3. Environmental stress

[Acidification and liming]

[ref. ID; 1650]

Stress

pH 6.3 (control), 5.8, 5.4, 5.3, 5.0, and 4.7. 0.5N stock solution of nitric and sulphuric acid (1:1 by equivalents).

Test organisms

Auatic microcosms in Emerald Lake (Sierra Nevada, California, U.S.A. 36 degrees 35'N, 118 degrees 40'W).

[ref. ID; 1852]

Stress

Acidify pH 7.2 (control), 6, 5 and 4.5 with 1N H2SO4.

Test organisms

Aquatic mesocosms (freshwater plankton community) in Lake O'Woods, West virginia.

[ref. ID; 2848, 2851]

Stress

1 mg 95% CaCO3.

Test organisms

Protozoa: Cyclopyxis kahli

[ref. ID; 7117]

Sensitivity to acids and alkali

Citrate-phosphate buffer (0.1M citric acid/0.2M dibasic sodium phosphate, pH range 3-5.5), phosphate buffer (0.2M monobasic sodium phosphate/0.2M dibasic sodium phosphate, pH range 6-8) and ammediol buffer (0.2M ammediol, pH range 9-11 adjusted with 1M NaOH) were used to prepare pH-specific non-toxic environment.

Test organisms

Protozoa: Acanthamoeba sp.

[ref. ID; 7179]

Stress

Artificial acid rain (pH 4.4 and 3.1) and liming (CaCO3 added).

Test organisms

Oligochaeta: Fridericia sp.

[ref. ID; 7227]

Stress

Acidification (pH >8 (control), 6.5, 5.5 and 4.5).

Test organisms

Mesocosm

[ref. ID; 7247]

Stress

2SO4, HNO3 (pH 3.9-4.1, control 6.1-7.1).

Test organisms

Testate Amoebae (Rhizopoda, Testacea)

[Desiccation]

Test organisms

Protozoa: Acanthamoeba sp. (ref. ID; 7117)
Rotifera: Philodina roseola (ref. ID; 3463, 3464)
Nematoda: Panagrolaimus rigidus (ref. ID; 1900)

[Fertilizer]

Test organisms

Protozoa: Cyclopyxis kahli (ref. ID; 2848, 2851)

[Freezing and thawing]

Test organisms

Rotifera: Philodina acuticornis odiosa (ref. ID; 1927)

[Oxygen]

Test organisms

Protozoa: Loxodes striatus (ref. ID; 500)
Protozoa: Paramecium caudatum (ref. ID; 4827)
Nematoda: Caenorhabditis elegans (ref. ID; 850)
Oligochaeta: Tubificid worms (ref. ID; 7769)

[Osmotic stress]

Test organisms

Protozoa: Dictyostelium discoideum (ref. ID; 7421)
Protozoa: Euglena gracilis (ref. ID; 7426)
Protozoa: Paramecium calkinsi (ref. ID; 7301)

[Photo stress]

Test organisms

Protozoa: Chlamydomonas moewusii (ref. ID; 799)
Protozoa: Cyclopyxis kahli (ref. ID; 2848, 2851)
Protozoa: Euglena gracilis var. bacillaris (ref. ID; 799)

[Thermal stress]

Test organisms

Protozoa: Acanthamoeba sp. (ref. ID; 7117)
Protozoa: Chlamydomonas moewusii (ref. ID; 799)
Protozoa: Cyclopyxis kahli (ref. ID; 2848, 2851)
Protozoa: Euglena gracilis var. bacillaris (ref. ID; 799)
Protozoa: Euplotes eurystomus (ref. ID; 7711)
Rotifera: Lacinularia flosculosa (ref. ID; 3396)
Rotifera: Freshwater community (ref. ID; 1853)
Nematoda: Caenorhabditis elegans (ref. ID; 850)

[Urban influences]

Test organisms

Rotifera: Community (ref. ID; 1818)

[Ultraviolet]

Test organisms

Protozoa: Tetrahymena pyriformis (ref. ID; 7723)
Rotifera: Community (ref. ID; 6964)