludwigi f. abrupta Hauer, 1938 (ref. ID; 1837) reported year? (ref. ID; 3688)

    Measurements

    Dorsal plate length 130; dorsal plate width 85; ventral plate length 142; ventral plate width 72; length toes 45 um. (ref. ID; 1837)

    Lecane ludwigi f. brevicaudata Hauer, 1937/38 (ref. ID; 696, 1345) reported year? (ref. ID; 3688)

    Descriptions

    Posterior segment almost parallel-sided for 2/3 of its length and then suddenly ending in a small point. (ref. ID; 696)

    Lecane ludwigi f. lacinulata Hauer, 1937/38 (ref. ID; 696, 1345, 1839, 3688)

    Descriptions

    Posterior segment broad at its free end and with a very small spine. (ref. ID; 696)

    Lecane ludwigi f. laticaudata Hauer, 1937/38 (ref. ID; 696, 1345) reported year? (ref. ID; 3688)

    Descriptions

    Small posterior segment, which is rounded at its free angles. (ref. ID; 696)

    Lecane ludwigii (Eckstein, 1883) (ref. ID; 2016, 2277, 2704, 3058, 3180, 3512) reported year? (ref. ID; 2932)

    Synonym

    Cathypna appendiculata Levander, 1894 (ref. ID; 2016); Cathypna jorroi Arevalo, 1918 (ref. ID; 2016); Cathypna stokesi Pell, 1890 (ref. ID; 2016); Diplax ornata Daday, 1897 (ref. ID; 2016); Distyla ichthyoura Anderson & Shephard, 1898 (ref. ID; 2016); Distyla ludwigii Eckstein, 1883 (ref. ID; 2016, 2277, 3058); Distyla ohioensis Herrick, 1885 (ref. ID; 2016); Distyla oxycauda Stenroos, 1898 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane appendiculata (Levander, 1894) Wiszniewski, 1954 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane ichthyoura (Anderson & Shephard, 1898) Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane jorroi (Arevalo, 1918) Wiszniewski, 1932 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane ludwigii Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane ercodes Harring, 1914 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane marshi Harring, 1914 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane ohioensis (Herrick, 1885) Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane ornata (Daday, 1897) (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane oxycauda Stenroos, 1898 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane stokesi (Pell, 1890) Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 2016)

    Descriptions

    Lorica oval. Anterior margins coincident and slightly concave; two fairly long, stout spines at the external angles. Dorsal plate marked with four transverse rows of coarse tesselations. Posterior segment produced as a long triangular spine. Toes long and slender, one-fourth of the total length, parallel-sided, ending in acute, conical points without claws. (ref. ID; 3180)

    Measurements

    Dorsal plate length 98-140; dorsal plate width 70-84; ventral plate length 130-165; ventral plate width 63-80; toe length 36-50 um. (ref. ID; 2016)
    Length of dorsal plate 120 um. (ref. ID; 2277)
    Length dorsal plate 100; length ventral plate 130; width dorsal plate 71; width ventral plate 62; toes 40 um. (ref. ID; 2704)

    Lecane luna (O.F. Muller, 1776) (ref. ID; 689, 696, 1312, 1345, 1923, 1948, 2016, 2196, 2261, 2268, 2276, 2317, 2599, 2640, 2714, 2787, 2823, 2841, 2867, 2998, 3058, 3083, 3180, 3271, 3275, 3514, 3688) or 1786 (ref. ID; 2704) reported year? (ref. ID; 2890, 2932, 3141, 3208) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 3071, 3114, 3292), luna luna (ref. ID; 2757, 2898, 3039, 3255, 4606)

    Synonym

    Brachionus luna Blainville, 1830 (ref. ID; 3271) or Bleinville, 1830 (ref. ID; 3688); Cathypna latifrons Gosse, 1887 (ref. ID; 3271); Cathypna luna Gosse, 1886 (ref. ID; 1345, 2276, 2757, 2841, 3208, 3271, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 3141) or (O.F. Muller, 1776) (ref. ID; 3514); Cercaria luna O.F. Muller, 1776 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 2276, 2317, 3058, 3271, 3275, 3514, 3688); Euchlanis emarginata Eichwald, 1847 (ref. ID; 2016); Euchlanis luna Ehrenberg, 1832 (ref. ID; 1345, 3271, 3688); Furcocerca luna Lamarck, 1815 (ref. ID; 3688) or Lauterborn, 1815 (ref. ID; 3271); Furcularia jobloti Bory de St. Vincent, 1827 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane dorsicalis Arora, 1965 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane emarginata (Eichwald, 1847) (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane jobloti (Bory de St. Vincent, 1827) (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane luna balatonica Varga, 1945 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane luna Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 2016) or Nitzsch, 1827 (ref. ID; 1345, 3058, 3271); Lecane submagna De Ridder, 1960 (ref. ID; 2016); Trichocerca luna Bory de St. Vincent, 1826 (ref. ID; 3271, 3688)

    Diagnosis

    This species is very common in the littoral of many lake and ponds and shows a wide range of variation. (ref. ID; 2559)

    Descriptions

    The ventral sinus is more broadly rounded than usual. Owing to the preserving method employed, there was a wide range of specimens having the same morphological characteristics except for the anterior margins, and the anterior lateral sulci. The lorica of L. luna is more flexible than generally thought, and it is considered, from the material examined, that the variations of this species which have been described may be due to the state of contraction the specimens. (ref. ID; 2317)
    The anterior margin does not have a deep, lunate sinus. The dorsal and ventral plates of the same width. The end of toes have a slight swelling and resemble those given in the drawing of Donner (1954). (ref. ID; 2714)
    Lorica elongated, anterior margin with broad 'V' shaped sinus and with two lateral spines observed only in Morar sewage channel. (ref. ID; 2867)
    Lorica broadly pyriform or subcircular. Dorsal and ventral plates with a deep lunate anterior sinus. The lunate anterior sinus cuspidate at its external angles. Posterior segment very small and rounded, projecting very little beyond the dorsal plate. Toes parallel-sided, about one-third of the total length, terminating in a distinct claw, with a minute basal spicule. (ref. ID; 3180)
  • Male: (ref. ID; 3071)

    Quote from ref. ID; 3071

    Comments

    It is considered that Lecane papuana (Murray) 1913, which was described from a single specimen is probably a partly contracted individual of the species Lecane luna. The few animals found in this habitat and which are described as L. papuana showed no differences apart from the anterior margin which would differentiate them from Lecane luna. As in the case of the allied genus Euchlanis, the anterior margin appears to be an unreliable specific characteristic for the identification of the Lecanes. (ref. ID; 2317)

    Measurements

    Total length 168; length of dorsal plate 112; length of ventral plate 126; width of dorsal plate 112; width of ventral plate 112; width at anterior points 70; toes 42; claw 7 um. (ref. ID; 689)
    Total length 168; length of dorsal plate 112-125; length of ventral plate 126-135; width of dorsal plate 112-117; width of ventral plate 107-112; width at anterior points 70-75; toe 35-42; claw 7-9 um. (ref. ID; 696)
    Measurement of fully contracted specimens: Length of dorsal plate 106; length of ventral plate 116; width of dorsal plate 96; width of ventral plate 86; width dorsal sinus 40; width of ventral sinus 54; length of toe and claw 40; length of claw 6 um. (ref. ID; 2317)
    Length of dorsal plate 123; length of ventral plate 129; width of dorsal plate 105; width of ventral plate 99; width of anterior end 69; toe 39; claw 15 um. (ref. ID; 2599)
    Length dorsal plate 118; length ventral plate 125; width dorsal plate 108; width ventral plate 90; toes 32; claws 8 um. (ref. ID; 2704)
    Length of dorsal plate 128; length of ventral plate 135; width of dorsal plate 111; width of ventral plate 111; width of anterior end 96; foot 18; toe 42; claw 12 um. (ref. ID; 2714)
    Total length 230; length of lorica 140; maximum width 130; length of toes 70 um. (ref. ID; 2867)
    Total length 150-220; dorsal lorica length 60-80; width at the basis of occipital lateral spines 70-94; widest part 110-128; toes 50-70; claw 10-24 um. (ref. ID; 3083)
    Length of lorica 150; width of lorica 115; depth of dorsal sulcus 15; depth of ventral sulcus 20; length of toes 35 um. (ref. ID; 3275)
    Dorsal lorica length 103; dorsal lorica width 112; ventral lorica length 142; ventral lorica width 112; frontal margin width 42; toes & claw 60; claw 16 um. (ref. ID; 4606)

    Lecane luna f. dorsicalis (ref. ID; 696)

    Synonym

    Lecane dorsicalis Arora, 1965 (ref. ID; 696)

    Descriptions

    A straight anterior dorsal margin and narrower lorica. (ref. ID; 696)

    Measurements

    Length dorsal plate 120; length ventral plate 124; width dorsal plate 98; width ventral plate 90; anterior width 60; toe 34; claw 6 um. (ref. ID; 696)

    Lecane luna var. presumpta (ref. ID; 1345, 2280, 2803) reported year? (ref. ID; 3502)

    See

    Lecane papuana (ref. ID; 2016)

    Measurements

    Length over all 163 um. (ref. ID; 2280)

    Lecane (Monostyla) lunaris (Ehrenberg, 1832) (ref. ID; 696, 1312, 1345, 1923, 2016, 2064, 2196, 2198, 2265, 2268, 2317, 2599, 2640, 2700, 2757, 2787, 2823, 2841, 3060, 3127, 3180, 3271, 3275, 3514, 3688) or 1932 (ref. ID; 2714) reported year? (ref. ID; 1473, 2683, 2890, 2932, 2936, 3063, 3126, 3141, 3208, 3274, 3295, 3334, 3501, 3502) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 2825), lunaris lunaris (Ehrenberg) (ref. ID; 2834)

    Synonym

    Lecane acus (Harring, 1913) Myers, 1937 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane constricta (Murray, 1913) Myers, 1942 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane crenata (Harring, 1913) Edmondson, 1935 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane lunaris arthrodactyla Berzins, 1982 (ref. ID; 2016, 2936); Lecane lunaris australis Berzins, 1982 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane lunaris obserata (Steinecke, 1916) Voigt, 1957 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane perplexa (Ahlstrom, 1938) Myers, 1942 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane quennerstedti (Bergendal, 1892) (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane sylvatica (Harring, 1913) Wiszniewski, 1954 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane virga (Harring, 1914) (ref. ID; 2016); Lepadella lunaris Ehrenberg, 1832 (ref. ID; 1345, 2276, 2317, 3060, 3126, 3127, 3271, 3275, 3514, 3688); Monostyla bicornis Stenroos, 1898 (ref. ID; 3271); Monostyla constrida Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 3688); Monostyla lunaris Ehrenberg, 1832 (ref. ID; 2757, 3514) or 1838 (ref. ID; 1345, 3271, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 3208, 3274); Monostyla lunaris virga Fadeew, 1929 (ref. ID; 3688); Monostyla quennerstedti Bergendal, 1892 (ref. ID; 1345, 3271, 3688); Monostyla stenroosi Meissner, 1906 (ref. ID; 3271); Monostyla virga Fadeew, 1924 (ref. ID; 3688), Harring, 1914 (ref. ID; 1345, 3688) or Oparina-Charitonova, 1925 (ref. ID; 3688)

    Descriptions

    Lorica broadly ovate, anterior margin of dorsal plate narrow, with a V-shaped sinus. Ventral margin wide, the sinus deep, occasionally with minute, lateral cusps opposite the anterior points of the dorsal plate. Posterior segment large and rounded, projecting considerably beyond the dorsal plate. Toe very long, almost half of the total length, straight, and parallel-sided. Claw long and slender, acutely pointed; two minute spicules found at the base. (ref. ID; 3180)
    This common form agrees with description and figures of Monostyla lunaris Ehrenberg, except that the toes is not protruded between two spines, but the foot passes without break into the toes. The foot is unjointed, so that this is not the Monostyla quennerstedtii of Bergendal. I have not considered this variation to be of sufficient importance to separate my form from the common one. (ref. ID; 3295)
    The claw is quite clearly double, which agrees with von Hofsten (1909) though most authorities infer a single undivided claw. (ref. ID; 3334)

    Comments

    This species varies greatly in size, shape of lorica and toes, which may or may not have claws, with or without spicules. (ref. ID; 3180)

    Consideration of synonymy

    L. lunaris arthrodactyla was described as a subspecies by Berzins (1982). It is clear that contributing even an infrasubspecific status to this "taxon" is spurious, as the "Segmentbildung am Zehenende" is a frequent conservation artefact (Koste 1978). (ref. ID; 2936)

    Measurements

    Length dorsal plate 68; length ventral plate 76; width dorsal plate 66; width ventral plate 60; toe 40; claw 8 um. (ref. ID; 696)
    Total length of about 160 um. (ref. ID; 2317)
    The lorica length was 97 um, and the toe was 55 um long including the terminal claw of 6 um. (ref. ID; 2683)
    Length of dorsal plate 129; length of ventral plate 144; width of dorsal plate 99; width of ventral plate 93; width of anterior end 60; foot 15; toe 54; claw 15 um. (ref. ID; 2714)
    Total length 168 um. (ref. ID; 3127)
    Length of dorsal plate of lorica 105-112; width of dorsal plate of lorica 70-75; length of ventral plate of lorica 100-105; width of ventral plate of lorica 78-88; length of foot 54-60; length of claw 6-10 um. (ref. ID; 3275)
    The dorsal plate was 128-140 um long and 86-108 um wide; the ventral plate was 130-147 um long and 64-95 um wide. The toe (without the claw) was 46-54 um and the claw was 7-14 um. (ref. ID; 3334)

    Lecane lunaris australis Berzins, 1982 (ref. ID; 4606 original paper)

    See

    Lecane lunaris (ref. ID; 2016)

    Descripitons

    Lorica dorsally and ventrally had the same width. Dorsal lorica concave and somewhat narrower toward the front. The ventral lorica has a deeper concave sinus frontally; the former with a broad-angar edge. The posterior lorica had a shallow sinus. Lorica covered the foot. Toe long, straight, with a claw. (ref. ID; 4606)

    Measurements

    Dorsal lorica length 94; dorsal lorica width 83; ventral lorica length 98; ventral lorica width 83; frontal margin width 41; toe & claw 85; claw 7 um. (ref. ID; 4606)

    Lecane lunaris crenata Harring (ref. ID; 4606) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 1839), f. crenata (Harring, 1913) (ref. ID; 2016)

    See

    Lecane crenata (ref. ID; 2016)

    Measurements

    Total length 192; dorsal lorica length 100; dorsal lorica width 82; ventral lorica length 110; ventral lorica width 86; frontal margin width 55; toe & claw 82; claw 15 um. (ref. ID; 4606)

    Lecane (Monostyla) lunaris perplexa Wiszniewski, 1954, f. perplexa (Ahlstrom, 1938) (ref. ID; 1472, 1837)

    See

    Lecane lunaris (ref. ID; 2016)

    Descriptions

    This is small species. This form resembles L. lunaris and could be the juvenile form (Koste, 1978). (ref. ID; 1837)

    Measurements

    Dorsal plate length 85; width 72; ventral plate length 90; width 60; length of toe 43 um. (ref. ID; 1837)

    Lecane magna (Stenroos, 1898) (ref. ID; 1345, 2824, 3275, 3572, 3688)

    Synonym

    Cathypna magna Stenroos, 1898 (ref. ID; 1345, 3275, 3688); Cathypna magna tenuior Stenroos, 1898 (ref. ID; 3688); Lecane magna Wulfert, 1940 (ref. ID; 1345); Lecane ungulata Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 1345)

    Descriptions

    Very characteristic is the large size and the shape of the toes. (ref. ID; 3572)

    Measurements

    Length of dorsal plate of lorica 128; width of dorsal plate of lorica 92; length of ventral plate of lorica 105; length of toes 50; length of claws 10 um. (ref. ID; 3275)
    Length of lorica 240-250; breadth of body (lorica) 175-195; length of toes 102-103 um. (ref. ID; 3572)

    Lecane marchantaria Koste & Robertson, 1983 (ref. ID; 2016, 2808 original paper)

    Descriptions

    The lorica is egg-shaped, and the anterior margin of the ventral lorica is more deeply indented (up to 22 um) than the dorsal lorica (up to 14 um). The anterior tips of the dorsal lorica do not extend into the ventrally indented head section as in L. hamata, but run parallel with those of the ventral lorica and present, anteriorly, a small hook-like structure which is bent ventrally. The first segment of the foot is small and rectangular, The second, where the relatively long toes are inserted, is broad, thickened and oval in outline. The toe is straight, with parallel sides and only in the last third is it pointed. (ref. ID; 2808)

    Measurements

    Total length 133-148; dorsal lorica length 90; dorsal lorica width 72; ventral lorica length 95; ventral lorica width 50; toe length 43; distance between the anterior spines 14 um. (ref. ID; 2808)

    Lecane marchantaria Koste & Robertson, 1983 (ref. ID; 2016, 2808 original paper)

    Descriptions

    The lorica is egg-shaped, and the anterior margin of the ventral lorica is more deeply indented (up to 22 um) than the dorsal lorica (up to 14 um). The anterior tips of the dorsal lorica do not extend into the ventrally indented head section as in L. hamata, but run parallel with those of the ventral lorica and present, anteriorally, a small hook-like structure which is bent ventrally. The first segment of the foot is small and rectangular, The second, where the relatively long toes are inserted, is broad, thickened and oval in outline. The toe is straight, with parallel sides and only in the last third is it pointed. (ref. ID; 2808)

    Measurements

    Total length 133-148; dorsal lorica length 90; dorsal lorica width 72; ventral lorica length 95; ventral lorica width 50; toe length 43; distance between the anterior spines 14 um. (ref. ID; 2808)

    Lecane margalefi De Manuel, 1994 (ref. ID; 1312 original paper, 2016)

    Descriptions

    Illoricate rotifer. Body transparent, pyriform in outline and almost cylindrical in section. Anterior margin slightly variable according to contraction, mostly slightly concave ventrally, nearly straight dorsally. Dorsal part oval, truncate posteriorly. Ventral part slightly narrower posteriorly than dorsal part, rounded distally. Foot region broad, with rounded coxal plates. Foot pseudosegment not projecting beyond the posterior margin. Toes and slender, about one third of the total length; often slightly curved ventrad, terminating by a short, slender claw with a minute, curved basal spicule. Body length is variable (135-180 um), with a flexible and transparent integument. It is related to L. luna (Muller), but has a more slender shape. The foot and toe structure are as in L. luna, with a similar relative toe length, and also terminated by a curved basal spicule. Shape and size are more similar to L. boorali Koste & Shiel. Ventrally, it is not as flat as most Lecane species; the rounded posterior margin of the ventral part projects slightly beyond the dorsal part. (ref. ID; 1312)
  • Male: Male unknown. (ref. ID; 1312)

    Etymology

    The species is named for Prof. Dr Ramon Margalef, who among other distinguished contributions to ecology, carried out the first investigations on the hydrobiology of the inland waters of the Balearic archpelago. (ref. ID; 1312)

    Measurements

    Total length (without toes) 134-178 (average 156); maximum width 94-125 (average 109); maximum depth (width of sagittal plane) 88-116 (average 104); toe length 50-64 (average 56); claw length 7-10 (average 8) um. (ref. ID; 1312)

    Lecane matsaluensis Riikoja, 1933 (ref. ID; 2016, 3379 original paper)

    Descriptions

    The original descriptions do not permit any conclusion nor a reliable diagnosis to be formulated, or were based on badly contracted animals. (ref. ID; 2016)

    Comments

    Comparing my (Riikoja) sketch with Harring and Myers' description and figure (Lecane hastata Murray), it became evident that my animal resembles those only in general, differing widely in details. It cannot be overlooked that the posterior segment of my animal is largely different from that in the figure of Harring & Myers, as it is rather well developed and its shape is nearly semi-circular, while that of Lecane hastata Murray is "relatively small and rounded". The shape of the foot is also different: while the posterior segment of my animal projects some distance over the base of the toes, the second foot joint of Lecane hastata projects "beyond the posterior end of the lorica". The difference in the shape of the toes, which in Lecane hastata "are long and slender, more than one fourth of the total length, straight, parallel-sided with a bulbous enlargement near the posterior end, and terminating in along, slender, acutely pointed claw" is especially noticeable. The toes of my animal are straight, stout, parallel-sided for about 3/5 of their length, and taper to acute points. About Lecane hastata Harring & Myers remark that "the specimens from Barrows show a very faint tessellation towards the anterior edge of the dorsal plate". The entire dorsal plate of my animal was conspicuously more or less equally granulated as shown in the upper left-side angle of my figure. Considering these remarkable dissimilarities between Lecane hastata Murray and my animal and the circumstance that the latter does not correspond to the description of any species of Lecane in the literature accessible to me, I assume that I am dealing here with a new species, which I name Lecane matsaluensis. (ref. ID; 3379)

    Type locality

    The species found in the bay of Matsal on July 24th 1920. (ref. ID; 3379)

    Measurements

    Length from the anterior margin of the dorsal plate to the posterior edge of the posterior segment 100 um, the small spines at the external angles of the lorica 5 um, visible part of the toes 27 um. (ref. ID; 3379)

    Lecane (Monostyla) mawsoni Russell, 1958 (ref. ID; 2016, 3521 original paper)

    Descriptions

    The outline of the body is broadly ovate, and the depth of the body is nearly three-quarters of its length. The anterior dorsal margin is straight to very slightly concave. The ventral anterior margin has a sharp V sinus which is approximately one-sixth of the body length. The dorsal plate is ovate and broadly rounded posteriorly with no surface markings. The ventral plate is slightly narrower than the dorsal plate and is ovate. The lateral sulci are shallow and ill-defined. The posterior segment is large, rounded, and projects beyond the dorsal plate. The first foot joint is indistinct, the second joint is large and conical and does not project beyond the lorica. The toe, which is about two-sevenths of the body length, is stout and conical without a claw. The co-axial plates are broadly rounded. (ref. ID; 3521)

    Comments

    Lecane mawsoni does not appear to be closely related to any of Lecane spp. but its nearest relative is probably Lecane arcuata from which it differs in both the anterior and posterior portions of the body, the deep V-sinus, and the shape of the toe. (ref. ID; 3521)

    Etymology

    Lecane mawsoni has been named in honour of Sir Douglas Mawson, leader of the Expedition, and it the first Lecane sp. to be found in Antarctic waters. (ref. ID; 3521)

    Type slide

    No. 112 has been deposited at the Canterbury Museum, Christchurch, N.Z. (ref. ID; 3521)

    Measurements

    Total length 90; length of dorsal plate 62; length of ventral plate 70; width of dorsal plate 48; width of ventral plate 44; width of anterior dorsal margin 16; width of ventral margin 20; length of toe 20 um. (ref. ID; 3521)

    Lecane methoria Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2599) reported year? (ref. ID; 3502)

    See

    Lecane stichaea (ref. ID; 2016, 3263, 3688)

    Measurements

    Length of dorsal plate 75; length of ventral plate 78; width of dorsal plate 69; width of ventral plate 61; width of anterior end 57; toe 25 um. (ref. ID; 2599)

    Lecane minuta Segers, 1994 (ref. ID; 2016, 2922 original paper)

    Diagnosis

    L. minuta n. sp. is diagnosed by its relatively broad lorica, with a consistently broader dorsal than ventral plate; its simple, non-projecting foot pseudosegment, preceded by a narrow, elongate prepedal fold; and by its single toe, which is parallel-sided basally, tapering to a point from midway onwards, and being split in two over the distal two thirds. (ref. ID; 2922)

    Descriptions

    Comments

    L. minuta n. sp. has the general pyriformis (Daday), but is easily recognised by its split toe. It also resembles L. uenoi Yamamoto, whose toes bear distinct, completely separated claws. (ref. ID; 2922)

    Etymology

    The species name minuta is an adjective, and refers to the species' minute size. (ref. ID; 2922)

    Type locality

    Roadside pond along Sungai Akar Road, close to Bandar Seri Bagawan, the Sultanate of Brunei (4 degrees 57'N-114 degrees 56'E), 14 April 1933, leg. H.J. Dumont. (ref. ID; 2922)

    Measurements

    Dorsal plate length 51-54; dorsal plate width 50-61; ventral plate length 46-52; ventral plate width 38-42; toe length 24-28; fused part length 7-9 um. (ref. ID; 2922)

    Lecane mira (Murray, 1913) (ref. ID; 1345, 1352, 1474, 2016, 2994, 3036, 3144, 3263, 3514, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 1450)

    Synonym

    Cathypna mira Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345, 1351, 2016, 3688); Lecane islandica De Ridder, 1967 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane mira Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016)

    Descriptions

    The dots have been observed on the plates. The anterior dorsal margin is very finely toothed. (ref. ID; 3036)

    Comments

    In appearance and size specimens from the different waters vary only very slightly. Von Hofsten (1923, pp. 860-861) mentions the closely related L. luna (Mull.) as a common species in the Scandinavian fjell region, while L. mira is not mentioned. Pejler have not come across L. luna. However, since L. mira was not classified as a separate species at the time von Hofsten made his investigation it seems likely that he was in fact dealing with L. mira. (ref. ID; 1450)

    Measurements

    Total length 190; length of ventral plate 160; width of ventral plate 90; length of dorsal plate 122; width of dorsal plate 100; width between anterior spines 63; length of toes, without claw 41; length of claw 12; length of distal foot joint 13; width of distal foot joint 19; length of anterior spines 5 um. (ref. ID; 3036)

    Lecane mucronata Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2016, 2593, 2599)

    Descriptions

    The lorica is ovate, ventral plate pear-shaped. Frontal margins straight and coincident. Surface marking very faint. Anterior spines slender and curved, not stout as described originally. The second pair of small spines could not be seen. Second foot joint large and square, toes slender and pointed. Claw and basal spicule absent, unlike in original description. (ref. ID; 2593)

    Measurements

    Dorsal plate 122 long, 96 wide; ventral plate 140 long, 80 wide; frontal spines 19-20; toes 50-52 um. (ref. ID; 2593)

    Lecane nana (Murray, 1913) (ref. ID; 696, 1312, 1345, 1352, 2016, 2064, 2268, 2269, 2599, 2640, 2757, 2823, 2886, 2905, 2922, 3271, 3275, 3512, 3514, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 3502, 4606)

    See

    Lecane abanica

    Synonym

    Cathypna nana Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345, 1351, 2016, 2757, 3271, 3275, 3688); Lecane nana Harring, 1914 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3688)

    Descriptions

    Very stout foot. (ref. ID; 4606)

    Comments

    The specimens did not correspond to the figure given by Harring & Myers (1926 Pl.34:1-2). The lorica was not so subcircular, but more elongated and the toes not so attenuated. The Tasmanian forms showed more conformity with the taxon drawn by Hauer (1925: Fig.8). The toes are very straight and the terminal claws curve outwards. (ref. ID; 2886)

    Measurements

    Length dorsal plate 49; length ventral plate 53; width dorsal plate 48; width ventral plate 40; toe 20 um. (ref. ID; 696)
    Length of dorsal plate 56; length of ventral plate 62; width of dorsal plate 55; width of ventral plate 41; width of anterior end 45; toe 23 um. (ref. ID; 2599)
    Dorsal plate 61; ventral plate 68; lorica width 58; anterior margin 43; toes incl. claws 28-29 um. (ref. ID; 2886)
    Length of lorica 54-62; width of lorica 50-64; width of anterior margin 40-52; length of toes 21-27 um. (ref. ID; 3275)
    Dorsal lorica length 4; dorsal lorica width 44; venral lorical length 52; ventral lorica width 52; frontal margin width 36; toe 30 um. (ref. ID; 4606)

    Lecane nelsoni Segers, 1994 (ref. ID; 2016, 2922 original paper)

    Diagnosis

    L. nelsoni n. sp. is diagnosed by the following charaters. Its lorica is nearly as wide as long, with a consistently broader dorsal than ventral plate, separated by clear lateral sulci; its foot pseudosegment is nearly rectangular, non-projecting and preceded by a narrow, elongate prepedal fold; its toes are parallel-sided, tapering distally. (ref. ID; 2922)

    Descriptions

    A loricate species. Dorsal plate wider than ventral plate, smooth. Head aperture margins nearly coincident, straight, slightly concave or convex, with rounded antero-lateral corners. Ventral plate slightly longer than wide, with weak, incomplete transverse and longitudinal folds, smooth. Lateral margins of ventral plate curved, irregularly undulate. Lateral sulci present, more pronounced posteriorly. Foot plate broad, coxial plates rounded triangular. Prepedal fold narrow, elongate, with median projection. Foot pseudosegment rectangular, covered. Toes long, parallel-sided, smoothly tapering distally. No claws. Trophi: fulcrum short, fan-shaped. Rami asymmetrical, with strong anterior processi, expanded laterally. Unci consist of two fused, subequal teeth, bearing a dorsal lamella. Preuncinal plates present. Manubria elongate, with strongly curved distal tips, their shaft expanded dorso-ventrally into a broad lamella. (ref. ID; 2922)
  • Male: Male unknown. (ref. ID; 2922)

    Comments

    L. nelsoni n. sp. belongs to the L. hornemanni-group, that includes L. hornemanni (Ehrenberg), L. latissima Yamamoto and L. ruttneri Hauer. The two last-mentioned species bear clear, though incompletely separated claws on their toes, which distinguish them from L. hornemanni and L. nelsoni n. sp. These two differ by the following characters: (1) lateral sulci nearly absent in L. hornemanni, distinctly present in L. nelsoni n. sp.; (2) toes of L. hornemanni are shorter than those of L. nelsoni n. sp. and (3) toe tips of L. hornemanni asymmetrical, those of L. nelsoni are symmetrical. An examination of the trophi structure of species in the L. hornemanni-group was performed in an attempt to use this structure in resolving the taxonomy of the group (L. nelsoni, L. hornemanni, L. latissima). The trophi structure of these species was also compared with that of, amongst others, the three other species described here. As can be Seen, differences between the trophi of L. nelsoni n. sp., L. hornemanni and L. latissima are apparent, especially in the shape of the unci and manubria. The shape of the epipharyngeal plates, preuncinal teeth, and other accessory trophi elements cannot be considered, due to their vulnerability to dissolvents. Moreover, the variation caused by minor changes in observation angle was strikingly large. Although of a preliminary nature, as no attempt was made to assess the degree of intraspecific (intra- and interclonal) variability of trophi characters, it appears that these may turn out to be useful in taxonomic studies of the Lecanidae. It is doubtful, however, that such characters will be applicable in routine identification, due to the difficulty of observing these structures. (ref. ID; 2922)

    Etymology

    The species is named after Edinaldo Nelson dos Santos Silva, who collected the material. (ref. ID; 2922)

    Type locality

    Temporary inundation pond of the Rio Mucajai, (a tributary of Rio Branca), near Mucajai, Roraima, Brazil (2 degrees 28'N-60 degrees 54'W). 25 June 1987, leg. E.N.dos Santos-Silva. (ref. ID; 2922)

    Measurements

    Dorsal plate length 92-107; dorsal plate width 98-100; ventral plate length 101-109; ventral plate width 75-82; toe length 51-58 um. (ref. ID; 2922)

    Lecane nigeriensis Segers, 1993 (ref. ID; 2016, 2844 original paper)

    Diagnosis

    The Lecane nigeriensis n. sp. resembles L. lunaris (Ehrenberg), but is distinguished by the totally different head aperture. The biconvex anterior ventral margin is unrecorded in the group of L. lunaris, the lateral margins of the dorsal lorica of the latter species always reach the anterior margin. In addition, the lorica of L. nigeriensis n. sp. is relatively long, the toe relatively short. The species, in fact, is much like L. elsa Hauer, the latter having separate toes. (ref. ID; 2844)

    Descriptions

    Lorica with almost flat dorsal and flat ventral plate, separated by lateral sulci. Dorsal lorica anteriorly narrower, medially as wide as the ventral lorica. Head aperture dorsally nearly straight, ventrally biconvex. Lateral margins of dorsal lorica not reaching anterior margin. Ventral lorica nearly parallel-sided, twice as long as broad, separated in an anterior, smooth part and a posterior region by a complete transversal fold. Foot region broad, coxal plates rounded, foot pseudosegment simple, not extending beyond the posterior margin of the ventral lorica. Relatively short toe single, bearing short, separated claws and accessory claws. Dorsal lorica smooth. (ref. ID; 2844)
  • Male: Male unknown. (ref. ID; 2844)

    Etymology

    The species name is derived from the country where the species was found. (ref. ID; 2844)

    Measurements

    Dorsal lorica length 107-116, width 85-90; ventral lorica length 115-122, width 88-93; toe length 40-43; claw length 9-10 um. (ref. ID; 2844)

    Lecane niothis Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2016, 3036)

    Descriptions

    The cuticula is relatively thin and flexible, so that the animal in contraction takes on a variable appearance. Yet the lorica is always broadly ovate, narrower at the posterior end. The anterior margin of the lorica is convex. The ventral and dorsal lorica is of equal width. The ventral lorica is a little longer than the dorsal plate one. All the characteristics of the American animals (Harring & Myers 1926) can be seen in my specimens, except that the toes have a small-scale difference; the toes (without a claw) are not straight, but bent outwards (as on Lecane calcaria). There is a small between the toes at their base. (ref. ID; 3036)

    Measurements

    Total length 62; length of ventral plate 56; width of lorica 55; length of toes 28 um. (ref. ID; 3036)

    Lecane nodosa Hauer, 1938 (ref. ID; 1352, 2016, 2064, 2393, 2545, 3083, 3514) or 1937/1938 (ref. ID; 2797) reported year? (ref. ID; 2834, 4606)

    See

    Lecane hornemanni (ref. ID; 2016, 2936)

    Synonym

    Lecane hornemanni (Ehrenberg, 1834) (ref. ID; 2797)

    Descriptions

    Several circular processes like pin-head are arranged on the dorsum. The contour of plate is very broadly rounded. (ref. ID; 2393)

    Measurements

    Total length 88; dorsal lorica length 63; widest part 70; toes 22 um. (ref. ID; 3083)
    Dorsal lorica length 81; dorsal lorica width 82; ventral lorica length 90; ventral lorica width 77; frontal margin width 68; toe 30 um. (ref. ID; 4606)

    Lecane nwadiaroi Segers, 1993 (ref. ID; 2016, 2844 original paper)

    Diagnosis

    L. nwadiaroi n. sp. belongs to the L. stenroosi-group, its closest relatives being L. unguitata (Fadeew), L. stevensae Hutchinson and L. blachei Berzins. Only L. blachei and L. nwadiaroi n. sp. have incompletely fused toes and an ornamented lorica. In the former, however, the toes are fused distally, leaving a medial fissure, whereas the toes are fused basally in the latter. (ref. ID; 2844)

    Descriptions

    Lorica with slightly domed dorsal and flat ventral plate, separated by conspicuous lateral sulci. Dorsal lorica nearly as wide as the ventral lorica. Head aperture dorsally straight, ventrally slightly concave, with characteristic anterolateral, rounded extensions. Ventral lorica rounded, divided entirely by transversal folds in anterior part with weak symmetrical pattern of folds and posterior part with foot plate. Foot plate broad, with small coxal plates and trapezoidal foot pseudosegment, not extending beyond posterior margin of ventral lorica. Toes fused over little more than half their length, claws relatively long, accessorial claws present. Dorsal lorica round, with weak pattern of folds, occasionally with spicules on lateral margins. (ref. ID; 2844)
  • Male: Male unknown. (ref. ID; 2844)

    Etymology

    The species is named for Prof. Dr. C.S. Nwadiaro (University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria). (ref. ID; 2844)

    Measurements

    Dorsal lorica length 84-86, width 74-84; ventral lorica length (+ antero-lateral projections; + 7-9), width 81-84; toe length 19-22; fused part length 13-15; claw length 14-15 um. (ref. ID; 2844)

    Lecane (Monostyla) obtusa (Murray, 1913) (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 2135, 2545, 3514), obtusa obtusa (ref. ID; 2807)

    Synonym

    Lecane lunaris f. aperta (Steinecke, 1916) Voigt, 1957 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane vastita (Harring & Myers, 1926) Wiszniewski, 1954 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla lunaris f. aperta Steinecke, 1916 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla obtusa Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3514); Monostyla vastita Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2016)

    Measurements

    Length of dorsal plate 76; length of ventral plate 82; width of dorsal plate 76; width of ventral plate 64; width of anterior end 60; foot 11; toe 26; claw 11 um. (ref. ID; 2714)

    Lecane ohioensis (Herrick, 1885) (ref. ID; 696, 1312, 1345, 1923, 2265, 2599, 2714, 2825, 3146, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 3021)

    See

    Lecane ludwigii (ref. ID; 2016)

    Synonym

    Cathypna ohioensis Turner, 1892 (ref. ID; 1345, 3688); Distyla ohioensis Herrick, 1885 (ref. ID; 1345, 3688); Lecane ohioensis Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345, 3688)

    Descriptions

    The dorsal lorica was ornamented and the caudal processes presented a fish-tail form. (ref. ID; 1312)
    The anterior margin is not coincident and the spines at the external angles are not very prominent. The posterior segment rounded and the median projection is small and truncate. Ceylonese forms are larger than the ones described by Harring & Myers (1926) from the United States. (ref. ID; 2714)

    Measurements

    Length dorsal plate 100; length ventral plate 128; width dorsal plate 75; width ventral plate 68; anterior width 52; toe 34 um. (ref. ID; 696)
    Length of dorsal plate 99; length of ventral plate 126; width of dorsal plate 78; width of ventral plate 69; width of anterior end 51; toe 33 um. (ref. ID; 2599)
    Length of dorsal plate 120; length of ventral plate 135; width of dorsal plate 99; width of ventral plate 93; width of anterior end 54; foot 15; toe 39 um. (ref. ID; 2714)

    Lecane ohioensis appendiculata (Levander, 1894) (ref. ID; 2886)

    Comments

    All taxa are distinguishable by the different appendices of the ventral lorica plate. There are, however, intermediate forms to L. ludwigi and also to L. ohioensis. The present population is uniform. The appendices are all short, slightly narrowed laterally before the end (marked by a convex line). Such a taxon was described as Cathypna appendiculata by Levander in 1894, Koste (1978) called the brackish water rotifer Lecane ohioensis f. appendiculata (Levander), 1894. In view of its specific ecological demands we probably are justified in changing its rank to that of spp. (ref. ID; 2886)

    Measurements

    Total lorica length 132; dorsal plate length 87; dorsal plate width 86; ventral plate width 72; anterior margin 52; toes 39 um. (ref. ID; 2886)

    Lecane (Monostyla) opias (Harring & Myers, 1926) (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 2824, 3144, 3275, 3335, 3437, 3506, 3688)

    Synonym

    Lecane opias Myers, 1942 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla opias Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3275, 3688)

    Measurements

    Length of dorsal plate of lorica 63; width of dorsal plate of lorica 52; length of ventral plate of lorica 63; width of ventral plate of lorica 67; length of toe 22 um. (ref. ID; 3275)

    Lecane ozensis Yamamoto, 1953 (ref. ID; 3055 original paper)

    See

    Lecane paradoxa (ref. ID; 2016)

    Descriptions

    Outline of lorica oval; anterior margins coincident and slightly convex, no anterior spine; dorsal plate oval, posterior margin rounded, without surface pattern; ventral plate rather long, but narrower than dorsal plate, nearly parallel-sided anteriorly, rounded posteriorly, with simple longitudinal surface striae; first foot-segments elongated; second foot-segment large and almost subcircular, slightly projected beyond ventral posterior margin; toes long and slender, fused together just at base, each terminated in an acute point without claw. (ref. ID; 3055)

    Comments

    It resembles Lecane nana in some respects, but is quite different from the latter in the relative proportion of length and width of the loricae, the form of anterior margin and the feature of the toes. (ref. ID; 3055)

    Type locality

    Lecane ozensis was found among the Sphagnum. (ref. ID; 3055)

    Measurements

    Length of dorsal plate 62; length of ventral plate 69; width of dorsal plate 53; width of ventral plate 45; width of anterior margin 42; length of toe 39; length of fused portion 1.5 um. (ref. ID; 3055)

    Lecane palinacis Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2016, 3127)

    Descriptions

    The animal is similar to the type in shape, flexible integument, and toes, but has the following differences: The first foot joint is sub-parallel, broad, and has an obtusely pointed termination projecting over the second joint. The second foot joint is conical, and does not extend much beyond the posterior segment. The two short spines present on the posterior segment of the type are entirely absent, and there are two small coaxial plates narrowly rounded posteriorly. (ref. ID; 3127)

    Measurements

    Total length 118; length of lorica 86; width of lorica 84; length of toe and claw 32 um. (ref. ID; 3127)

    Lecane papuana (Murray, 1913) (ref. ID; 689, 696, 1352, 1448, 2016, 2064, 2251, 2265, 2339, 2385, 2545, 2714, 3083, 3180, 3514) reported year? (ref. ID; 3039, 3387, 3502, 3513), misspelling? pupuana Murray (ref. ID; 3449)

    Synonym

    Cathypna papuana Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 1351, 2016, 2064, 2385); Lecane luna var. presumpta Ahlstrom, 1938 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane papuana Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2064); Lecane yamunensis Novotna-Dvorakova, 1962 (ref. ID; 2016)

    Descriptions

    Lorica is nearly subcircular, the anterior dorsal margin is straight, the ventral with a V-shaped sinus and its sides undulate. Ventral plate is slightly narrower than the dorsal. Posterior segment is very small and rounded. First foot joint is pyriform and second robust. Toes are slender, nearly parallel sided ending in stout, pointed claw with basal spicules. (ref. ID; 689)
    Lorica subcircular, anterior dorsal margin straight, ventral margin with a V-shaped sinus, its sides being undulate. Posterior segment very small and rounded. Toes slender, nearly parallel-sided, ending in stout pointed claws with basal spicules. (ref. ID; 3180)

    Comments

    Russell (1957) stated that L. papuana can be a variety of L. luna. Nayar (1968) observed that they are distinct. I support this view by the observations made on the specimens obtained, without any trace of intergrading. The anterior ventral margin is characteristic of L. papuana. It was reported earlier by Edmondson & Hutchinson (1934) from Kashmir, Pasha (1961) from Madras, and Nayar (1968) from Rajasthan. (ref. ID; 689)
    Together with the typical forms was found a variety having a deeper ventral V sinus without lobes, the anterior dorsal edge being higher than the lateral edges of the sinus. In some cases the dorsal edge was convex. Russell (1957) suggests that Lecane papuana may be only a variety of Lecane luna caused by the partial contraction of the anterior edges of the animal due to the preservative. (ref. ID; 2385)

    Type locality

    This species was originally described from New Guinea. (ref. ID; 3513)

    Measurements

    Total length 126; length of dorsal plate 84; toes 28; claw 7; width of anterior margins 63 um. (ref. ID; 689)
    Total length 126; length of dorsal plate 110; length of ventral plate 114; width of dorsal plate 84-94; width of ventral plate 90; toe 28-35; claw 7-9; width of anterior margins 63 um. (ref. ID; 696)
    Length 110; width 85; toes 44 um. (ref. ID; 2251)
    Length of lorica 110; maximum width 90; width of anterior points 66; length of toes 40 um. (ref. ID; 2385)
    Length of dorsal plate 99; length of ventral plate 108; width of dorsal plate 87; width of ventral plate 83; width of anterior end 66; foot 15; toe 21; claw 9 um. (ref. ID; 2714)
    Total length 280; dorsal lorica length 110; anterior median sinus 18-20 wide, 7-9 deep; width at the anterior extremity 64-68; widest part 84-90; toes 40 um. (ref. ID; 3083)
    Length 110 um, breadth 90 um, toes 40 um. (ref. ID; 3387)

    Lecane paraclosterocerca Pennac, 1939 (ref. ID; 3083) reported year? (ref. ID; 1345) or (Pennak, 1939) Voigt, 1957 (ref. ID; 2016)

    See

    Lecane pyriformis (ref. ID; 2016)

    Measurements

    Total length 73; dorsal lorica length 52; width at the anterior extremity 29-30; widest part 49-50; toes 22 um. (ref. ID; 3083)

    Lecane (Monostyla) pawlowskii Wulfert, 1966 (ref. ID; 696, 2016, 2064 original paper)

    Measurements

    Length dorsal plate 60; length ventral plate 52; width dorsal plate 74; width ventral plate 44; toe 26 um. (ref. ID; 696)

    Lecane pelatis Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2894)

    Descriptions

    The lorica is ovate, anterior margins coincident, with two lateral cusps. The dorsal plate, which is wider than the ventral one, is truncate posteriorly. First foot joint elongated, second joint robust, wide. Coxal plates very large, pointed, toes long with claws. (ref. ID; 2894)

    Measurements

    Dorsal plate 110 long, 140 wide; ventral plate 119 long, 100 wide; toes 50-51 um. (ref. ID; 2894)

    Lecane (Monostyla) perplexa (Ahlstrom, 1938) (ref. ID; 1345, 1473, 2064, 2281, 2802, 3275, 3335, 3514) reported year? (ref. ID; 3402) or (Ahlstrom, 1938) Myers, 1942 (ref. ID; 2016)

    See

    Lecane lunaris (ref. ID; 2016)

    Synonym

    Lecane lunaris perplexa Wiszniewski, 1954 (ref. ID; 2802); Monostyla perplexa Ahlstrom, 1938 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3275, 3514)

    Descriptions

    The basal spicules on the claw are rudimentary. (ref. ID; 2281)

    Measurements

    Total length 156; toe and claw 46 um. (ref. ID; 2281)

    Lecane (Monostyla) perpusilla (Hauer, 1929) (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3180, 3335, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 3449, 3501, 3502)

    Synonym

    Lecane brevita Myers, 1942 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane perpusilla Wiszniewski, 1936 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane subulata f. perpusilla Koste, 1978 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla perpusilla Hauer, 1929 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3688); Monostyla subulata perpusilla Koste & Shiel, 1990 (ref. ID; 2016)

    Descriptions

    Lorica broadly ovate, its width four-fifths of length. Anterior margins coincident and straight, with slightly angular external angles. Posterior segment small and rounded, projecting somewhat beyond dorsal plate. Toe very long, about half of the total length, parallel-sided for most of its length, ending in a divided with two spicules. (ref. ID; 3180)

    Lecane plesiaides Chengalath & Fernando, 1973 (ref. ID; 2016, 2714 original paper)

    Descriptions

    The lorica is sturdy and tapers gradually to the foot. Anterior dorsal and ventral margins slightly conver. External angles bear two strong triangular, more or less erect anterior spines. Dorsal plate convex, smaller than ventral plate. Surface markings limited to two pairs of convergent wavy ridges, beginning near the anterior margin. Ventral plate moderately convex. Width of dorsal and ventral plates equal. Width of lorica nearly two-third the length of body. Anterior end widest tapering posteriorly with the sides of lorica slightly undulate. A well marked transverse fold present immediately in front of foot. Lateral sulci absent. Posterior segment distincts from main body. First foot joint large, second sub-square and does not project beyond the lorica. Toes long about one-third the length of lorica and tapers into fine point, without claws. (ref. ID; 2714)

    Comments

    L. plesiaides resembles L. crepida Harring, and L. plesia Myers, and has the general outline of these species. The lorica of L. crepida is however parallel sided in the anterior half of its length and tapers rapidly to the foot. It is also strongly gibbous posteriorly. The foot does not project beyond the lorica in L. crepida and the claws are absent. Although L. crepida and L. plesiaides are of approximately the same size, these morphological differences stand out clearly. L. plesia is also approximately the same size but differs from L. plesiaides in the following characters. The anterior spines at the external angles in L. plesiaides are more prominent and distinctly triangular whereas in L. plesia the spines are rudimentary. The lorica in L. plesiaides tapers gradually to the foot whereas in L. plesia it is more or less parallel sided for most of the length. The toes are also different in that the claws are absent in L. plesiaides. In view of all these differences and other structural characteristics different from other Lecane species we propose that this species be designated L. plesiaides sp. nov. (ref. ID; 2714)

    Measurements

    Length of dorsal plate 75; length of ventral plate 85; width of dorsal plate 50; width of ventral plate 50; width of anterior end 57; foot 8; toe 31 um. (ref. ID; 2714)

    Lecane ploenensis (Voigt, 1902) (ref. ID; 2714, 3181, 3275, 3514, 3688), 1904 (ref. ID; 3512) or 1912 (ref. ID; 696, 1345, 2064, 2265, 2268, 2599, 3180) reported year? (ref. ID; 2977, 3387)

    See

    Lecane signifera (ref. ID; 3514)

    Synonym

    Cathypna ploenensis Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345, 3688); Diglena ploenensis Voigt, 1902 (ref. ID; 3275); Distyla affinis Lucks, 1912 (ref. ID; 1345, 3688); Distyla ploenensis Voigt, 1902 (ref. ID; 1345, 3181, 3688); Lecane ploenensis Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345) or Wiszniewski, 1954 (ref. ID; 3688)

    Descriptions

    The anterior margins are coincident with small triangular spines at the edges. The foot is well inside the lorica. In Wulfert's (1966) drawings of Lecane ploenensis from India the foot is shown as projecting outside the lorica. This may be because of the varying degree of contraction. The design on the dorsal and ventral plates were not discernible. (ref. ID; 2714)
    Lorica elongate oval, anterior margins coincident and straight, two small, cusplike spines at the external angles. Ovate dorsal plate slightly truncate posteriorly, with surface markings. Posterior segment rather small and rounded, projecting but little beyond dorsal plate. Toes very long and slender, about one-third of the total length, parallel-sided, straight on the inner edges and ending in acute points without claws. (ref. ID; 3180)

    Measurements

    Length dorsal plate 104; length ventral plate 110; width dorsal plate 85; width ventral plate 74; toe 48 um. (ref. ID; 696)
    Length of dorsal plate 108; length of ventral plate 114; width of dorsal plate 81; width of ventral plate 75; width of anterior end 60; toe 48 um. (ref. ID; 2599)
    Length of dorsal plate 90; length of ventral plate 99; width of dorsal plate 60; width of ventral plate 51; width of anterior end 54; foot 12; toe 36 um. (ref. ID; 2714)
    Length of lorica 142; toes 70 um. (ref. ID; 3181)
    Length 120 um, toes 48 um. (ref. ID; 3387)

    Lecane pomiformis Edmondson, 1938 (ref. ID; 2016, 2772 original paper, 3126)

    See

    Lecane pyriformis (ref. ID; 2016)

    Descriptions

    The general outline of the lorica is apple-shaped. While the dorsal plate is nearly circular, it is markedly flattened laterally near the anterior and also across the frontal margin. The ventral plate is ovate and much narrower than the dorsal plate. Its anterior margin is slightly concave. The posterior segment is short and truncate. Although the two plates of the lorica are of equal length, the ventral plate projects considerably beyond the dorsal one posteriorly, thus separating the anterior margins. The coxal plates are broad but indistinct. The posterior foot joint is subquadrate and bears the single toe which is almost half as long as the dorsal plate. It is parallel-sided for about two thirds of its length, tapering posteriorly to sharp point. (ref. ID; 2772)

    Comments

    Lecane pomiformis most closely resembles L. pyriformis (Daday), but differs from that species in several details. The anterior margins are coincident in L. pyriformis rather than widely separated, and the proportions of the plates themselves and to each other are different. The toe is different in shape and proportion to the lorica. The most striking feature about L. pomiformis is the flattening of the antero-lateral corners which makes this species easily recognizable even under low powers of the microscope. The two species are figured side by side in order to faciliate comparison. (ref. ID; 2772)

    Measurements

    Length of dorsal plate 74; length of ventral plate 74; length of toe 35; width of dorsal plate 60; width of ventral plate 53 um. (ref. ID; 2772)

    Lecane pumila (Rousselet, 1906) (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 2886, 3688)

    Synonym

    Notommata pumila Rousselet, 1906 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3688); Lecane pumila Hauer, 1936 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3688)

    Comments

    This species belongs to the few taxa in the genus which do not have separate dorsal and ventral lorica plates, but a soft undivided integument. Hauer (1936), in a monograph on L. pumila, pointed out that rather than a notammatid, as initially described by Rousselet, this taxon is a Lecane which lives in algae and mosses of running waters. The localities in which this minute animal are found are widely separated. (ref. ID; 2886)

    Measurements

    Lorica length 72; toes 12 incl. claw; claw 4 um. (ref. ID; 2886)

    Lecane (Monostyla) punctata (Murray, 1913) (ref. ID; 1312, 1345, 2016, 2317, 2935) reported year? (ref. ID; 3502)

    See

    Lecane harringi

    Synonym

    Lecane aguessei De Ridder, 1960 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane harringi (Ahlstrom, 1934) Wiszniewski, 1954 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla harringi Ahlstrom, 1934 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla punctata Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016)

    Descriptions

    The anterior margin of the ventral lorica which is wider than the dorsal, slightly concave and descending at an obtuse angle at the external edge. (ref. ID; 1312)
    This is generally considered a brackish water species. (ref. ID; 2317)

    Measurements

    Length of dorsal plate 60; length of ventral plate 72; width of dorsal plate 48; width of ventral plate 42; length of toe 28 um. (ref. ID; 2317)

    Lecane pusilla Harring, 1914 (ref. ID; 696, 2016, 2317, 2714) reported year? (ref. ID; 3039)

    Descriptions

    Lorica broadly ovate. Anterior margins are not coincident, the dorsal plate projects little over the ventral plate. (ref. ID; 2714)

    Measurements

    Length dorsal plate 47; length ventral plate 51; width dorsal plate 46; width ventral plate 42; anterior width 44; toe 12; claw 5 um. (ref. ID; 696)
    Length of dorsal plate 54; length of ventral plate 60; width of dorsal plate 50; width of ventral plate 46; length of toe and claw 20; length of claw, which is strongly recurved, 4-6 um. (ref. ID; 2317)
    Length of dorsal plate 53; length of ventral plate 59; width of dorsal plate 45; width of ventral plate 40; width of anterior end 43; foot 8; toe 13; claw 5 um. (ref. ID; 2714)

    Lecane pygmaea Daday, 1897 (ref. ID; 1345, 2280, 3060, 3508) or 1901 (ref. ID; 3688), (Daday, 1897) Myers, 1937 (ref. ID; 2016, 2064)

    See

    Lecane galeata (ref. ID; 2016, 2064, 3508)

    Synonym

    Monostyla pygmaea Daday, 1901 (ref. ID; 3688)

    Measurements

    Length over all 146 um. (ref. ID; 2280)

    Lecane (Monostyla) pyriformis (Daday, 1905) (ref. ID; 696, 1312, 1345, 2016, 2261, 2269, 2284, 2317, 2385, 2545, 2599, 2922, 3180, 3514, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 2890, 3449, 3501, 3502, 3523, 4606, 4607), (Daday, 1905) Edmondson, 1936 (ref. ID; 6846)

    See

    Lecane minuta

    Synonym

    Lecane paraclosterocerca Pennak, 1939 (ref. ID; 6846), (Pennak, 1939) Voigt, 1957 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane pomiformis Edmondson, 1938 (ref. ID; 2016, 6846); Lecane pyriformis Edmondson, 1936 (ref. ID; 3688); Monostyla pyriformis Daday, 1905 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3514, 3688, 6846); Monostyla truncata Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345, 3688), Turner 1892 sensu Murray 1913 (ref. ID; 6846)

    Descriptions

    Lorica broadly ovate, its width four-fifths of length. Anterior margins coincident, straight for the greater part of their length and strongly rounded towards the edges of the lorica. Ventral plate ovate and considerably narrower than the dorsal. Posterior segment small and rounded projecting somewhat beyond the dorsal plate. Two very long, about half of the total length, parallel-sided for half of its length and tapering gradually to a slender, bristle-like point. (ref. ID; 3180)

    Comments

    Turkish specimens are large, compared to previously published data, and to specimens from other localities examined here. The variability in size seems not to reflect gradual differences, but turns out to be discontinuous. Similar, or even more pronounced, cases are known in the congeneric species L. bulla and L. quadridentata. As one can only guess at the origin of this variation, using preserved material only, it is impossible to contribute taxonomical significance to the observed morphological differences. Some variation in the shape of the anterior margin of the dorsal lorica was also recorded, even between animals from a single population. This margin is straight in some specimens, but convex in others. This can be the result of differential contraction of preserved animals: The former are well-contracted, the latter incompletely contacted. Apparently, this particular type of variation in shape has served as a diagnosis for both L. pomiformis Edmondson, 1938 and L. paraclosterocerca Pennak, 1939. In the former, the separation of the anterior margins is especially pronounced, and its anterior margin resembles that of the L. furcata specimen represented in Fig.2b. This particular specimen is extended rather than contracted, just as L. luna (O.F. Muller) f. submagna De Ridder (De Ridder, 1991). As a result, L. pomiformis Edmondson, 1938 is added to the synonymy of L. pyriformis, and the synonymy of L. paraclosterocerca Pennak, 1939 with L. pyriformis (Koste, 1978) is confirmed. (ref. ID; 6846)

    Measurements

    Length dorsal plate 44 um; length ventral plate 48 um; width dorsal plate 48 um; width ventral plate 38 um; toe 20 um. (ref. ID; 696)
    Total length 60-70 um. (ref. ID; 2284)
    Total length 80-90 um. (ref. ID; 2317)
    Length of body 54; width of body 48; length of toe 20 um. (ref. ID; 2385)
    Length of dorsal plate 54; length of ventral plate 58; width of dorsal plate 44; width of ventral plate 37; width at anterior end 35; toe 25 um. (ref. ID; 2599)
    Dorsal lorica length 57-60; dorsal lorica width 55-56; ventral lorica length 60-62; ventral lorica width 44-46; toe 25 um. (ref. ID; 4606)

    Lecane pyrrha Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2016, 2593) reported year? (ref. ID; 4606)

    Descriptions

    Lorica a very elongated oval with coincident anterior margins bearing two small side-cusps. Toes very long and slender, pointed but no claws. The species is usually, but not always, of a deep rust colour. Our specimens were much smaller than those described by Harring and Myers (1926). Acidophi. (ref. ID; 2593)

    Measurements

    Dorsal plate 170-180 long, 110-115 wide; ventral plate 180 long, 97 wide; toes 68-71 um. (ref. ID; 2593)
    Total length 124; dorsal lorica length 119; dorsal lorica width 80; ventral lorica length 124; ventral lorica width 78; dorsal frontal margin width 36; ventral frontal margin width 41; toe 45 um. (ref. ID; 4606)

    Lecane (Monostyla) quadridentata (Ehrenberg, 1832) (ref. ID; 689, 696, 1312, 1345, 1923, 2016, 2064, 2261, 2265, 2268, 2269, 2339, 2385, 2599, 2642, 2704, 2714, 2757, 2787, 2816, 2825, 2867, 3060, 3180, 3255, 3271, 3437, 3512, 3514, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 2889, 2936, 3239, 3241, 3502, 3523) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 3114, 3292, 6846)

    Synonym

    Lecane bicornis (Daday, 1897) (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane quadridentata Edmondson, 1935 (ref. ID; 2016, 3688); Lecane quadridentata arthrodactyla Berzins, 1982 (ref. ID; 2016, 2936); Lecane sexidentata (Van Oye, 1926) Wiszniewski, 1954 (ref. ID; 2016); Lepadella cornuta Schmarda, 1859 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3271, 3688); Metopidia cornuta Hudson & Gosse, 1889 (ref. ID; 1345, 3271, 3688); Monostyla bicornis Daday, 1897 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3271, 3514, 3688); Monostyla quadridentata Ehrenberg, 1832 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 2757, 3271, 3514, 3688); Monostyla sexidentata Van Oye, 1926 (ref. ID; 2016)

    Descriptions

    Lorica is broadly ovate, anterior dorsal margin is narrow with median, pyriform sinus, flanked by two curved and decurved spines; ventral margin with V-shaped sinus and two frontal spines. Posterior segment is small and rounded. First foot joint is narrow and the second subcylindric. Toe is long, slender, parallel-sided and has faint annular constrictions, terminating in a long acutely pointed claw with basal spicules. (ref. ID; 689)
    The anterior margins shows differences from hitherto known specimens. The dorsal plate has a deep sinus at the anterior end and is flanked by two stout slightly out curved spines witch are not of the same length. Ventral plate has a more or less 'V' shaped sinus. Posterior segment rounded and not covered by dorsal plate. Toe and claw long, claw ending in an acute point. (ref. ID; 2714)
    Lorica elongate. Anterior margin of lorica with two well developed outwardly curved median spines. (ref. ID; 2867)
    Lorica broadly ovate. Anterior dorsal margin narrow with a median, pyriform sinus, flanked by two stout outcurved and decurved spines. Ventral margin with a V-shaped sinus and two small frontal spines. Posterior segment small, rounded and not covered by dorsal plate. Toe long, slender, parallel-sided, with faint annular constrictions, terminating in a long acutely pointed claw with basal spicules. (ref. ID; 3180)

    Measurements

    Total length 200; length of dorsal plate 126; length of ventral plate 140; width dorsal plate 84; width ventral plate 98; toe without claw 42; claw 14 um. (ref. ID; 689)
    Total length 200; length of dorsal plate 108-126; length of ventral plate 120-140; width dorsal plate 76-84; width ventral plate 80-98; anterior width 90; toe 42-50; claw 14-18 um. (ref. ID; 696)
    Length of dorsal plate 90; length of ventral plate 110; width of dorsal plate 64; width of ventral plate 74; toe and claw 60; claw 10 um. (ref. ID; 2385)
    Length dorsal plate 112; length ventral plate 128; width dorsal plate 75; width ventral plate 90; toe 50; claw 18 um. (ref. ID; 2704)
    Length of dorsal plate 99; length of ventral plate 123; width of dorsal plate 71; width of ventral plate 75; width of anterior end 45; foot 18; toe 45; claw 21 um. (ref. ID; 2714)
    Total length 260; length of lorica 140; maximum width 120; length of anterior spine 30; length of toe with claw 80; length of claw 30 um. (ref. ID; 2867)

    Lecane quadridentata arthrodactyla Berzins, 1982 (ref. ID; 4606 original paper)

    See

    Lecane quadridentata (ref. ID; 2016, 2936)

    Measurements

    Total length 240; dorsal lorica length 140; dorsal lorica width 114; ventral lorica length 160; ventral lorica width 122; foot 16; toe & claw 85 (45 proximally, 18 distally), claw 25 um. (ref. ID; 4606)

    Lecane rhacois Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2016, 3128)

    Measurements

    Total length 64; length of toes 24 um. (ref. ID; 3128)

    Lecane rhopalura (Harring & Myers, 1926) (ref. ID; 2016) reported year? (ref. ID; 2913, 4604)

    Synonym

    Lecane aspersa Kutikova & Arov, 1985 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane rhopalura Wiszniewski, 1954 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla rhopalura Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref, ID; 2016)

    Measurements

    Total length 160; dorsal lorica length 106; ventral lorica width 85; ventral lorica length 115; dorsal lorica width 78; frontal margin width 56; toe & claw 68 um. (ref. ID; 4604)

    Lecane rhytida Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 1324, 2016, 2265, 2545, 3514) reported year? (ref. ID; 4606)

    See

    Lecane lauterborni Hauer, 1924 (ref. ID; 2797)

    Measurements

    Dorsal lorica length 74; dorsal lorica width 68; ventral lorica length 80; ventral lorica width 40; toe 40; foot length 13; foot width 15 um. (ref. ID; 4606)

    Lecane rotundata Olofsson, 1918 (ref. ID; 1345, 1450, 1499) reported year? (ref. ID; 2936) or (Olofsson, 1918) Remane, 1932 (ref. ID; 2016)

    See

    Lecane latissima (ref. ID; 2016)

    Descriptions

    This is a typically arctic species. (ref. ID; 1499)

    Measurements

    Dorsal plate length 100-106; dorsal plate width 105-110; ventral plate length 104-110, ventral plate width 80-100; toes 30 um. (ref. ID; 1499)

    Lecane rudescui Hauer, 1965 (ref. ID; 2016, 2265, 2809)

    Measurements

    Total length 176-181; dorsal lorica length 117-122; dorsal lorica width 87; ventral lorica length 112-125; ventral lorica width 87-89; second foot segment 23; head aperture 51; toe length 41-43 um (Hauer 1965). Total length 194-196; dorsal lorica length 125-130; dorsal lorica width 86-87; ventral lorica length 116; ventral lorica width 86; second foot segment 18-19; head aperture 50; toe length 45-48 um (Camaleao specimens). (ref. ID; 2809)

    Lecane (Monostyla) rugosa (Harring, 1914) (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 2282, 2545, 2703, 2797)

    Synonym

    Lecane rugosa Wisznieski, 1954 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla rugosa Harring, 1914 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016)

    Descriptions

    Typical specimens except for the facetting, which may be obscure or absent. (ref. ID; 2282)

    Measurements

    Total length 90 um. (ref. ID; 2282)

    Lecane ruttneri Hauer, 1938 (ref. ID; 1831, 2016, 2261, 2545, 2923, 3083) reported year? (ref. ID; 2936)

    See

    Lecane abanica

    Measurements

    Total length 109; dorsal lorica length 85; anterior extremity 68; caudal extremity 20; toes 30 um. (ref. ID; 3083)

    Lecane (Monostyla) scutata (Harring & Myers, 1926) (ref. ID; 1345, 1450, 2016, 2371, 2545, 2597, 3514, 3688)

    Synonym

    Lecane scutata Myers, 1942 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane stroeszneri (Torok, 1935) Bancsi, 1988 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla scutata Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 1345, 3514, 3688); Monostyla stroeszneri Torok, 1935 (ref. ID; 2016)

    Measurements

    Length of the lorica 95; length of the toe 42 um. (ref. ID; 1450)

    Lecane shieli Segers & Sanoamuang, 1994 (ref. ID; 1831, 2016, 2199 original paper)

    Descriptions

    Parthenogenetic female: Lorica relatively soft, irregularly folded through conservation. Dorsal plate consistently narrower than ventral plate, elongate. Head aperture margins nearly coincident, straight or with irregular notches. Antero-lateral corners armed with long, sharp and straight spines. Ventral plate longer than wide, generally parallel-sided, irregularly folded. No lateral sulci. Foot plate especially separated, coxal plates indistinct. Prepedal fold narrow, elongate, distally with median projection. Foot pseudosegment short, not or scarcely projecting. Toes long and slender, nearly parallel-sided, slightly outcurved distally. Claws weakly curved, inserted eccentrically. This species appears close to L. eutarsa Harring & Myers, 1926 and relatives. (ref. ID; 2199)

    Etymology

    The species is named after Dr. R.J. Shiel (Albury, Australia), in recognition of his work on Rotifera. (ref. ID; 2199)

    Measurements

    Dorsal plate length 94-101; dorsal plate width 41-46; ventral plate length 99-115; ventral plate width 51-59; toe length 48-51; claw length 7-11 um. (ref. ID; 2199)

    Lecane sibina Harring, 1914 (ref. ID; 1830, 2016, 2891)

    Measurements

    Length of dorsal lorica < /= 130; width of dorsal lorica < /=125; length of ventral lorica < /=135; width of ventral lorica < /=116; toe length 62; claws 20 um. (ref. ID; 2891)

    Lecane signifera (Jennings, 1896) (ref. ID; 1324, 2016, 2599, 3295 original paper Distyla signifera, 3514) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 3370), signifera signifera Jennings (ref. ID; 4604)

    Synonym

    Cathypna ploenensis Myers, 1913 (ref. ID; 2016); Cathypna signifera Myers, 1913 (ref. ID; 2016); Distyla signifera Jennings, 1896 (ref. ID; 2016, 3295); Distyla ploenensis Voigt, 1902 (ref. ID; 2016, 3514); Lecane aquila Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane ploenensis (Voigt, 1902) (ref. ID; 3514) or (Voigt, 1902) Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane signifera Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane signifera glandulosa Sudzuki, 1991 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane signifera ploenensis (Voigt, 1902) (ref. ID; 3514)

    Descriptions

    Lorica of the flattened truncate elliptical form typical of the genus: the whole animal in general form much like the Distyla inermis of Bryce (Science Gossip, Dec., 1892), though perhaps a little broader. But the lorica is marked both dorsally and ventrally by crescentic elevations, arranged in somewhat regular patters. On the ventral surface these are mostly in longitudinal rows, while on the dorsal surface the pattern is considerably more complicated and at the same time less regular. The two figures, from camera drawings, render a minute description of the arrangement of these elevations superfluous. The dorsal view shows not only the arrangement but also, so far as possible, the size and form of each the markings; in the ventral view the arrangement is accurate, but each elevation was not outlined separately with the camera. The toes are rod-like, tapering near the distal end on the outer side, so as to form an inner point - so that when the two toes are placed side by side only one point is formed. The internal anatomy offers nothing of interest. All distinctive characters of the animal are better indicated by the figures than would be possible by an extended description. (ref. ID; 3295)

    Measurements

    Length of dorsal plate 111; length of ventral plate 117; width of dorsal plate 87; width of ventral plate 75; width of anterior end 63; toe 51 um. (ref. ID; 2599)
    Length about 22 mm. (ref. ID; 3295)
    Dorsal lorica length 104; dorsal lorica width 58; ventral lorica length 112; ventral lorica width 58; fontal margin width 55; occipital thorn 5; toe 50 um. (ref. ID; 4604)

    Lecane signifera glandulosa Sudzuki, 1991 (ref. ID; 3083 original paper)

    See

    Lecane signifera

    Descriptions

    Frontal margin straight so that no frontal median sinus recognized. A prominant grandular structure at the base of lateral spines, which are short and curved. (ref. ID; 3083)

    Etymology

    The name glandulosa is derived from the Greek for glandular, alluding to the possession of remarkable glands at the frontal corners. (ref. ID; 3083)

    Type locality

    Ritchie reservoir. (ref. ID; 3083)

    Measurements

    Total length 136; dorsal lorica length 110; width at the basis of occipital lateral spines 62-64; widest part 80-82; anterior lateral spines 5-6; toes 40 um. (ref. ID; 3083)

    Lecane signifera ploenensis Voigt, 1902 (ref. ID; 1324, 1847, 3514) reported year? (ref. ID; 4606), var. ploenensis (ref. ID; 2834)

    See

    Lecane signifera (ref. ID; 3514)

    Synonym

    Distyla ploenensis Voigt, 1902 (ref. ID; 2834)

    Descriptions

    Outline and configuration of the dorsal and ventral plates and the shape of the toes are more or less in correspondence with that of L. signifera signifera (Jennings, 1896). The configuration of the facets of the lorica are shown to be differently by various authors. In our material we have seen some ornamentation of the lorica, which are neither in correspondence with L. signifera f. typica nor with L. ploenensis f. typica, but instead form a morphological succession between these two taxa. We think that L. ploenensis cannot anymore be acknowledged as a distinct species. (ref. ID; 2834)

    Measurements

    Total length 144; dorsal lorica length 86; dorsal lorica width 71; ventral lorica length 101; ventral lorica width 72; frontal margin width 60; toe 53 um. (ref. ID; 4606)

    Lecane similis Russell, 1958 (ref. ID; 1709, 2016, 2284 original paper)

    Descriptions

    The integument is moderately flexible, but the body retains its shape. The anterior dorsal margin is straight to slightly convex. The ventral margin is very slightly narrower than the dorsal and also convex. The general shape of the animal is sub-circular with a truncated anterior portion, and this is the shape of the dorsal plate. The ventral plate is sub-oval and considerably narrower than the dorsal plate and has irregular lateral edges. The dorsal markings consist of a small transverse fold at about three-quarters of its length; the ventral markings are two short irregular longitudinal lines near its lateral edges at about one-third of its length. The lateral sulci are deep and irregular, and the posterior segment is moderately large and rounded. It extends beyond the lorica. The co-axial plates are rudimentary. The first foot joint is sub-square; the second joint is short and conical. The toes are heavily shouldered at the base, conical, and terminating in claws which may be straight or out-turned. The inner edges of the toes may be widely separated or close together; the variation probably being due to the state of contraction. (ref. ID; 2284)

    Comments

    Lecane similis has the general outline of Lecane palinacis Harring & Myers (1926) to which it is evidently related. It differs, however, in the following characteristics: the presence of a definite dorsal and ventral plate, and in having lateral sulci. The posterior section of the body is rounded, and the foot does not protrude beyond the lorica. The toes are longer and of a different form. This new species was found in reserve material collected by Mr. J. Eyles from Waitangi West, and Hemokawa, Chatham Islands. Russell (1953) described the specimens from Hemokawa as L. palinacis; this is incorrect as a re-examination of the slides shows the animal to be poorly preserved specimens of the new species showing, under transmitted light, separate plates and sulci, and with its characteristic toes. (ref. ID; 2284)

    Measurements

    Total length 134-140; length of dorsal plate 86-90; length of ventral plate 96-105; width of dorsal plate 82-86; width of ventral plate 66-70; width of anterior margin 36-40; length of toes and claws 36-40; length of claws 6-10 um. (ref. ID; 2284)

    Lecane simonneae Segers, 1993 (ref. ID; 2016, 2844 original paper, 2923)

    Diagnosis

    Using the key by Koste (1978), L. simonneae n. sp. keys out to L. rhytida Harring & Myers. The latter species, however, has slightly concave ventral and dorsal anterior margins (straight in L. simonneae n. sp.) and has distinctly shorter toes, and a rounder lorica than L. simonneae n. sp. The new species is closet to L. eutarsa Harring & Myers new synonym: L. amazoniana Koste & Robertson = L. stichaea Harring var. amazonica Koste, 1978), and L. robertsonae nom. nov. The only character differentiating these three taxa is the structure of the toe: in L. simonneae n. sp. claws are absent, in L. eutarsa distinct, yet unilaterally separated claws are present whereas in L. robertsonae nom. nov. distinct and completely separated claws are present. (ref. ID; 2844)

    Descriptions

    Lorica with domed dorsal and flat ventral plate, separated by lateral sulci. Dorsal lorica anteriorly narrower, medially broader than ventral lorica. Head aperture dorsally and ventrally nearly straight, with conspicuous pointed antero-lateral spines. Ventral lorica nearly parallel-sided, divided by narrow transversal fold in anterior part with clear pattern of folds and posterior part with foot plate. Foot plate broad, with rounded coxal plates and elongate foot pseudosegment, extending well beyond posterior margin of ventral lorica. Foot pseudosegment with lateral extensions. Toes relatively long, parallel-sided, tapering distally to acute point. Dorsal lorica elongate, with clear pattern of folds. (ref. ID; 2844)
  • Male: Male unknown. (ref. ID; 2844)

    Etymology

    The species is named after Mrs. S. Wellekens, secretary of Hydrobiologia, whom I accompanied to Nigeria. (ref. ID; 2844)

    Measurements

    Dorsal lorica length 64-73, width 56-59; ventral lorica length 76-80, width 46-53; toe length 44-45 um. (ref. ID; 2844)

    Lecane (Monostyla) sinuata (Hauer, 1938) (ref. ID; 696, 1345, 2064) (Hauer, 1937/38) (ref. ID; 2807)

    Synonym

    Lecane hamata var. sinuata Koste, 1978 (ref. ID; 2807); Monostyla sinuata Hauer, 1938 (ref. ID; 2064)

    Measurements

    Length dorsal plate 73; length ventral plate 56; width dorsal plate 76; width ventral plate 46; toe 30 um. (ref. ID; 696)

    Lecane (Monostyla) spinifera Edmondson, 1934 (ref. ID; 2939 original paper)

    See

    Lecane spinulifera (ref. ID; 2016, 2760)

    Descriptions

    Body slightly elongated; anterior margins not coincident, with two large, prominent cusps; dorsal plate sub-circular, truncate anteriorly; ventral plate elongate, ovate; posterior segment of medium size, slightly indented; coxal plates long, pointed, projecting beyond posterior segment; toe small, slightly tapering, ending in claw. (ref. ID; 2939)

    Comments

    Monostyla spinifera has a superficial resemblance to M. batillifer from which it differs in the projecting coxal plates, general details of shape, and toe. This condition of projecting coxal plates is found only in Lecane calcaria and this species. (ref. ID; 2939)

    Measurements

    Length of dorsal plate 83; length of ventral plate 90; width of dorsal plate 79; length of toe 33 um. (ref. ID; 2939)

    Lecane spiniventris Segers, 1994 (ref. ID; 2016, 2922 original paper)

    Diagnosis

    The new species is diagnosed by the presence of subantero-lateral and ventral spines. It further has a relatively soft lorica, a non-projecting foot pseudosegment with rounded and dilated lateral parts, and a single toe. (ref. ID; 2922)

    Descriptions

    Comments

    The presence of a pair of ventral and a pair of subantero-lateral spines are both unique in the genus; the species can therefore not be confused with any congener. (ref. ID; 2922)

    Etymology

    The species name spiniventris (adjective) refers to the unique subantero-lateral and ventral spines of the species. (ref. ID; 2922)

    Type locality

    Roadside pond along Sungai Akar Road, close to Bandar Seri Bagawan, the Sultanate of Brunei (4 degrees 57'N-114 degrees 56'E), 17 April 1993, leg. H.J. Dumont. (ref. ID; 2922)

    Measurements

    Dorsal plate length 47-60; dorsal plate width 49-59; ventral plate length 56-67; ventral plate width 43-52; subantero-lateral spine length 7-11; ventral spine length 10-12; toe length 27-31; fused part length 13-16 um. (ref. ID; 2922)

    Lecane (Monostyla) stenroosi (Meissner, 1908) (ref. ID; 689, 696, 1345, 2016, 2064, 2135, 2251, 2317, 2599, 2640, 2714, 2723, 3180, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 3448, 3502) or (Meiszner, 1908) (ref. ID; 3335, 3514)

    Synonym

    Lecane bicornis (Stenroos, 1898) (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane stenroosi Wiszniewski, 1953 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla bicornis Stenroos, 1898 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3688); Monostyla stenroosi Meissner, 1908 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3688) or Meiszner, 1908 (ref. ID; 3514)

    Descriptions

    Lorica is broadly oval, anterior dorsal margin straight, and the ventral has a shallow sinus with convex sides and two short, stout, incurved, hook-like frontal spines. First foot joint is indistinct and the second prominent. Toe is long, stout, tapering and ending in a pointed claw. (ref. ID; 689)
    Lateral sulci very deep. (ref. ID; 2317)
    The anterior dorsal margin is straight. Ventral margin has a shallow, rounded sinus and externally two stout, incurved frontal spines. Posterior segment small and rounded. (ref. ID; 2714)
    Lorica broadly oval, its width about five-sixths of the length. Anterior dorsal margin straight and narrow. Ventral margin with a shallow, rounded sinus with strongly and narrow. Ventral margin with a shallow, rounded sinus with strongly convex sides and externally two short, incurved, hooklike frontal spines. Posterior segment very broad and rounded, its limits ill-defined. Toe long and stout, about one-third of the total length, slightly tapering and very slightly enlarged near the middle; the claw short, stout, acutely pointed, having two distinct basal spicules. (ref. ID; 3180)

    Measurements

    Total length 168; length of dorsal plate 105; length of ventral plate 112; width of lorica 84; toe 42; claw 7; width at anterior points 42 um. (ref. ID; 689)
    Length 115; width 87.5; toe 48 um. (ref. ID; 2251)
    Total length 160 um. (ref. ID; 2317)
    Length of dorsal plate 96; length of ventral plate 100; width of dorsal plate 81; width of ventral plate 81; width at anterior end 36; toe 36; claw 9 um. (ref. ID; 2599)
    Length of dorsal plate 120; length of ventral plate 126; width of dorsal plate 100; width of ventral plate 102; width of anterior end 45; foot 12; toe 36; claw 9 um. (ref. ID; 2714)

    Lecane stichaea Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345, 1450, 2016, 2808, 3263, 3506, 3514, 3688)

    Synonym

    Lecane methoria Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2016, 3263, 3688); Lecane saginata Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane stichaeoides Hauer, 1938 (ref. ID; 3514); Lecane stichnaeoides Hauer, 1938 (ref. ID; 3688)

    Descriptions

    Claw form: bent backwards, only inside edge indented by weak step. Anterior lorica: margin between anterior spines convex. (ref. ID; 2808)

    Comments

    Olofsson (1917, p.281) would not, presumably, have listed his new species, "Catyphna intrasinuata" if he had known of L. stichaea Harring (1913, p.397) described somewhat earlier. Despite this the name L. intrasinuata has survived, as Olofsson's form has been identified with the more fully described L. ephestra Harring (1921, pp.7-8). It is very difficult to ascertain by means of the literature with specific differences are supposed to exist between L. stichaea and "L. intrasinuata". In the only identification table that includes both species, i.e. Voigt 1956-57, they are distinguished by the fact that the posterior contour of the ventral plate is uniformly rounded ("gleichmassig abgerundet") in L. stichaea while in "L. intrasinuata" it is truncated ("abgestutzt"). However, a study of the drawings in the literature shows that the characteristic in question is subject to great variation within each of the "species" and not distinctive. Curiously enough Voigt's identification table is the only instance in literature where the two species are taken up for comparison. However, when the long descriptions in Harring and Myers (1926, pp.344 and 357) are compared, certain differences do appear: (1) The dorsal plate is in L. stichaea "truncate posteriorly", and in "L. intrasinuata" "rounded posteriorly". (2) The dorsal plate of the former has surface markings which are missing in that of the latter. (3) The foot joints are differently formed. A comparison of the picture in Harring and Myers' essay shows that there are also considerable differences in the pattern of the ventral plate. None of the above characteristics, however, appear invariably in the forms denoted in the literature as L. stichaea and L. intrasinuata, and there are transitional forms of all these characteristics. The accounts and drawings Pejler have consulted in this matter are as follows: Murray 1913, p.352 and Pl.14:30a-c, Harring 1913, pp.397-398 and Pl.35:4-6, Harring 1921, pp.7-8 and Pl.3:1-2, Harring and Myers 1926, pp.343 (L. methoria Harring & Myers are included in L. stichaea by Carlin, 1939) -344 and pp.357-358, Pl.19:1-4 and Pl.24:5-6, Olofsson 1917, p.281 and Fig.10, Rezvoj 1917, p.180 and Pl.1:11-12, Fadeew 1927, p.148 ("L. muscicola (Bryce)" and "L. methoria") and Pl. 1:1-4, Hauer 1929, pp. 148-149 and Fig. 4a-b ("L. methoria"), Hauer 1935, pp.82-84 and 86 and Fig.16a-b and 18a-b, Hauer 1958, pp.22-23 and Pl.1:12a-b, Carlin 1939, pp.22-23 and Fig.6a-b, Wulfert 1940, pp.574-575 and Fig.15a-d and Margalef 1955, p.148 and Fig.3a-b. Published accounts and drawings of L. saginata are considerably fewer than those of the two forms discussed above. As far as Pejler knows it has been present of only by Harring and Myers (1926, p.345 and Pl.19:5-6) and Pawlowski (1938, p.134 and Fig.7a-b). There is, however, every indication that the "species" is part of the variable array of forms which should, according to the above account, be collected under the name L. stichaea. As all the specimens Pejler dealt with were alive at the time of fixing the body contents greatly diminished he possibilities of distinguishing the pattern of the lorica. However, in those cases where the body contents formed no obstruction it appeared that the pattern varies in intensity in different specimens and different populations, evidently a common phenomenon among the loricate rotifers. This is presumably one of the reasons why L. stichaea, "L. intrasinuata" and "L. saginata have been classified as separate species. In Pejler Lapland material the length of the lorica in L. stichaea (s.l.) varies between 90 and 105 um. The appearance of the toes differs: Usually the tips are so sharply hollowed out on the inner side that claws are formed. This hollowing out is sometime considerably less pronounced, however, and on occasion hardly discernible. Sometimes the claws are curved up toward the dorsal side, as in L. flexilis. As far as size, the form of the lorica and the form of the toes are concerned, the difference between L. flexilis and L. stichaea is less in the arctic area than in the birch forest belt. (ref. ID; 1450)

    Measurements

    Dorsal lorica length 70-85; dorsal lorica width 69-76; ventral lorica length 75-105; ventral lorica width 58; toe length 27-39; claw length 5-7 um. (ref. ID; 2808)

    Lecane stichaeoides Hauer, 1938 (ref. ID; 1830, 2808)

    See

    Lecane haliclysta (ref. ID; 2016), Lecane stichaea (ref. ID; 3514)

    Synonym

    Lecane aspasia Myers, 1917 (ref. ID; 2808); Lecane stichaea after Koste, 1981 (ref. ID; 2808); Lecane stichaea f. stichoides (Hauer 1938) after Koste, 1978; (ref. ID; 2808)

    Diagnosis

    This Lecane species was described by Hauer in 1938 from a single specimen collected in a rice field near Singkarak, Sumatra. Hauer (1937/1938) erected the new species "stichaeoides" because of its smaller size, thinner shape and particularly because of a totally different arrangements of the ornamental ridges on the dorsal and ventral lorica, when compared to L. stichaea. While Hauer did not comment on the insertion of the claws, it is clearly shown in the very good figure of his South East Asian record. L. stichaea and similar forms always present a characteristic insertion to the claws: a soft indentation on the inner side of the toes. L. stichaeoides also show distinctly indented toes, but on both sides. Small forms of L. stichaeoides can be confused with L. aculeata aculeta (Jakubski, 1912) (ref. ID; 2808)

    Measurements

    Dorsal lorica length 74; dorsal lorica width 55; ventral lorica length 81; ventral lorica width 48; anterior lorica width 61; toe length 32; claw length 7 um. (ref. ID; 2808)

    Lecane stichoclysta Segers, 1993 (ref. ID; 2016, 2844 original paper)

    Diagnosis

    L. stichoclysta n. sp. is diagnosed by 1) its completely separated claws; 2) its nearly square and covered foot pseudosegment and 3) its relatively short toes. (1) and (2) separate the species from L. stichaea (unilaterally separated claws, elongate and projecting foot pseudosegment) and L. haliclysta Harring & Myers (no claws, projecting foot pseudosegment with lateral extensions); (2) and (3) distinguish the taxon from L. stichaeoides (projecting foot pseudosegment with lateral extensions and relatively long toes). (ref. ID; 2844)

    Descriptions

    Lorica with domed dorsal and flat ventral plate, separated by lateral sulci. Dorsal lorica anteriorly narrower, medially broader than ventral lorica. Head aperture dorsally and ventrally nearly straight, with pointed antero-lateral spines. Ventral lorica nearly parallel-sided, with conspicuous lateral inflexions posterior of antero-lateral spines. Ventral lorica divided by narrow transversal fold in anterior part with clear pattern of folds and posterior part with foot plate. Foot plate inconspicuously separated, with rounded coxal plates and almost square foot pseudosegment, not extending beyond the posterior margin of ventral lorica. Toes relatively short, parallel-sided, with completely separated acute claws. Dorsal lorica elongate, with clear pattern of folds. (ref. ID; 2844)
  • Male: Male unknown. (ref. ID; 2844)

    Etymology

    The new name L. stichoclysta was chosen to remind the closeness of L. stichaea and L. haliclysta. (ref. ID; 2844)

    Measurements

    Dorsal lorica length 66-68, width 50-56; ventral lorica length 71-78, width 45-50; toe length 20-21; claw length 9-10 um. (ref. ID; 2844)

    Lecane (Monostyla) styrax (Harring & Myers, 1926) (ref. ID; 689, 2284, 2317, 2385, 3127, 3181) or (Harring & Myers, 1926) Wiszniewski, 1954 (ref. ID; 2016)

    See

    Lecane bulla styrax

    Descriptions

    Lorica is firm, broadly ovate, anterior dorsal margin with wide median, elliptic notch, ventral margin with deep sinus, rounded posteriorly. Dorsal and ventral plates are similar in width and shape. Ventral plate has a transverse fold in front of the foot. First foot joint is indistinct, second large and hexagonal. Toe is very long and slender and terminates in a long slender acutely pointed claw. (ref. ID; 689)
    Heavy transverse fold. (ref. ID; 2317)
    The anterior dorsal notch was smaller and very similar to that of L. bulla. (ref. ID; 3127)

    Comments

    It resembles L. bulla in general but differs by its foot, toe, and claw. Harring & Myers (1926) stated that the needle-like claw is without parallel in the genus. (ref. ID; 689)

    Measurements

    Total length 280; length of dorsal plate 140; length of ventral plate 156; width of lorica 98; toe 84; claw 28 um. (ref. ID; 689)
    Length of body 120; length of toes and claw 50; length of claw 24 um. (ref. ID; 2284)
    Length of dorsal plate 120; length of ventral plate 126; width of dorsal plate 90; width of ventral plate 90; length of toe and claw 46; length of claw 26 um. (ref. ID; 2317)
    Length of body 106; maximum width 70; length of toe and claw 60; claw 20 um. (ref. ID; 2385)
    Total length 170; length of lorica 110; width of body 90; length of toe 60 um. (ref. ID; 3127)
    Length 123; maximum width 85; toes, less claw 50; claw 20 um. (ref. ID; 3181)

    Lecane submagna De Ridder, 1960 (ref. ID; 2935)

    See

    Lecane luna (ref. ID; 2016)

    Comments

    In 1960, De Ridder described a new species from oligohaline to mesohaline waters in the Camargue, S. France and named it Lecane submagna. De Ridder indicated its relationship with L. Luna, but noted the different ratio (L/B) of the lorica and is small anterior opening. De Ridder now consider it a strongly contracted L. luna. L. submagna therefore becomes a junior synonym of L. luna. De Ridder propose the use of the combination Lecane luna var. submagna De Ridder, to designate this particular morph. (ref. ID; 2935)

    Lecane subtilis Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3180, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 3449, 3501, 3502)

    Synonym

    Lecane apatinensis Zivkovic, 1987 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane murragi Korde (ref. ID; 3449); Lecane murrayi Korde, 1927 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016)

    Descriptions

    Anterior portion of lorica roughly parallel-sided and the posterior portion sub-triangular and rounded at apex. Anterior margins coincident; anterior spines absent. Dorsal plate parallel-sided anteriorly and obtusely rounded posteriorly; its surface markings of a very intricate and unusual pattern. Posterior segment small and nearly semicircular. Toes very long and slender, about one-third of total length, straight, very slightly conical, terminating in a long, slender, acutely pointed claw, sharply constricted at the base. (ref. ID; 3180)

    Lecane sylviae Segers, 1993 (ref. ID; 2016, 2844 original paper)

    Diagnosis

    This new species is easily distinguished from the related L. stenroosi (Meissner) by the double pair of antero-lateral projections (single in L. stenroosi) and by the ornamentation of the lorica. (ref. ID; 2844)

    Descriptions

    Lorica with slightly domed dorsal and flat ventral plate, separated by lateral sulci. Dorsal lorica narrower than ventral lorica. Head aperture dorsally straight, ventrally concave with median pair of sharp spines and lateral pair of rounded projections. Ventral lorica rounded, divided entirely by transversal fold. Anterior part with weak symmetrical pattern of folds, posterior part with weak pattern and foot plate. Minute spicules present on lateral edges of lorica plates, on the transversal fold and dispersed in posterior half of ventral lorica. Foot plate broad, coxal plates small, foot pseudosegment trapezoidal, not extending beyond the posterior margin of the ventral lorica. Toe parallel-sided, with minute terminal fissure. Claws and accessorial claws present. Dorsal lorica round, with clear pattern of folds. (ref. ID; 2844)
  • Male: Male unknown. (ref. ID; 2844)

    Etymology

    I name this beautiful species after my wife, Sylvie Dinakis. (ref. ID; 2844)

    Measurements

    Dorsal lorica length 124-129, width 108-119; ventral lorica length 137-144, width 117-126; toe length 41-48; claw length 10-13 um. (ref. ID; 2844)

    Lecane (Hemimonostyla) sympoda Hauer, 1929 (ref. ID; 696, 1345, 1923, 2016, 2064, 2268, 2545, 2599, 2714, 2914, 3125, 3180, 3514) reported year? (ref. ID; 3502)

    See

    Lecane braziliensis

    Descriptions

    This species shows considerable variation (Hauer 1938). (ref. ID; 2599)
    Lorica broadly ovate, its width about two-thirds of the length, anterior margins coincident, the dorsal margin being slightly convex and sinuate. Ventral plate narrower than the dorsal, with constrictions in the anterior one-third. Posterior segment small, rounded, slightly projecting beyond dorsal plate. Toes long and slender, about one-fourth of the total length, parallel-sided, fused for two-thirds of their length but each toe terminating in an acute, pointed claw. (ref. ID; 3180)

    Measurements

    Length dorsal plate 58; length ventral plate 64; width dorsal plate 56; width ventral plate 46; toe 16; claw 8 um. (ref. ID; 696)
    Length of dorsal plate 64; length of ventral plate 69; width of dorsal plate 59; width of ventral plate 50; width at anterior end 50; toe 17; claw 6 um. (ref. ID; 2599)
    Length of dorsal plate 60; length of ventral plate 63; width of dorsal plate 47; width of ventral plate 42; width of anterior end 44; foot 8; toe 18; claw 6 um. (ref. ID; 2714)

    Lecane tabida Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 1830, 2016, 2265, 2683)

    Descriptions

    The second joint of the foot extended beyond the lorica. The toes had characteristic straight borders. (ref. ID; 2683)

    Measurements

    Lorica length 81; width 64; toes 26 um. (ref. ID; 2683)

    Lecane tabulifera Edmondson, 1936 (ref. ID; 2771 original paper)

    Descriptions

    The outline of the lorica is an elongate oval; the anterior dorsal margin is almost straight, and the ventral margin is gently concave. There are two broad, triangular cusps at the external anterior corners. The dorsal plate is oval, the edge not well marked in the rear. The ventral plate is elongate, truncately oval, with a deep transverse fold two-thirds of the way from the anterior end. The lateral sulci are well marked. The posterior segment is large and truncate. The coxal plates are quite large and project beyond the edge of the posterior segment as does the last foot segment. The two toes are fairly long, about half as long as the ventral plate, and bear long claws accompanied by a smaller spicule. They are slightly constricted near the middle. (ref. ID; 2771)

    Comments

    It has some resemblance to L. acronycha from which is differs in the general proportions of the plates and in the projecting coxal plates and posterior foot segment. (ref. ID; 2771)

    Measurements

    Length of dorsal plate 176; length of ventral plate 192; length of toe without claw 80; length of claw 20; width of dorsal plate 148; width of ventral plate 148 um. (ref. ID; 2771)

    Lecane tasmaniensis Shiel & Koste, 1985 (ref. ID; 1709)

    See

    Lecane eylesi (ref. ID; 2016)

    Measurements

    Total length 160-163; dorsal plate 112-120x90; ventral plate 110-125x70-80; toe 50-60; claw 10 um. (ref. ID; 1709)

    Lecane tenuiseta Harring, 1914 (ref. ID; 1312, 1345, 1836, 1909, 2016, 2268, 2371, 2787, 2837, 2994, 3128, 3263, 3514, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 3271, 3449, 3502, 4607)

    Synonym

    Lecane aeganea Harring, 1914 (ref. ID; 1345, 3688); Lecane aegenea Fadeew, 1924 (ref. ID; 3263, 3688); Lecane elongata Pawlowski, 1938 (ref. ID; 3688); Lecane punctata Carlin-Nilsson, 1934 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3263, 3688)

    Measurements

    Length of the body 68-78; length of the toes less claws 16-20; length of the claws 8-14 um. (ref. ID; 3128)

    Lecane (Monostyla) tethis (Harring & Myers, 1926) (ref. ID; 689, 2281) or (Harring & Myers, 1926) Wiszniewski, 1954 (ref. ID; 2016)

    See

    Lecane furcata (ref. ID; 2016)

    Synonym

    Monostyla tethis Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 2016)

    Descriptions

    Lorica is broadly oval, the anterior margins coincident and straight. Surface markings agree with the description given by Harring & Myers (1926). Dorsal plate similar to the ventral and truncate posteriorly. Posterior segment is small and rounded. First foot joint is indistinct, and second large and subcircular. Toe is straight with a slender, long acutely pointed claw. (ref. ID; 689)

    Measurements

    Total length 98; length of dorsal plate 63; length of ventral plate 70; width of lorica 56; length of toe 28; claw 7 um. (ref. ID; 689)
    Length of dorsal plate 69; length of ventral plate 76; width of dorsal margin 57; width of ventral margin 69; foot 23 um. (ref. ID; 2281)

    Lecane thailandesis Segers & Sanoamuang, 1994 (ref. ID; 1831, 2016, 2199 original paper)

    Diagnosis

    L. thailandensis is close to L. latissima Yamamoto, 1955. The two species differ by the lorica surface, being strongly pustulated in L. thailandensis, and smooth in L. latissima. Differences in ecology and distribution exist: L. latissima is a well-known cold-stenotherm. L. thailandensis is probably an Oriental, warm water species. Both L. thailandensis and L. latissima are distinguished from the related L. hornemanni (Ehrenberg, 1834) by their toes bearing claws, from L. ruttneri Hauer, 1938 by their larger size and dorsal plate being wider than long, and from L. abanica Segers, 1994 by their larger size and rounded lorica. (ref. ID; 2199)

    Descriptions

    Lorica relatively stiff. Dorsal plate wider than ventral plate, armed with rows of spines and bearing ornamental folds. Head aperture margins nearly coincident, straight or slightly convex, with rounded antero-lateral corners. Ventral plate slightly longer than wide, with incomplete transverse and longitudinal folds, ornamented with rows of spines. No lateral sulci. Foot plate broad, coxal plates rounded triangular. Prepedal fold relatively broad, elongate, distally with median projection. Foot pseudosegment constricted medially, not projecting. Toes long, slightly tapering to distally, with small spicules laterally and dorsally. Claws incompletely separated, bent dorsad. (ref. ID; 2199)

    Etymology

    The species name refers to the country from which the species was first recognised, Thailand. (ref. ID; 2199)

    Measurements

    Dorsal plate length 85-95; dorsal plate width 95-110; ventral plate length 98-105; ventral plate width 61-85; toe length 33-38; claw length 5-6 um. (ref. ID; 2199)

    Lecane (Monostyla) thalera Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 696, 1345, 2016, 2621, 2812, 3125, 3688)

    Synonym

    Lecane conspicua (Hauer, 1936) Wiszniewski, 1954 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane lamellata thalera Koste, 1978 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane paradecipiens (Nayar, 1968) (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla conspicua (Hauer, 1936) (ref. ID; 2016, 3125); Monostyla lamellata var. Bryce, 1924 (ref. ID; 3688); Monostyla paradecipiens Nayar, 1968 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla thalera Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 2621, 3688); Monostyla thalera Rodewald, 1940 (ref. ID; 3688)

    Measurements

    Length of dorsal plate 135; length of ventral plate 144; width of dorsal plate 94; width of ventral plate 88; toe 50; claw 14 um. (ref. ID; 696)

    Lecane (Monostyla) thienemanni (Hauer, 1938) (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 2064, 3180) or 1937 (ref. ID; 2797)

    Synonym

    Lecane thienemanni Wiszniewski, 1954 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla thienemanni Hauer, 1938 (ref. ID; 2016)

    Descriptions

    Lorica subcircular. Anterior dorsal margin nearly straight and narrow, about half of the width of the lorica. Ventral margin with a broad V-shaped sinus flanked by two stout incurved spines. Ventral plate considerably narrower than dorsal plate. Posterior segment large and rounded, projecting beyond the dorsal plate. Toe long and stout, very slightly enlarged near the middle, tapering to an acute point, without any claw. (ref. ID; 3180)

    Lecane triloba Yamamoto, 1951 (ref. ID; 3054 original paper)

    See

    Lecane curvicornis (ref. ID; 2016)

    Descriptions

    Lorica broadly ovate; anterior margin concave, ate external corners armed with incurved spines. Dorsal anterior margin smooth, but ventral margin divided into three lobes by two small notches; dorsal plate of equal width with ventral plate; posterior dorsal margin smooth and somewhat truncated. Ventral posterior margin also divided into three lobes by two small cuts; central lobe somewhat tail-like; ventral plate much longer than the dorsal. First foot-joint indistinct, second foot-joint subsquare and situated at some distance in front of ventral posterior margin. Toes long and slightly sigmoid-curved, terminating in acute claws with basal spicules. (ref. ID; 3054)

    Type locality

    This species is fairly common in the samples collected on October 22, 1927 from a pond in a western suburb of Akashi city, Hyogo Prefecture. (ref. ID; 3054)

    Measurements

    Length of dorsal plate 120; length of ventral plate 153; width of lorica 116; distance between anterior spines 64; length of toe without claw 50; length of claw 17 um. (ref. ID; 3054)

    Lecane truncata Yamamoto, 1953 (ref. ID; 3055 original paper)

    See

    Lecane depressa (ref. ID; 2016)

    Descriptions

    Body elongated ovoid, without cusps on anterior corners; dorsal lorica inverted oval, anterior margin convex, posterior margin truncated, both posterior corners slightly pointed; dorsal lorica considerably narrower than ventral lorica; ventral lorica elliptic, anterior margin almost straight truncated posteriorly. Depth of body not great. First foot-segment rather large, but not prominent, pyriform; second foot-segment large, subtrapezoid, toes somewhat thick, blade-like, parallel-sided anteriorly, tapered posteriorly, terminated in an acute point. (ref. ID; 3055)

    Comments

    The present species is considered to be affined with L. brachydactyla in general appearance, but is quite different from the latter in the characteristics that the dorsal posterior margin is smooth and rounded and that small cusps are present. (ref. ID; 3055)

    Measurements

    Length of dorsal plate 125; length of ventral plate 143; width of dorsal plate 84; width of ventral plate 98; width of anterior margin 60; length of toe 40; depth of body 40 um. (ref. ID; 3055)

    Lecane tudicola Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 1345, 1474, 2599, 2787, 2906, 3127, 3335) reported year? (ref. ID; 3502)

    See

    Lecane depressa (ref. ID; 2016)

    Synonym

    Metopidia lepadella Jakubski, 1915 (ref. ID; 1345)

    Descriptions

    There are a number of variations in the Owenga specimens: in all cases the ventral sinus was deeper than that shown by Harring & Myers, and averaged 14 um. The posterior segment was narrower, and in addition to the two lateral indentations there was a shallow sinus on the posterior portion of the segment. The toes were shouldered at the base with a definite lateral indentation posterior to the shoulder. (ref. ID; 3127)

    Measurements

    Length of dorsal plate 96; length of ventral plate 114; width of dorsal plate 81; width of ventral plate 81; width at anterior end 51; toe 42 um. (ref. ID; 2599)
    Total length 138; length of dorsal plate 94; length of ventral plate 108; width of dorsal plate 64; width of ventral plate 58; Width of anterior margin 50; length of toes 30 um. (ref. ID; 3127)

    Lecane tuxeni De Ridder, 1970 (ref. ID; 2016, 3275, 3532 original paper)

    Measurements

    Length of lorica 73-84; length of dorsal plate 65-73; width of dorsal plate 52-74; length of ventral plate 64-78; length of toes 23-30 um. (ref. ID; 3275)

    Lecane uenoi Yamamoto, 1951 (ref. ID; 2016, 2914, 2922, 3054 original paper)

    See

    Lecane minuta

    Synonym

    Lecane rugosa (Harring, 1914) after Koste (1974) (ref. ID; 2914)

    Descriptions

    Lorica broadly oval; dorsal anterior margin slightly concave; ventral anterior margin convex, with a small notch at center; dorsal plate broader than ventral plate. First foot segment rather long, but second one broad. About two-thirds of toe length fused, entirely parallel-sided. Toes terminating in short claws which curve outwards. (ref. ID; 3054)

    Comments

    L. uenoi is the only Lecane combining incompletely fused toes and a dorsal lorica being consistently broader than the ventral lorica. By this, the small species can hardly be confused with any congener. The Brazilian specimens deviate in some minor details from Yamamoto's (1951) description of the species. The shape of the head aperture margins differs slightly, variably pronounced ornamentations of the lorica are present and the claws are parallel, not diverging in the Brazilian specimens. All these characters are, however, known to be subject to intraspecific variation in the genus. (ref. ID; 2914)

    Type locality

    This species is found among the samples collected on October 22, 1948, at Rokujizo Pond, Kyoto Prefecture. (ref. ID; 3054)

    Measurements

    Dorsal plate length 44-53 (50); dorsal plate width 46-48 (48); ventral plate length 47-52 (50); ventral plate width 35-41 (41); toe length (without claws) 14-18 (14); claw length 4-5 (4) (Japanese specimen between brackets) um. (ref. ID; 2914)
    Length of dorsal plate 50; width of dorsal plate 48; anterior width of dorsal plate 36; length of ventral plate 50; width of ventral plate 41; anterior width of ventral plate 32; length of toe without claw 14; length of claw 4 um. (ref. ID; 3054)

    Lecane (Hemimonostyla) undulata Hauer 1937/38 (ref. ID; 1324, 1345) or Hauer, 1938 (ref. ID; 2016, 3180, 3512, 3514)

    Descriptions

    Lorica broadly ovate, anterior dorsal margin sinuate, ventral margin nearly straight. Anterior spines not evident. Dorsal and ventral plates with symmetrical surface markings, ventral narrower than dorsal. Posterior segment small and rounded. Toes long and slender, completely separate except for the proximal one-fifth of their length, each toe terminating in acute pointed outcurved claws. (ref. ID; 3180)

    Comments

    Chengalath and Fernando (1973) agree with the view of Wulfert (1966) that Lecane undulata and L. inopinata are variations of L. sympoda. (ref. ID; 3180)

    Lecane (Monostyla) unguitata (Fadeew, 1925) (ref. ID; 696, 1324, 2064, 2797) or (Fadeev, 1925) (ref. ID; 2016, 3180, 3514)

    Synonym

    Lecane unguitata Wiszniewski, 1954 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane unguitata africana Koste, 1978 (ref. ID; 2016); Monostyla unguitata Fadeev, 1925 (ref. ID; 2016, 3514) or Fadeew, 1925 (ref. ID; 2064)

    Descriptions

    Posterior segment prominent. Claws with 2 basal spicules. (ref. ID; 696)
    Lorica broadly oval, its width about four-fifths of the length. Anterior dorsal margin nearly straight. Ventral margin with a broad, shallow, V-shaped anterior sinus between rather pointed lobes projecting considerably beyond the dorsal plate. Posterior segment rather small and rounded posteriorly. Toe fairly long, slightly enlarged toward the posterior end; claws distinct and very long. (ref. ID; 3180)

    Measurements

    Length dorsal plate 90; length ventral plate 100; width dorsal plate 81; width ventral plate 90; toe 24; claw 12 um. (ref. ID; 696)

    Lecane ungulata (Gosse, 1887) (ref. ID; 689, 696, 1345, 2016, 2064, 2265, 2268, 2599, 2704, 2714, 2787, 2816, 2891, 2894, 3083, 3180, 3275, 3335, 3512, 3514, 3688) reported year? (ref. ID; 2932, 2936, 3040, 3502), ungulata ungulata (Gosse, 1887) (ref. ID; 1837, 2757)

    Synonym

    Cathypna glandulosa Stokes, 1897 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3688); Cathypna magna Lucks, 1912 (ref. ID; 2016); Cathypna magna Stenroos, 1898 (ref. ID; 2016); Cathypna magna tenuior Stenroos, 1898 (ref. ID; 2016); Cathypna minnesotensis Murray, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345, 3688); Cathypna ungulata Gosse, 1887 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 2757, 3275, 3512, 3514, 3688); Cathypna ungulata magna Lucks, 1912 (ref. ID; 3688), var. magna Sachse, 1912 (ref. ID; 1345); Distyla minnessotensis Herrick, 1885 (ref. ID; 3688); Lecane donnerianus Dhanapathi, 1976 (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane grandulosa (Stokes, 1897) (ref. ID; 2016); Lecane fracida Berzins, 1982 (ref. ID; 2016, 2936); Lecane minnessotensis Decksbach, 1921 (ref. ID; 3688); Lecane sverigis Ahlstrom, 1934 (ref. ID; 2016, 3688); Lecane ungulata Harring, 1913 (ref. ID; 1345, 2016, 3688); Lecane ungulata magna Rylov, 1926 (ref. ID; 3688); Lecane ungulata var. australiensis Koste & Shiel, 1990 (ref. ID; 2016)

    Descriptions

    Lorica is broadly oval, anterior dorsal margin nearly straight, ventral margin slightly concave, and with two straight, ventral margin slightly concave, and with two large triangular cusps at the external angles. Dorsal plate is oval without any surface markings, ventral plate broader and with irregular transverse fold some distance in front of the first foot joint. Posterior segment is broad, slightly truncate and projects beyond the foot. First foot joint is indistinct and the second fairly broad. Toes are straight, a parallel sided ending in stout long acutely pointed claw with a basal spicule. (ref. ID; 689)
    This is a well characterized species, easily distinguishable by the big size, smooth lorica, broad posterior segment and long claws. (ref. ID; 1837)
    Lorica is broadly oval, anterior dorsal margin nearly straight, ventral margin slightly concave, and with two large triangular cusps at the external angles. Dorsal plate is oval without and surface markings, ventral plate broader and with irregular transverse fold some distance in front of the first foot joint. Posterior segment is broad, slightly truncate and projects beyond the foot. First foot joint is indistinct and the second fairly broad. Toes are straight, parallel sided ending in stout long acutely pointed claw with a basal spicule. (ref. ID; 2757)
    The few individuals agreed well with the descriptions of Harring & Myers (1926) and Voigt (1957). The toes are, however, subject to considerable variation and instead of the basal spicules a swollen callous thickening could be observed. In specimens collected from other Laurentian lakes this was not apparent, but the spicule at the base of the claw was also absent. (ref. ID; 2894)
    Lorica broadly oval, anterior dorsal margin nearly straight, ventral margin slightly concave. External angles with two large, triangular cusps. Dorsal plate oval without any surface markings. Posterior segment broad, slightly truncate, and projecting beyond the foot. Toes straight, parallel-sided, with or without a stout, long acutely pointed claws, with or without fairly prominent basal spicules. Length of toes more than one-third of total length. (ref. ID; 3180)

    Consideration of synonymy

    The size of L. fracida and the shape of its toes reveal a synonymy with L. ungulata. The deformation of the lorica in L. fracida cannot be considered a valid diagnostic character. Variation in overall size and stiffness of the lorica, common phenomena in Lecane, evidently lead to various conservation artefacts. The fact that Berzins (1982) identified both L. fracida and L. ungulata from the same sample offers additional support for the synonymy of both names. (ref. ID; 2936)

    Measurements

    Total length 280; length of dorsal plate 196; length of ventral plate 224; width of dorsal plate 154; width of ventral plate 168; toe without claw 70; claw 42; width at anterior points 126 um. (ref. ID; 689)
    Total length 280; length of dorsal plate 196~230; length of ventral plate 224~290; width of dorsal plate 154~184; width of ventral plate 168~210; toe 70~80; claw 42~45; width at anterior points 126 um. (ref. ID; 696)
    Dorsal plate length 250; dorsal plate width 180; ventral plate length 270; ventral plate width 220; length of toes 120; pseudoclaws 40 um. (ref. ID; 1837)
    Length of dorsal plate 225; length of ventral plate 294; width of dorsal plate 183; width of ventral plate 204; width at anterior end 150; toe 78, claw 45 um. (ref. ID; 2599)
    Length dorsal plate 215; length ventral plate 264; width dorsal plate 160; width ventral plate 180; toes 80; claws 40 um. (ref. ID; 2704)
    Length of dorsal plate 207; length of ventral plate 231; width of dorsal plate 162; width of ventral plate 171; width of anterior end 126; foot 66; toe 27; claw 33 um. (ref. ID; 2714)
    Length of dorsal lorica 139-220; width of dorsal lorica 144-180; length of ventral lorica 185-255; width of ventral lorica 160-195; toe length 90-120; claws 34-45 um. (ref. ID; 2891)
    Dorsal plate 186-220 long, 132-150 wide; ventral plate 224-240 long, 160-170 wide; toe with claw 94-105 um. (ref. ID; 2894)
    Total length 152-220; dorsal lorica length 110-160; width at the basis of occipital lateral spines 65-86; widest part 88-170; foot 8-12; toes 30-50; claw 19-25 um. (ref. ID; 3083)

    Lecane (Monostyla) unquitata Fadeew, 1925 (ref. ID; 2714)

    Measurements

    Length of dorsal plate 96; length of ventral plate 108; width of dorsal plate 89; width of ventral plate 99; width of anterior end 45; foot 15; toe 27; claw 12 um. (ref. ID; 2714)

    Lecane ungulata var. australiensis Koste, 1979 (ref. ID; 2891 original paper)

    Descriptions

    Lecane ungulata (Gosse, 1887) is the largest species within this genus, however there is considerable variation in the width of the lorica and in toe measurements. The new variety resembles L. sibina Harring, 1914, in the retraction of the head end, likewise the dorsal anterior lorica rim is domed. The dorsal lorica of L. ungulata ungulata is not perceptibly domed. Whilst the dome L. sibina is smooth, in the new variety it has a relatively coarse grainy structure. Furthermore, the foot plate of the ventral lorica is strongly depressed from the remainder of the lateral lorica. (ref. ID; 2891)

    Comments

    L. ungulata ungulata has, until now, always been found in freshwater biotopes without the dorsal domed lorica. It is suggested that the new variety is extraordinary through its large lorica size, also through the especially strongly pronounced dorsal dome, distinguishing it from the holotype and paratype. (ref. ID; 2891)

    Type locality

    Billabong, 'Goulburn View', Goulburn River floodplain, Alexandra, Vic. (37 degrees 13'S, 145 degrees 42'E). (ref. ID; 2891)

    Measurements

    Length of dorsal lorica 230-240; width of dorsal lorica 184-200; length of ventral lorica 268-280; width of ventral lorica 216-240; toe length 120-130; claws 36-40 um. (ref. ID; 2891)

    Lecane (Monostyla) unquitata Fadeew, 1925 (ref. ID; 2714)

    See

    Lecane blachei

    Measurements

    Length of dorsal plate 96; length of ventral plate 108; width of dorsal plate 89; width of ventral plate 99; width of anterior end 45; foot 15; toe 27; claw 12 um. (ref. ID; 2714)

    Lecane urna Nogrady, 1962 (ref. ID; 2016, 2597 original paper)

    Diagnosis

    This species resembles L. elegans Harring, 1914 but is shorter and more slender, much smaller, and can be recognized by its peculiar ventral plate. It might be suspected that it is a young specimen of L. elegans, but all the animals found were exactly alike. Moreover, the lorica seems to be too rigid for a newly hatched Rotifer. (ref. ID; 2597)

    Descriptions

    Lorica elongate, nearly parallel-sided, dorsal plate rigid, ventral plate slightly flexible. Anterior margins of both plates coincident, lightly arched, without spines. Sulci broad. Ventral plate much narrower than dorsal plate, narrowing more with a sharp incision and broadening again to semicircular shape, protruding from dorsal rim. Lorica transparent, dotted dorsally with only faint ridges ventrally. Coxal plates absent. First foot joint long, elliptical; second joint tapering slightly with deep anterior sinus. Toes slender, straight, ending in thin claw, curving inward. (ref. ID; 2597)

    Measurements

    Dorsal plate length 72; dorsal plate width 53; ventral plate length 80; ventral plate width 40-42; toe length 38-40 um. (ref. ID; 2597)

    Lecane vasishti Sharma, 1980 (ref. ID; 3339 original paper)

    See

    Lecane crepida (ref. ID; 2016)

    Descriptions

    Lorica oblong; maximum width at anterior end then tapering very slightly and gradually towards posterior end, external angles produced into small spines. Anterior dorsal margin convex, anterior ventral margin concave. Dorsal plate convex smaller than ventral plate, with a few surface markings. Ventral plate moderately convex, dorsal and ventral plates of almost equal width. Posterior segment small, semicircular, projecting beyond lorica. First foot-joint large, second subsquare, projecting beyond posterior end of lorica. Toes slender, parallelsides, almost 1/4 the length of lorica. Claws small, acutely pointed. (ref. ID; 3339)

    Comments

    This species resembles Lecane plesiaides described by Chengalath & Fernando (1973) from Ceylon, but differs in having: i) lorica less broad and tapering very slightly; (ii) ventral plate shorter in length; (iii) second foot-joint projecting beyond the lorica; (iv) toes smaller and (v) claws present. (ref. ID; 3339)

    Etymology

    This species has been named after Dr. H.S. Vasisht of the Panjab University, Chandigarh. (ref. ID; 3339)

    Type locality

    Holotype 1 female (on slide): Dept. of Zoology, NEHU, Shillong; loc. Indian Museum Tank, Calcutta; date 16.8.1975; water temperature 27.5 degrees C; pH 7.3; Coll. B.K. Sharma. (ref. ID; 3339)

    Measurements

    Length-dorsal plate 75; width-dorsal plate 31; length-ventral plate 79; width-ventral plate 31; anterior width 33; toes 22; claws 7 um. (ref. ID; 3339)

    Lecane verecunda Harring & Myers, 1926 (ref. ID; 696, 2016, 2283, 2317, 2599, 2714, 3688)

    Descriptions

    No facetting was found on the dorsal plate of specimens, although the usual markings were evident on the ventral plate. The first foot joint was ovate and more prominent than in the type. The second foot joint did not extend past the posterior segment. It is considered that the specimens are a variety of the type, and that the differences do not warrant describing them as forms. (ref. ID; 2283)
    Specimens differ from the type in being smaller, having a parallel sided first foot joint, and a dorsal plate with no facetting. (ref. ID; 2317)
    The anterior end coincident with two triangular spines at the external angles. (ref. ID; 2714)

    Measurements

    Length dorsal plate 56; length ventral plate 60; width dorsal plate 50; width ventral plate 45; toe 19; claw 6 um. (ref. ID; 696)
    Length of dorsal plate 70; length of ventral plate 76; width of dorsal plate 56; width of ventral plate 48; width of anterior points 50; length of toe 24 um. (ref. ID; 2283)
    Length of dorsal plate 58; length of ventral plate 74; width of dorsal plate 48; width of ventral plate 42; length of toe and claw 29; length of claw 4 um. (ref. ID; 2317)
    Length of dorsal plate 57; length of ventral plate 60; width of dorsal plate 50; width of ventral plate 44; width at anterior end 45; toe 19; claw 6 um. (ref. ID; 2599)
    Length of dorsal plate 55; length of ventral plate 59; width of dorsal plate 45; width of ventral plate 34; width of anterior end 41; foot 11; toe 17; claw 6 um. (ref. ID; 2714)

    Lecane (Monostyla) wulferti Hauer, 1952 (ref. ID; 2545) or 1956 (ref. ID; 2016) reported year? (ref. ID; 2683)

    See

    Lecane closterocerca (ref. ID; 2016)

    Measurements

    The lorica was 65 um long and 61 um wide; the toe was 26 um long. (ref. ID; 2683)