Amoeba

Amoeba Bory de St. Vincent, 1822 (ref. ID; 4238, 4817, 7510, 7615), Ehrenberg, 1831 (ref. ID; 3693) reported year? (ref. ID; 1618) or Ehrenberg, nom. emend. 1831 (ref. ID; 3687)

Superclass Rhizopoda: Class Lobosea: Subclass Gymnamoebia (ref. ID; 7510)
Class Tubulinea: Order Tubulinida (ref. ID; 6789)
Lobosea: Gymnamoebia (ref. ID; 7077)
Family Amoebidae Ehrenberg, 1838 (ref. ID; 7615) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 4817)

Synonym Amiba Bory, 1824 (ref. ID; 3693) reported year? (ref. ID; 1618); Chaos Linne, 1767 (ref. ID; 3693); Proteus O.F. Muller, 1786 (ref. ID; 3693) reported year? (ref. ID; 1618); Vibrio Gmelin, 1788 (ref. ID; 3693); Volvox Linne, 1760 (ref. ID; 3693)

[ref. ID; 1618]
Amoeboid; a vesicular nucleus, either with many spherical granules or with a conspicuous endosome; usually with one contractile vacuole; pseudopodia are lobopodia, never anastomosing with one another; holozoic; in fresh, brackish or salt water. Numerous species. (ref. ID; 1618)

[ref. ID; 4817]
Re-diagnosis; Commonly polypodial with one dominant pseudopodium at any one time. Cytoplasmic crystals are mainly bipyramidal in shape, with a few occasional plates. Cell membrane has discrete crinkled or wavy filaments. The inner nuclear membrane is organized into either a honeycomb-like layer or a loosely haneycomb-like layer. (ref. ID; 4817)
Type species; Amoeba proteus (Pallas, 1766) Leidy, 1878 (ref. ID; 4817)

[ref. ID; 7510]
Amoeba Bory de St. Vincent, 1822 defined in its modern, more limited sense (Page 1976), and other members of the family Amoebidae Diesing, 1848, have a tubular form, commonly polypodial, with hyaline caps at the tips of advancing pseudopodia. A. proteus Leidy, 1878, has conspicuous longitudinal ridges by not folds as in Thecamoeba, and often has a morulate uroid similar to that seen in a few larger Thecamoeba species and in genera of other families. The nucleus has the granular structure (numerous nucleoli) mentioned previously for some species of Thecamoeba. (ref. ID; 7510)

[ref. ID; 7615]
Uninucleate. Commonly polypodial; one pseudopodium dominant at any one time, with somewhat shorter pseudopodia originating from elongated main stem. Cytoplasmic crystals distinct bipyramids or thin rectangular plates. Cell coat of discrete, crinkled filaments except in one species. Inner nuclear lamina organised into honeycomb-like layer of hexagonal cellules. (ref. ID; 7615)
Type species; Amoeba proteus (Pallas, 1766) Leidy, 1878 (ref. ID; 7615)

  1. Amoeba actinophora Auerbach (ref. ID; 1315)
    See; Cochliopodium actinophora (ref. ID; 3693)
  2. Amoeba aculeata Lepsi, 1960 (ref. ID; 3687 original paper)
  3. Amoeba alba Greeff, 1891 (ref. ID; 2713) reported year? (ref. ID; 3693)
    See; Amoeba fibrillosa Greeff, 1891 (ref. ID; 2713)
  4. Amoeba algonquinensis (ref. ID; 4238)
  5. Amoeba alveolata Mereschk., 1879 (ref. ID; 3687), Mereschkow (ref. ID; 3496) or Mereschkowsky (ref. ID; 3491, 3497, 5624)
  6. Amoeba alveolata Penard (ref. ID; 2240)
  7. Amoeba alveolifera Lepsi, 1960 (ref. ID; 3687 original paper)
  8. Amoeba amazonas (Prescott) Friz, 1992 (ref. ID; 4817 original paper) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 4836, 4837)
  9. Amoeba (Vexillifera) ambulacralis Penard, 1890 (ref. ID; 3687, 3693) or 1902 (ref. ID; 7540)
    See; Vexillifera ambulacralis (ref. ID; 7540)
  10. Amoeba (Longicauda) amoebina Korotneff, 1890 (ref. ID; 3687)
  11. Amoeba anaerobia Lepsi, 1960 (ref. ID; 3687 original paper)
  12. Amoeba angulata Lepsi, 1960 (ref. ID; 3687 original paper)
  13. Amoeba annulata Penard, 1902 (ref. ID; 3687, 3693 original paper)
  14. Amoeba arborescens Celli & Fiocca, 1894 (ref. ID; 3687)
  15. Amoeba begae (ref. ID; 3687)
  16. Amoeba beryllifera Penard, 1902 (ref. ID; 3687, 3693 original paper)
  17. Amoeba biformis Lepsi, 1948 (ref. ID; 3687)
  18. Amoeba bilimbosa Auerbach, 1856
    See; Cochliopodium bilimbosum (ref. ID; 1316, 3693)
  19. Amoeba binucleata Gruber
    See; Pelomyxa binucelata (ref. ID; 3693)
  20. Amoeba biznosanui (ref. ID; 3687)
  21. Amoeba borokensis Page, 1986 (ref. ID; 4722 original paper) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 4817, 4836, 4837)
  22. Amoeba botryllis Penard, 1902 (ref. ID; 3687, 3693 original paper)
  23. Amoeba (Ouramoeba) botulicauda (Leidy, 1875) (ref. ID; 3687)
    Syn; Ouramoeba botulicauda Leidy, 1875 (ref. ID; 3687)
  24. Amoeba brachiata Dujardin, 1841 (ref. ID; 3687) reported year? (ref. ID; 3693)
    See; Amoeba radiosa Dujardin (ref. ID; 3693)
  25. Amoeba brachiata Fromentel, 1874
    See; Dactylospherium radiosum (ref. ID; 1315)
  26. Amoeba brevipes Greeff, 1866 (ref. ID; 3687) or Greeff?, 1866 (ref. ID; 1316)
    See; Cochliopodium digitatum (ref. ID; 1316)
  27. Amoeba buccalis Steinberg, 1862
    See; Entamoeba gingivalis
  28. Amoeba carolinensis (Hegner & Taliaferro, 1924) Short, 1946 (ref. ID; 4817) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 4836)
  29. Amoeba cavicola Varga (ref. ID; 5034 original paper)
  30. Amoeba chlorochlamys Lauterborn (ref. ID; 3687)
  31. Amoeba citrina Penard, 1902 (ref. ID; 3687, 3693 original paper)
  32. Amoeba cladophorae (Frenzel, 1897) (ref. ID; 3687)
  33. Amoeba clavarioides Penard, 1902 (ref. ID; 3687, 3693 original paper)
  34. Amoeba coli Grassi, 1879
    See; Entamoeba coli
  35. Amoeba coli Losch, 1875
    See; Entamoeba histolytica
  36. Amoeba comminuens Rhumbler, 1903 (ref. ID; 3687)
  37. Amoeba coprophila Lepsi, 1960 (ref. ID; 3687 original paper)
  38. Amoeba crassa (Dujardin) Mereschk., 1879 (ref. ID; 3687)
  39. Amoeba cryptonucleata Lepsi, 1960 (ref. ID; 3687 original paper)
  40. Amoeba crystalligera Gruber, 1885 (ref. ID; 3687)
  41. Amoeba (Saccamoeba) cubica Frenzel, 1891 (ref. ID; 3687)
  42. Amoeba (Vexillifera) dadayi Lepsi, 1960 (ref. ID; 3687 original paper)
  43. Amoeba diminutiva Bovee, 1972 (ref. ID; 1307)
  44. Amoeba discoides Schaeffer, 1917 (ref. ID; 3687) reported year? (ref. ID; 1618) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 4672, 4837)
  45. Amoeba distorta Lepsi, 1953 (ref. ID; 3687)
  46. Amoeba dofleini Neresheimer, 1905 (ref. ID; 3687)
  47. Amoeba dubia Schaeffer, 1916 (ref. ID; 1335) reported year? (ref. ID; 1618) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 4672)
    See; Polychaos dubium
  48. Amoeba dujardini Lepsi, 1960 (ref. ID; 3687 original paper)
  49. Amoeba dumetosa Penard, 1904 (ref. ID; 3687)
  50. Amoeba dysenteriae Councilman & Lafleur, 1891
    See; Entamoeba histolytica
  51. Amoeba eichhorniae Lepsi, 1951 (ref. ID; 3687)
  52. Amoeba (Dactylamoeba) elongata Korotneff, 1879 (ref. ID; 3687)
  53. Amoeba emittens Mereschk., 1879 (ref. ID; 3687)
  54. Amoeba entzi Lepsi, 1960 (ref. ID; 3687 original paper)
  55. Amoeba extensa Lepsi, 1960 (ref. ID; 3687 original paper)
  56. Amoeba farta Lepsi, 1953 (ref. ID; 3687)
  57. Amoeba fasciculata Penard, 1902 (ref. ID; 649, 3693 original paper, 7554)
    See; Polychaos fasciculatum (ref. ID; 649, 7554)
  58. Amoeba fibrillosa Greeff, 1891 (ref. ID; 2713)
  59. Amoeba filifera Mereschk., 1879 (ref. ID; 3687)
  60. Amoeba (Trichamoeba) finnica (ref. ID; 3687)
  61. Amoeba fluida Gruber, 1846 (ref. ID; 3693) or 1885 (ref. ID; 3687) reported year? (ref. ID; 1333, 2367)
  62. Amoeba frenzeli Lepsi, 1960 (ref. ID; 3687 original paper)
  63. Amoeba geminata Penard, 1890 (ref. ID; 3687)
  64. Amoeba gingivalis Gros, 1849
    See; Entamoeba gingivalis
  65. Amoeba glomerulifera Lepsi, 1960 (ref. ID; 3687 original paper)
  66. Amoeba (Vahlkampfia, Dactylosphaeria) glutinosa Alexeieff, 1917 (ref. ID; 3687)
  67. Amoeba gorgonia Penard, 1902 (ref. ID; 3687, 3693 original paper) reported year? (ref. ID; 1315, 1618, 6675)
  68. Amoeba gracilis Greeff, 1866 (ref. ID; 3687)
  69. Amoeba granifera Greeff, 1866 (ref. ID; 3687)
    See; Dermamoeba granifera (ref. ID; 2359)
  70. Amoeba granulata Lepsi, 1960 (ref. ID; 3687 original paper)
  71. Amoeba granulosa Gruber, 1846 (ref. ID; 3693) or 1884 (ref. ID; 1315, 1332)
    Syn; Amoeba proteus Leidy, 1879 (ref. ID; 1332); Amoeba proteus var. granulosa Cash, 1905 (ref. ID; 1315, 1332)
  72. Amoeba gruberi Schardinger, 1899
    See; Naegleria gruberi (ref. ID; 3687)
  73. Amoeba guttula Dujardin, 1823 (ref. ID; 3693) or 1841 (ref. ID; 3687) reported year? (ref. ID; 1315, 1618)
    Syn; Amiba guttula Dujardin, 1841 (ref. ID; 1315, 3687); Amoeba guttula Perty, 1852 (ref. ID; 1315)
  74. Amoeba guttuloides Lepsi, 1960 (ref. ID; 3687 original paper)
  75. Amoeba helvetica Lepsi, 1960 (ref. ID; 3687 original paper)
  76. Amoeba hercules Frenzel, 1897 (ref. ID; 3687)
  77. Amoeba hernipes Lepsi, 1960 (ref. ID; 3687 original paper)
  78. Amoeba hiemalis Lepsi, 1960 (ref. ID; 3687 original paper)
  79. Amoeba horticola Nagler (ref. ID; 3497)
  80. Amoeba humilis Schouteden, 1905 (ref. ID; 3687)
  81. Amoeba hydroxena Entz, 1912
    See; Hydramoeba hydroxena (Entz, 1912) (ref. ID; 3687)
  82. Amoeba hylobates Penard, 1902 (ref. ID; 3687, 3693 original paper)
  83. Amoeba indica (ref. ID; 3996, 4728, 4806, 4837)
  84. Amoeba insectivora Frenzel, 1897 (ref. ID; 3687)
  85. Amoeba jelaginia Mereschk., 1879 (ref. ID; 3687)
  86. Amoeba kerri Taylor, 1947 (ref. ID; 1307)
  87. Amoeba lacerata Dujardin, 1841 (ref. ID; 3687)
  88. Amoeba lanceolata Pateff, 1924 (ref. ID; 3687)
  89. Amoeba lateritia Fresenius, 1856
    See; Vampyrella lateritia (ref. ID; 1315)
  90. Amoeba laureata Penard, 1902 (ref. ID; 3687, 3693 original paper)
    Syn; Pelomyxa villosa, in Penard (ref. ID; 3693)
  91. Amoeba laureolata Penard, 1902
    See; Pelomyxa villosa (ref. ID; 1315)
  92. Amoeba leningradensis Page & Kalinina, 1984 (ref. ID; 4676 original paper) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 4238, 4722, 4728, 4817, 4837, 6789, 7077)
    See; Metamoeba leningradensis (formerly known as the Sh strain of A. leningradensis) (ref. ID; 4817)
  93. Amoeba lescherae (ref. ID; 4837)
  94. Amoeba lieberkuhnia Maggi, 1877 (ref. ID; 3687)
  95. Amoeba limax Auerbach, 1856 (ref. ID; 3687)
  96. Amoeba limax Dujardin, 1823 (ref. ID; 3693) reported year? (ref. ID; 1315, 6675)
    Syn; Amiba limax Dujardin, 1841 (ref. ID; 1315)
  97. Amoeba limax Penard, 1902 (ref. ID; 3687)
  98. Amoeba limicola Rhumbler, 1898 (ref. ID; 3687, 3693) reported year? (ref. ID; 1618)
  99. Amoeba lingula Lepsi, 1960 (ref. ID; 3687 original paper)
  100. Amoeba (Saccamoeba) lucens Frenzel, 1897 (ref. ID; 3687) or (Frenzel) Penard, 1902 (ref. ID; 3693 redescribed paper)
    Syn; Saccamoeba lucens Frenzel (ref. ID; 3693)
  101. Amoeba lucida Gruber, 1885 (ref. ID; 3687)
  102. Amoeba lutea Lepsi, 1960 (ref. ID; 3687 original paper)
  103. Amoeba luteola Penard (ref. ID; 3687)
  104. Amoeba marina Dujardin, 1841 (ref. ID; 3687)
  105. Amoeba media Lepsi, 1960 (ref. ID; 3687 original paper)
  106. Amoeba minuta Mereschk., 1879 (ref. ID; 3687)
  107. Amoeba montana Lepsi, 1932 (ref. ID; 3687)
  108. Amoeba multangula Lepsi, 1960 (ref. ID; 3687 original paper)
  109. Amoeba multiformis Lepsi, 1960 (ref. ID; 3687 original paper)
  110. Amoeba multiloba Dujardin, 1841 (ref. ID; 3687)
  111. Amoeba muralis Penard, 1902 (ref. ID; 3687)
  112. Amoeba mycophora Lepsi, 1960 (ref. ID; 3687 original paper)
  113. Amoeba natans Perty, 1852
    See; Amoeba terricola (Ehrenberg) Penard, 1902 (ref. ID; 3693)
  114. Amoeba nepenthesi Oye, 1921 (ref. ID; 3687)
  115. Amoeba (Chaos) nitida Penard, 1902 (ref. ID; 3687, 3693 original paper)
    Syn; Amoeba proteus, in Leidy pl.I, fig.7, II; fig.9, etc.? (ref. ID; 3693)
  116. Amoeba (Chaos) nobilis Penard, 1902 (ref. ID; 3687, 3693 original paper)
    Syn; Amoeba proteus Leidy, i. p. pl.II, fig.7? (ref. ID; 3693)
  117. Amoeba notabilis Lepsi, 1960 (ref. ID; 3687 original paper)
  118. Amoeba obtecta Gruber
    See; Parmulina obtecta (ref. ID; 3693)
  119. Amoeba pachyderma Lepsi, 1960 (ref. ID; 3687 original paper)
  120. Amoeba (Mayorella) palestinensis Reich, 1933 (ref. ID; 3687)
  121. Amoeba papillata Mereschk., 1879 (ref. ID; 3687)
  122. Amoeba papyracea Penard, 1905 (ref. ID; 2713)
  123. Amoeba pellucida Frenzel, 1897 (ref. ID; 3687)
  124. Amoeba pelobia Lepsi, 1960 (ref. ID; 3687 original paper)
  125. Amoeba penardi Schouteden, 1905 (ref. ID; 3687)
  126. Amoeba pilosa Cash, 1904 (ref. ID; 3687) reported year? (ref. ID; 1315)
  127. Amoeba platypodia
    See; Ripella platypodia (ref. ID; 6796)
  128. Amoeba polymorpha Lepsi, 1960 (ref. ID; 3687 original paper)
  129. Amoeba polypodia Schultze, 1854 (ref. ID; 1315) reported year? (ref. ID; 3693)
    See; Amoeba vitrea (ref. ID; 3693), Dactylospherium radiosum (ref. ID; 1315)
  130. Amoeba (Dactylosphaera) polypodioides Lepsi, 1960 (ref. ID; 3687 original paper)
  131. Amoeba pontica Lepsi, 1960 (ref. ID; 3687 original paper)
  132. Amoeba prehensilis Mobius, 1888 (ref. ID; 3687)
  133. Amoeba prima Gruber, 1846 (ref. ID; 3693)
    See; Pelomyxa prima (ref. ID; 3693)
  134. Amoeba princeps Auerbach, 1856 (ref. ID; 3687)
  135. Amoeba proteus (ref. ID; 484, 3673, 3735, 4154, 4672, 4676, 4722, 4728, 4806, 4836, 4837, 7077, 7518, 7555, 7682, 7683, 7747)
  136. Amoeba proteus Pallas (ref. ID; 1618), (Pallas, 1766) Leidy, 1876 (ref. ID; 1315, 1335, 4817), (Pallas, 1766) Leidy, 1878 (ref. ID; 7615) or Leidy, 1878 (ref. ID; 7510) reported year? (ref. ID; 6675)
    Syn; Amiba diffluens Dujardin, 1835 (ref. ID; 1315); Amiba divergens Bory de St. Vincent, 1822 (ref. ID; 1315); Amiba koeselii Crevier, 1875 (ref. ID; 1315); Amiba mulleri Bory de St. Vincent, 1824 (ref. ID; 1315); Amiba princeps Dujardin, 1841 (ref. ID; 1315); Amiba roeselii Bory de St. Vincent, 1824 (ref. ID; 1315); Ameba diffluens Maggi, 1876 (ref. ID; 1315); Amoeba chaos Leidy, 1878 (ref. ID; 1315); Amoeba communis Duncan, 1877 (ref. ID; 1315); Amoeba diffluens Ehrenberg, 1830 (ref. ID; 1315); Amoeba oblonga Schmarda, 1854 (ref. ID; 1315); Amoeba princeps Ehrenberg, 1831 (ref. ID; 1315); Amoeba roeselii Pritchard, 1852 (ref. ID; 1315); Chaos diffluens O.F. Muller, 1786; Chaos protheus Linneus, 1767 (ref. ID; 1315)
  137. Amoeba proteus (Rosel) Penard, 1902 (ref. ID; 3693 redescribed paper)
    Syn; Amiba princeps Dujardin, 1841 (ref. ID; 3693); Amoeba communis Duncan, 1877 (ref. ID; 3693); Amoeba princeps Ehrenberg, 1831 (ref. ID; 3693); Amoeba proteus Leidy, 1878 (ref. ID; 3693); Amoeba ramosa Fromentel (ref. ID; 3693); Der kleine Proteus Rosel, 1755 (ref. ID; 3693); Proteus diffluens Muller, 1786 (ref. ID; 3693); Vibrio proteus Gmelin, 1788 (ref. ID; 3693); Volvox proteus Pallas, 1766 (ref. ID; 3693)
  138. Amoeba proteus hopkinensis (ref. ID; 4817, 4836)
  139. Amoeba pulverulenta Penard, 1904 (ref. ID; 3687)
  140. Amoeba punctata Frenzel, 1897 (ref. ID; 3687)
  141. Amoeba pyreti Lepsi, 1960 (ref. ID; 3687 original paper)
  142. Amoeba quadrilineata Carter, 1856 (ref. ID; 7594) reported year? (ref. ID; 3693)
    See; Amoeba terricola (Ehrenberg) Penard, 1902 (ref. ID; 3693), Thorntonius quadrilineata (ref. ID; 7594)
  143. Amoeba (Saccamoeba) radiogranulata Lepsi, 1960 (ref. ID; 3687 original paper)
  144. Amoeba radiosa Dujardin, 1841 (ref. ID; 3693)
    Syn; Amoeba brachiata Dujardin (ref. ID; 3693); Amoeba radiosa Ehrenberg (ref. ID; 3693); Amoeba radiosa Leidy (ref. ID; 3693); Amoeba ramosa Dujardin (ref. ID; 3693); Podostoma filigerum Claparede & Lachmann (ref. ID; 3693); Podostoma filigerum Maggi (ref. ID; 3693)
  145. Amoeba radiosa Ehrenberg (ref. ID; 1618, 6675)
    See; Amoeba radiosa Dujardin (ref. ID; 3693), Dactylospherium radiosum (ref. ID; 1315)
  146. Amoeba radiosa Leidy
    See; Amoeba radiosa Dujardin (ref. ID; 3693)
  147. Amoeba radiosa var. granulifera Penard, 1902 (ref. ID; 3693 original paper)
  148. Amoeba ramosa Dujardin, 1841 (ref. ID; 3687)
    See; Amoeba radiosa Dujardin (ref. ID; 3693)
  149. Amoeba sabulosa Leidy, 1874
    See; Pelomyxa villosa Leidy (ref. ID; 1315)
  150. Amoeba salina Hamburger, 1905 (ref. ID; 3687)
  151. Amoeba salinae Frenzel, 1897 (ref. ID; 3687)
  152. Amoeba saphirina Penard, 1902 (ref. ID; 3687, 3693 original paper) reported year? (ref. ID; 3497)
  153. Amoeba saprophila Lepsi, 1960 (ref. ID; 3687 original paper)
  154. Amoeba schiaui Lepsi, 1960 (ref. ID; 3687 original paper)
  155. Amoeba silvicola Lepsi, 1948 (ref. ID; 3687)
  156. Amoeba snagovi Lepsi, 1960 (ref. ID; 3687 original paper)
  157. Amoeba soli Martin & Lewis, 1914
    See; Naegleria soli (Martin & Lewis, 1914) (ref. ID; 3687)
  158. Amoeba sorini Lepsi, 1960 (ref. ID; 3687 original paper)
  159. Amoeba spatula Penard, 1890 (ref. ID; 3687)
  160. Amoeba sphaeronucleolus Greeff (ref. ID; 3693)
  161. Amoeba sphaeropoda Lepsi, 1960 (ref. ID; 3687 original paper)
  162. Amoeba spinosa Celli & Fiocca, 1894 (ref. ID; 3687)
  163. Amoeba spumosa Gruber, 1885 (ref. ID; 3687) reported year? (ref. ID; 1618, 3693) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 3292)
  164. Amoeba spumosa Penard, 1902
    See; Mayorella penardi (ref. ID; 2039)
  165. Amoeba stellaris Lepsi, 1960 (ref. ID; 3687 original paper)
  166. Amoeba stercobia Lepsi, 1960 (ref. ID; 3687 original paper)
  167. Amoeba stigmatica Pascher, 1930
    See; Stigmamoeba stigmatica (ref. ID; 3687)
  168. Amoeba striata Penard (ref. ID; 1618, 3693)
    See; Thecamoeba striata
    Syn; Amoeba verrucosa in Leidy Pl. III, fig. 37. (ref. ID; 3693)
  169. Amoeba tentaculata Gruber, 1882
    See; Cochliopodium digitatum (ref. ID; 1316)
  170. Amoeba tentaculifera Frenzel, 1897 (ref. ID; 3687)
  171. Amoeba tergestina Lepsi, 1960 (ref. ID; 3687 original paper)
  172. Amoeba terricola (Ehrenberg) Penard, 1902 (ref. ID; 3693 redescribed paper)
    Syn; Amoeba natans Perty, 1852 (ref. ID; 3693); Amoeba quadrilineata Carter (ref. ID; 3693); Amoeba terricola Greeff (ref. ID; 3693); Amoeba verrucosa Ehrenberg, 1838 (ref. ID; 3693); Amoeba verrucosa Leidy (ref. ID; 3693); Thecamoeba quadripartita Fromental, 1874 (ref. ID; 3693)
  173. Amoeba terricola Greeff (ref. ID; 2367)
    See; Amoeba terricola (Ehrenberg) Penard, 1902 (ref. ID; 3693)
  174. Amoeba tertia Gruber
    See; Pelomyxa tertia (ref. ID; 3693)
  175. Amoeba torrentium Lepsi, 1960 (ref. ID; 3687 original paper)
  176. Amoeba trigonalis Lepsi, 1960 (ref. ID; 3687 original paper)
  177. Amoeba triquetra Lepsi, 1960 (ref. ID; 3687 original paper)
  178. Amoeba turbida Lepsi, 1960 (ref. ID; 3687 original paper)
  179. Amoeba uber Lepsi, 1960 (ref. ID; 3687 original paper)
  180. Amoeba uncinata Lepsi, 1960 (ref. ID; 3687 original paper)
  181. Amoeba velata Parona (ref. ID; 3693)
  182. Amoeba velata Penard, 1902 (ref. ID; 3687)
  183. Amoeba velox (ref. ID; 3687)
  184. Amoeba (Thecamoeba) vereanui Lepsi, 1960 (ref. ID; 3687 original paper)
  185. Amoeba verrucosa Ehrenberg, 1838 (ref. ID; 1315) reported year? (ref. ID; 1618)
    See; Amoeba terricola (Ehrenberg) Penard, 1902 (ref. ID; 3693), Thecamoeba verrucosa (Ehrenberg, 1838)
    Syn; Amiba verrucosa Dujardin, 1841 (ref. ID; 1315); Amoeba natans Perty, 1852 (ref. ID; 1315); Amoeba papillata Mereschkowsky, 1878 (ref. ID; 1315); Amoeba quadrilineata Carter, 1856 (ref. ID; 1315)
  186. Amoeba verrucosa Leidy
    See; Amoeba terricola (Ehrenberg) Penard, 1902 (ref. ID; 3693)
  187. Amoeba verrucosa Vejdowsky, 1882 (ref. ID; 3687)
  188. Amoeba verrucosa var. maxima Playfair, 1914 (ref. ID; 2713)
  189. Amoeba verrucosa var. papyracea Penard (ref. ID; 1333)
  190. Amoeba (Thecamoeba) vesiculata Penard, 1902 (ref. ID; 3687, 3693 original paper)
  191. Amoeba vespertilio Penard, 1902 (ref. ID; 3687, 3693 original paper, 3719) reported year? (ref. ID; 1333, 1618)
    See; Now a considered a Mayorella (ref. ID; 3719)
    Syn; Amoeba angulata<? Mereschkovsky (ref. ID; 3693); Amoeba digitata? Parona (ref. ID; 3693)
  192. Amoeba vestita Penard, 1989
    See; Diplochlamys vestita (ref. ID; 1333)
  193. Amoeba villosa Wallich, 1863 (ref. ID; 1315) reported year? (ref. ID; 3693), Amoeba (Trichamoeba) villosa (ref. ID; 3687)
    See; Pelomyxa villosa Leidy (ref. ID; 1315)
    Syn; Amoeba princeps Carter, 1863 (ref. ID; 1315) reported year? (ref. ID; 3693); Trichamoeba hirta Fromentel, 1874 (ref. ID; 1315) reported year? (ref. ID; 3693)
  194. Amoeba viridis Leidy, 1874 (ref. ID; 3687, 3719)
    See; Mayorella viridis (ref. ID; 3719)
  195. Amoeba vitea Penard, 1902
    See; Dactylospherium polypodium (ref. ID; 1315)
  196. Amoeba vitrea Hertwig & Lesser (ref. ID; 3693)
    Syn; Amoeba polypodia F.-E. Schulze (ref. ID; 3693); Dactylospherium vitreum Hertwig & Lesser (ref. ID; 3693)
  197. Amoeba volgensis Lepsi, 1960 (ref. ID; 3687 original paper)
  198. Amoeba (Ouramoeba) vorax Leidy, 1874 (ref. ID; 3687)
  199. Amoeba zonalis Leidy, 1874
    See; Cochliopodium bilimbosum (ref. ID; 1316, 3693)
  200. Amoeba zymogenica Alexeieff, 1929 (ref. ID; 3687)
  201. Amoeba zymophila Beyerinck, 1896 (ref. ID; 3687)

Amoeba alveolata Mereschk., 1879 (ref. ID; 3687), Mereschkow (ref. ID; 3496) or Mereschkowsky (ref. ID; 3491, 3497, 5624)

Descriptions

The small amoeba containing many contractile vacuoles creeps towards all directions, and usually takes a star-like form with long radial pseudopodia in pelagic condition. (ref. ID; 3497)

Measurements

Diameter without pseudopodia 17 um. (ref. ID; 3497)

Amoeba amazonas (Prescott) Friz, 1992 (ref. ID; 4817 original paper) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 4836, 4837)

Diagnosis

A small star-shaped amoeba, containing a single nucleus in the shape of a compressed spheroid and few, if any, cytoplasmic crystals. The plasma membrane is covered by thick cell coat composed of a 20 nm thick amorphous layer and an external layer of filaments, 150-200 nm long. Nuclear membrane has a prominent honeycomb-like fibrous lamina. Nucleoli are normally found at the periphery of the interphase nucleus with a substructure similar to A. proteus. RNA containing helices are present within the nucleoplasm. Mitochondria are unusual in having variable pattern of either plate-like and tubular cristae whereas the Golgi bodies have a greater proportion of vesicles and a smaller number of cisterni. Nucleus and cytoplasm are incompatible by transplantation with those of A. proteus. Generation time was less than 24 hr at 23 degrees C. Isozymic analyses showed similarity coefficients between 0.40 and 0.70 with strains of A. proteus, A. borokensis, and A. carolinensis. (ref. ID; 4817)

Amoeba borokensis Page, 1986 (ref. ID; 4722 original paper) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 4817, 4836, 4837)

Diagnosis

Locomotive form commonly polypodial though often monopodial, with length approximately 210-545 um, mean approximately 370 um in culture. Nucleus usually a compressed sphere or ovoid, with greatest diameter usually 23-37 um, mean 29 um. Majority of cytoplasmic crystals thick rectangular plates, often square. Fine structure similar to that of A. proteus, with filamentous coat often preserved as a loosely matted filamentous layer about 100-130 nm thick; inner lamina of nuclear envelope in form of hexagonal prisms (honeycomb); nucleolar material in many pieces around periphery of nucleus. Nucleus and cytoplasm incompatible, by transplantation, with those of A. proteus and A. leningradensis. DNA content of nucleus approximately half that of A. proteus. Generation time under favourable conditions less than 24 hr. Electrophoretic pattern of total proteins quantitatively different from that of A. proteus, different from that of A. leningradensis. (ref. ID; 4722)

Remarks

With the light microscope this strain could be consistently and objectively distinguished from all strains of A. proteus with which it was compared by two features: the diameter and shape of its nucleus, and the form of its crystals. In amoebae of the Bor strain (Amoeba borokensis), the majority of cytoplasmic crystals were plate-like, either square or rectangular, although some bipyramidal crystals were present. The crystals were contained in vesicles, commonly one per vesicle but occasionally 2 or 3 of different sizes in a vesicle. Square plates reached a maximum diameter of about 4.5 um, long rectangles a length rarely more than 9 um, and bipyramidal crystals a maximum length of about 5.5 um. The relative numbers of the two crystalline forms (bipyramids a small minority) appeared similar whether the amoebae were from Tetrahymena-fed cultures or from cultures containing Chilomonas set up to test the latter method of culture. (ref. ID; 4722)

Known habitat

Fresh water, northern USSR. (ref. ID; 4722)

Type specimens

Type slides deposited in British Museum (National History): Holotype, 1985:7:1:1; Paratype, 1985:7:1:2. (ref. ID; 4722)

Amoeba carolinensis (Hegner & Taliaferro, 1924) Short, 1946 (ref. ID; 4817) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 4836)

Descriptions

Multinucleated, giant amoeba with locomotive forms 0.3-3 mm in length, and discoid shaped nuclei 22-30 um in diameter. Golgi bodies, mitochondria and rough ER are identical to these structures in A. proteus. The nuclei and cytoplasm are incompatible by nuclear or cytoplasmic transfer with A. proteus. Similarity coefficients were between 0.40 and 0.70 by isozymic analyses with strains of A. proteus, A. amazonas and A. borokensis indicating an intrageneric relationship with these 3 Amoeba species. (ref. ID; 4817)

Amoeba discoides Schaeffer, 1917 (ref. ID; 3687) reported year? (ref. ID; 1618) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 4672, 4837)

See

Metachaos discoides

Descriptions

A few blunt, smooth pseudopodia; crystals abundant, truncate bipyramidal, about 2.5 um long (Schaeffer); endoplasm with numerous coarse granule; fresh water. (ref. ID; 1618)

Measurements

About 400 um long during locomotion. (ref. ID; 1618)

Amoeba dubia Schaeffer, 1916 (ref. ID; 1335) reported year? (ref. ID; 1618) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 4672)

See

Polychaos dubium

Descriptions

Numerous pseudopodia flattened and with smooth surface; crystals, few large, up to 30 um long and of various forms among which at least four types are said to be distinct (Schaeffer); contractile vacuole one or more; fresh water. (ref. ID; 1618)

Measurements

About 400 um long. (ref. ID; 1618)

Amoeba fasciculata Penard, 1902 (ref. ID; 649, 3693 original paper, 7554)

See

Polychaos fasciculatum (ref. ID; 649, 7554)

Locality

From both a bog and a pool in Swizerland. (ref. ID; 7554)

Amoeba fibrillosa Greeff, 1891 (ref. ID; 2713)

Descriptions

Nominal species of questionable validity. Although Penard (1902, 1905) took up these names and applied them to 'Amibes a pellicule', there is no evidence at all that Greeff had any species of Thecamoeba before him when he described these multinucleate soil amoebae. Unfortunately, Greeff did not publish illustrations of either species, but the descriptions suggest that he was dealing with species of Leptomyxa, a genus with two well-described species found principally in the soil. Greeff in fact took pains to contrast A. fibrillosa with his A. terricola, and the description of its locomotive morphology could easily be applied to Leptomyxa or another microplasmodial organism. Apart from Penard's organisms, to which he incorrectly applied these names of Greeff, no multinucleate Thecamoeba has ever been described. However, in view of the rarity of the multinucleate species Chaos carolinense (Wilson, 1900), the absence of reported findings other than Penard's is not food evidence that no multinucleate Thecamoeba exists. (ref. ID; 2713)

Amoeba gorgonia Penard, 1902 (ref. ID; 3687, 3693 original paper) reported year? (ref. ID; 1315, 1618, 6675)

Descriptions

Body globular when inactive with a variable number of radiating "arms", formed on all sides; when in locomotion, clavate; nucleus vesicular, with a large endosome; fresh water among vegetation. (ref. ID; 1618)

Measurements

Rounded forms 40-50 um in diameter; clavate individuals up to 100 um. (ref. ID; 1618)

Amoeba guttula Dujardin, 1823 (ref. ID; 3693) or 1841 (ref. ID; 3687) reported year? (ref. ID; 1315, 1618)

Synonym

Amiba guttula Dujardin, 1841 (ref. ID; 1315, 3687); Amoeba guttula Perty, 1852 (ref. ID; 1315)

Descriptions

Ovoid during locomotion, narrowed posteriorly and often with a few minute, nipple-like dentations; movement by wave-like expansions of ectoplasm; endoplasm granulated, with crystals; nucleus vesicular; a single contractile vacuole; fresh water in vegetation. (ref. ID; 1618)

Measurements

30-35 by 20-25 um. (ref. ID; 1618)

Amoeba horticola Nagler (ref. ID; 3497)

Descriptions

The small form has a few broad pseudopodia and a well-developed transparent ectoplasm. The nucleus is comparatively large, and has an endosome clear in the center. Contractile vacuoles are always absent. (ref. ID; 3497)

Measurements

Length without pseudopodia 20-30 um. (ref. ID; 3497)

Amoeba leningradensis Page & Kalinina, 1984 (ref. ID; 4676 original paper) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 4238, 4722, 4728, 4817, 4837, 6789, 7077)

See

Metamoeba leningradensis (formerly known as the Sh strain of A. leningradensis) (ref. ID; 4817)

Diagnosis

Locomotive form often polypodial, with length approximately 160-550 um, mean approximately 360 um; nucleus a sphere which is often slightly compressed, often appearing ovoidal, with its greatest diameter 21 to 29 um, mean 25 um; many cytoplasmic crystals, mostly truncate bipyramids. Plasma membrane covered with amorphous coat 13-20 nm thick; nuclear envelope with internal fibrous lamina differentiated into hexagonal prisms, lamina usually 400 to 550 nm thick, inner diameter of each prism approximately 165 nm, nucleolar material concentrated around periphery of nucleus but also occurring in interior; Golgi bodies composed of about for flattened saccules and associated vesicles, possibly sometimes of vesicles alone. Nucleus incompatible, by transplantation, with nucleus and cytoplasm of Amoeba proteus. (ref. ID; 4676)

Descriptions

Molecular analysis (CCAP#1503/6, The Culture Collection of Algae and Protozoa, CEH Windermere, UK). (ref. ID; 7077)

Known habitat

Fresh water, northwestern USSR. (ref. ID; 4676)

Type specimens

Type slides deposited in British Museum (Natural History): Holotype, 1983:1:28:1; paratype, 1983:1:28:2. (ref. ID; 4676)

Amoeba limicola Rhumbler, 1898 (ref. ID; 3687, 3693) reported year? (ref. ID; 1618)

Descriptions

Somewhat similar to A. guttula; body more rounded; locomotion by eruption of cytoplasm through the body surface; nucleus vesicular; fresh water among vegetation. (ref. ID; 1618)

Measurements

45-55 by 35 um. (ref. ID; 1618)

Amoeba papyracea Penard, 1905 (ref. ID; 2713)

Descriptions

Nominal species of questionable validity. This name undoubtedly refers to a Thecamoeba, which Penard compared with A. terricola. He gave the average size of eight rounded up cells as 184 um, but the only illustration was of the nucleus, which had a layer of small granules beneath the nuclear membrane. (ref. ID; 2713)

Amoeba proteus (ref. ID; 484, 3673, 3735, 4154, 4672, 4676, 4722, 4728, 4806, 4836, 4837, 7077, 7518, 7555, 7682, 7683, 7747)

Descriptions

Molecular analysis. (ref. ID; 7077)

[ref. ID; 7518]
Morphodynamic types: The "monopodial" amoebae with vesicular frontal caps, weakly attached and manifesting an innate permanent motory polarity are to be called monotactic, in order to indicate that their morphodynamic internal organziation and mode of locomotion follow one single stable axis. For the second type of "monopodial" amoebae the name: orthotactic is proposed, to stress that their organization and locomotion are rectilinear, although the direction may change in response to external agents. The most common "polypodial" form should be called polytactic. The name: heterotactic is suggested for the "radiate' forms to point out their multiple and unsteady morphodynamic polarity. It seems useful to notice that one should not relate the new proposed names only to the modern term "taxis", because the definitions of morphodynamic types of amoeba are not restricted to their motory behaviour but broader, and their names are derived directly from more general Greek verb: tassein = to arrange. (ref. ID; 7518)

Negative photo-phobotaxis. (ref. ID; 7555)
Formation, extension and retraction of pseudopodia. (ref. ID; 7682)
Response of mechanical stimulation and light stimulation. (ref. ID; 7683)
Pinocytosis. (ref. ID; 7747)

Examined materials

Amoeba proteus studied belongs ot the strain A (Jeon and Lorch 1973) originating from Edinburgh, established in Copenhagen by Chapman-Andersen in 1959, and recloned in the Nencki Institute in Warsaw in 1964. Cultures are kept in Pringsheim solution, in shade, at room temperature. They are fed on Colpidia. (ref. ID; 7518)

Amoeba proteus Pallas (ref. ID; 1618), (Pallas, 1766) Leidy, 1876 (ref. ID; 1315, 1335, 4817), (Pallas, 1766) Leidy, 1878 (ref. ID; 7615) or Leidy, 1878 (ref. ID; 7510) reported year? (ref. ID; 6675)

Synonym

Amiba diffluens Dujardin, 1835 (ref. ID; 1315); Amiba divergens Bory de St. Vincent, 1822 (ref. ID; 1315); Amiba koeselii Crevier, 1875 (ref. ID; 1315); Amiba mulleri Bory de St. Vincent, 1824 (ref. ID; 1315); Amiba princeps Dujardin, 1841 (ref. ID; 1315); Amiba roeselii Bory de St. Vincent, 1824 (ref. ID; 1315); Ameba diffluens Maggi, 1876 (ref. ID; 1315); Amoeba chaos Leidy, 1878 (ref. ID; 1315); Amoeba communis Duncan, 1877 (ref. ID; 1315); Amoeba diffluens Ehrenberg, 1830 (ref. ID; 1315); Amoeba oblonga Schmarda, 1854 (ref. ID; 1315); Amoeba princeps Ehrenberg, 1831 (ref. ID; 1315); Amoeba roeselii Pritchard, 1852 (ref. ID; 1315); Chaos diffluens O.F. Muller, 1786 (ref. ID; 1315); Chaos protheus Linneus, 1767 (ref. ID; 1315)

Descriptions

Creeping with a few large lobopodia, showing longitudinal ridges; ectoplasm and endoplasm usually distinctly differentiated; typically uninucleate; nucleus discoidal but polymorphic; endoplasmic crystals truncate bi-pyramid, up to 4.5 um long; nuclear and cytoplasmic divisions show a distinct correlation; fresh water. (ref. ID; 1618)

Remarks

Amoeba proteus has a glycocalyx consisting of an inner amorphous layer approximately 15-30 nm thick and an exteral layer of filaments extending 150-200 nm above the plasma membrane (Pappas 1959; Flickinger 1973, 1974). Depending on method of fixation, these filaments are 4-12 nm thick and occasionally are branched (Hausmann 1975), though they do not appear so in all preparations. Flickinger (1974) found similar coats on a strain identified as A. discoides Schaeffer, 1916, which may be a synonym of A. proteus, and on A. amazonas, which appears to be a distinct species of which no taxonomically valid description has yet been published. He found this cell coat either absent or much thinner on Polychaos dubium, which is not congeneric with A. proteus (Schaeffer 1926; Page 1976), although Flickinger and other authors call it Amoeba dubia. The surface structure of C. carolinense and C. illinoisense (Kudo 1950) is similar to that of A. proteus (Pappas 1959; Daniels 1973; Flickinger 1973). (ref. ID; 7510)

Measurements

Up to 600 um or longer in largest diameter. (ref. ID; 1618)

Amoeba radidosa Ehrenberg (ref. ID; 1618, 6675)

See

Amoeba radiosa Dujardin (ref. ID; 3693), Dactylospherium radiosum (ref. ID; 1315)

Descriptions

Small, usually inactive, globular or oval in outline; with 3-10 radiating slender pseudopodia which vary in length and degree of rigidity; when pseudopods are withdrawn, the organism may be similar A. proteus in general appearance; pseudopods straight, curved or spirally coiled; fresh water. (ref. ID; 1618)

Measurements

Size varies, usually about 30 um in diameter, up to 120 um or more. (ref. ID; 1618)

Amoeba saphirina Penard, 1902 (ref. ID; 3687, 3693 original paper) reported year? (ref. ID; 3497)

Descriptions

The body is delicate and changeable. The fine protoplasm is light blue, and rapidly moves into slender pseudopodia. Contractile vacuoles rarely appear. (ref. ID; 3497)

Measurements

Length without pseudopodia 18-42 um. (ref. ID; 3497)

Amoeba spumosa Gruber, 1885 (ref. ID; 3687) reported year? (ref. ID; 1618, 3693) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 3292)

Descriptions

Somewhat fan-shaped; flattened; during locomotion broad pseudopodia with pointed end; temporary posterior region with nipple-like projections; a small number of striae become visible during movement, showing there is a very thin pellicle; endoplasm always vacuolated, the vacuoles varying in size (up to 30 um in diameter); vesicular nucleus with an endosome; fresh water. (ref. ID; 1618)

Measurements

50-125 um long during locomotion. (ref. ID; 1618)

Amoeba striata Penard (ref. ID; 1618, 3693)

See

Thecamoeba striata

Synonym

Amoeba verrucosa in Leidy Pl.III, fig.37. (ref. ID; 3693)

Descriptions

Somewhat similar A. verrucosa, but small; body flattened; ovoid narrowed and rounded posteriorly; nucleus vesicular; contractile vacuole comparatively large and often not spherical; extremely delicate pellicle shows three or four fine longitudinal lines which appear and disappear with the movement of the body; fresh water among vegetation. (ref. ID; 1618)

Measurements

25-45 by 20-35 um. (ref. ID; 1618)

Amoeba verrucosa Ehrenberg, 1838 (ref. ID; 1315) reported year? (ref. ID; 1618)

See

Amoeba terricola (Ehrenberg) Penard, 1902 (ref. ID; 3693), Thecamoeba verrucosa (Ehrenberg, 1838)

Synonym

Amiba verrucosa Dujardin, 1841 (ref. ID; 1315); Amoeba natans Perty, 1852 (ref. ID; 1315); Amoeba papillata Mereschkowsky, 1878 (ref. ID; 1315); Amoeba quadrilineata Carter, 1856 (ref. ID; 1315)

Descriptions

Ovoid in general outline with wart-like expansions; body surface usually wrinkled, with a definite pellicle; pseudopodia short, broad and blunt, very slowly formed; nucleus ovoid, vesicular, with a large endosome; contractile vacuole; fresh water among algae. (ref. ID; 1618)

Measurements

Up to 200 um in diameter. (ref. ID; 1618)

Amoeba verrucosa var. maxima Playfair, 1914 (ref. ID; 2713)

Descriptions

Nominal species of questionable validity. Apart from the fact that varietal names have no status in zoological nomenclature, Playfair's description is somewhat confusing. He stated that the usual size of Amoeba verrucosa in Australia was 50-60 um, which makes his identification of that species questionable. His 'var. maxima', the length of which was 120 um, had a central nucleolus of any other known Thecamoeba except T. orbis. He showed four parallel dorsal folds, with an outline such as sometimes occurs in T. similis. It is almost certain that this freshwater amoeba was not a T. verrucosa. (ref. ID; 2713)

Amoeba vespertilio Penard, 1902 (ref. ID; 3687, 3693 original paper, 3719) reported year? (ref. ID; 1333, 1618)

See

Now a considered a Mayorella (ref. ID; 3719)

Synonym

Amoeba angulata? Mereschkovsky (ref. ID; 3693); Amoeba digitata? Parona (ref. ID; 3693)

Descriptions

Pseudopodia conical, comparatively short, connected at base by web-like expansions of ectoplasm; endoplasm colorless, with numerous granules and food particles; a single vesicular nucleus with a large endosome; contractile vacuoles; fresh water. (ref. ID; 1618)

Measurements

60-100 um long. (ref. ID; 1618)

Amoeba viridis Leidy, 1874 (ref. ID; 3687, 3719)

See

Mayorella viridis (ref. ID; 3719)

Descriptions

"bright green from the multitude of contained chlorophyll balls. The form of the body is irregularly stellate, with thick conical pseudopods projecting in all directions...". (ref. ID; 3719)