Trinema

Trinema Dujardin, 1838 (ref. ID; 3693) or 1841 (ref. ID; 650, 3686)

Rhizopoda: Testacea: Order Testaceafilosa De Saedeleer, 1934: Family Euglyphidae Wailes, 1919 (ref. ID; 7500)
Euglyphidae Wailes (ref. ID; 7501)

[ref. ID; 1618]
Test small, hyaline, ovoid, compressed anteriorly, with circular siliceous scales; aperture circular, oblique, invaginate; nucleus posterior; filopodia not branched; fresh water in vegetation. (ref. ID; 1618)

[ref. ID; 1923]
Shell elongate-oval, usually compressed; aperture subterminal. Scales circular or oval. (ref. ID; 1923)

[ref. ID; 3686]
Shell colourless; ovoid, oval or circular in transverse section; composed of large circular and small oval shell-plates; aperture circular, invaginated and bordered by small, denticulate apertural-plates. (ref. ID; 3686)

  1. Trinema acinus Dujardin, 1841 (ref. ID; 650, 1332) reported year? (ref. ID; 3693)
    See; Trinema enchelys (ref. ID; 1332, 3693)
  2. Trinema acinus Leidy, 1879
    See; Trinema lineare (ref. ID; 1332)
  3. Trinema alofsi Stepanek, 1963 (ref. ID; 650)
  4. Trinema caudatum Playfair, 1917 (ref. ID; 650)
  5. Trinema chardezi Decloitre, 1981 (ref. ID; 650 original paper)
  6. Trinema chavannesi Decloitre, 1969 (ref. ID; 650, 2508 original paper) reported year? (ref. ID; 3383)
  7. Trinema ciliata Stepanek, 1963 (ref. ID; 650)
  8. Trinema clipelina Rauenbusch, 1987 (ref. ID; 4737 original paper)
  9. Trinema complanata var. platystoma Schonborn, 1964 (ref. ID; 2057 original paper)
  10. Trinema complanatum Penard, 1890 (ref. ID; 650, 661, 1332, 1923, 2110, 2120, 2121, 2147, 2177, 2329, 2333, 2441, 2456, 2490, 2539, 2558, 4737, 4755, 4821, 5461) reported year? (ref. ID; 3383, 3595, 3693) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 2863)
  11. Trinema complanatum f. atama Sudzuki (ref. ID; 650)
  12. Trinema complanatum var. aerophila (Decloitre, 1950) Bonnet & Thomas, 1960 (ref. ID; 650, 2466 redescribed paper)
    Syn; Trinema enchelys var. aerophila Decloitre, 1950 (ref. ID; 2466)
  13. Trinema complanatum Penard var. aerophila (Decloitre) Bonnet & Thomas f. gigantea Decloitre, 1982 (ref. ID; 3710 original paper)
  14. Trinema complanatum var. aerophila f. punctata Decloitre (ref. ID; 650, 3383)
  15. Trinema complanatum var. constricta Hoogenraad-de Groot (ref. ID; 650)
  16. Trinema complanatum var. elongata Decloitre, 1973 (ref. ID; 650)
  17. Trinema complanatum var. gigantea Decloitre, 1982 (ref. ID; 3710 original paper) reported year? (ref. ID; 2532)
  18. Trinema complanatum Penard var. gigantea f. punctata Decloitre, 1982 (ref. ID; 3710 original paper)
  19. Trinema complanatum var. globulosa Chardez, 1955 (ref. ID; 5461) or 1959 (ref. ID; 650, 2054, 2146) reported year? (ref. ID; 3383)
  20. Trinema complanatum var. globulosa f. minima Chardez, 1976 (ref. ID; 650)
  21. Trinema complanatum var. inaequalis Decloitre, 1969 (ref. ID; 650, 2508 original paper) reported year? (ref. ID; 3383)
  22. Trinema complanatum var. inflata Decloitre, 1970 (ref. ID; 650, 2508 original paper) reported year? (ref. ID; 3383)
  23. Trinema complanatum var. platystoma Schonborn, 1964 (ref. ID; 650) reported year? (ref. ID; 3383) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 650)
  24. Trinema complanatum Penard var. punctata Decloitre, 1982 (ref. ID; 3710 original paper)
  25. Trinema constricta Certes, 1889 (ref. ID; 650)
    See; Corythion dubium (ref. ID; 1332)
  26. Trinema contraria Decloitre, 1961 (ref. ID; 650) reported year? (ref. ID; 3383)
  27. Trinema cornuta Decloitre, 1961 (ref. ID; 650) reported year? (ref. ID; 3383)
  28. Trinema diatomacea et sa var. corona Van Oye (ref. ID; 650)
  29. Trinema elongata (ref. ID; 650)
  30. Trinema enchelis (Ehrenberg) Leidy, 1878 (ref. ID; 2441)
  31. Trinema enchelys (Ehrenberg, 1838) (ref. ID; 3686) reported year? (ref. ID; 1618, 3693), (Ehrenberg) Leidy, 1878 (ref. ID; 650, 3279, 3382, 7500), (Ehrenberg, 1838) Leidy, 1878 (ref. ID; 4755, 5461), (Ehrenberg, 1838) Leidy, 1879 (ref. ID; 661, 1332, 1335, 1923, 2050, 2081, 2110, 2121, 2147, 2235, 2236, 2238, 2239, 2329, 2330, 2356, 2456, 2538, 2564, 2558, 2683, 2852, 4737) reported year? (ref. ID; 3501, 3595)

    Quote from ref. ID; 5000

    Syn; Arcella enchelys Ehrenberg, 1844 (ref. ID; 1332); Difflugia enchelys Ehrenberg, 1838 (ref. ID; 1332) reported year? (ref. ID; 3693); Euglypha enchelys Wallich, 1864 (ref. ID; 1332); Euglypha pleurostoma Carter, 1857 (ref. ID; 1332); Trinema Delage & Herouard, 1896 (ref. ID; 1332); Trinema acinus Dujardin, 1841 (ref. ID; 1332) reported year? (ref. ID; 3693); Trinema enchelli Crevier, 1870 (ref. ID; 1332); Trinema enchelys Leidy (ref. ID; 3693)

  32. Trinema enchelys (Ehrenberg) Leidy f. multidentata Decloitre, 1958 (ref. ID; 650)
  33. Trinema enchelys (Ehrenberg) Leidy var. ampulla Jung-Spatz, 1938 (ref. ID; 650)
  34. Trinema enchelys (Ehrenberg) Leidy var. biconvexa Awerinzew, 1907 (ref. ID; 650) reported year? (ref. ID; 2558)
  35. Trinema enchelys (Ehrenberg) Leidy var. bonneti Decloitre, 1970 (ref. ID; 650, 2509 original paper)
  36. Trinema enchelys (Ehrenberg) Leidy var. bryophila Penard (ref. ID; 650)
  37. Trinema enchelys (Ehrenberg) Leidy var. daruma Sudzuki (ref. ID; 650)
  38. Trinema enchelys (Ehrenberg) Leidy var. galeata Penard (ref. ID; 650, 1332)
  39. Trinema enchelys (Ehrenberg) Leidy var. grandis Chardez (ref. ID; 650)
  40. Trinema enchelys (Ehrenberg) Leidy var. nasturticola Decloitre, 1962 (ref. ID; 650, 2558 original paper)
  41. Trinema enchelys (Ehrenberg) Leidy var. plenum Kufferath, 1932 (ref. ID; 650)
  42. Trinema galeata (Penard, 1890) Jung, 1942 (ref. ID; 650, 2054)
  43. Trinema grande Golemansky (ref. ID; 2090)
  44. Trinema grandis (Chardez, 1960) Golemansky, 1963 (ref. ID; 650)
  45. Trinema intermedia Decloitre, 1965 (ref. ID; 650)
  46. Trinema leidyi Chardez (ref. ID; 650)
  47. Trinema lineare Penard, 1890 (ref. ID; 650, 661, 1332, 1923, 2038, 2083, 2099, 2110, 2146, 2147, 2189, 2236, 2441, 2449, 2456, 2489, 2538, 2541, 2683, 2852, 2862, 3223, 3382, 3686, 4664, 4737, 4755, 5461, 7500) reported year? (ref. ID; 1618, 3342, 3383, 3501, 3595, 3693) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 6795)
    Syn; Arcella enchelys Ehrenberg, 1847 (ref. ID; 1332); Arcella enchelys Ehrenberg, 1854 (ref. ID; 1332); Arcella enchelys alpha Ehrenberg, 1854 (ref. ID; 1332); Arcella hyalina Ehrenberg, 1841 (ref. ID; 1332); Trinema acinus Leidy, 1879 (ref. ID; 1332); Trinema enchelys f. beta Averintzeff, 1906 (ref. ID; 1332)
  48. Trinema lineare Penard f. major Sudzuki, 1965 (ref. ID; 650)
  49. Trinema lineare f. truncatum Chardez (ref. ID; 2147), var. truncatum Chardez, 1964 (ref. ID; 650) or 1968 (ref. ID; 2449)
  50. Trinema lineare Penard var. grandis Decloitre, 1971 (ref. ID; 650, 2510 original paper)
  51. Trinema lineare var. minuscula Chardez, 1968 (ref. ID; 2144, 2146, 2449, 2456) or 1971 (ref. ID; 650, 4860)
  52. Trinema lineare Penard var. rectangularis Decloitre, 1970 (ref. ID; 650)
  53. Trinema lineare var. terricola Decloitre, 1962 (ref. ID; 650, 2449, 2538, 2557 original paper) reported year? (ref. ID; 3383)
  54. Trinema lineostoma Decloitre, 1962 (ref. ID; 650)
  55. Trinema nassa Decloitre, 1965 (ref. ID; 650) reported year? (ref. ID; 2505)
  56. Trinema navicularis Decloitre, 1973 (ref. ID; 650)
  57. Trinema penardi Thomas & Chardez, 1958 (ref. ID; 650, 661, 2054, 2110, 4755, 5461)
  58. Trinema quadratum Van Oye (ref. ID; 650)
  59. Trinema sauvineti Certes, 1889 (ref. ID; 650)
  60. Trinema spinosum Penard, 1890 (ref. ID; 650)
    See; Lecythium spinosum (ref. ID; 1332)
  61. Trinema taraneki Stepanek, 1968 (ref. ID; 650)
  62. Trinema verrucosum France, 1898 (ref. ID; 650) reported year? (ref. ID; 3693)

Trinema complanatum Penard, 1890 (ref. ID; 650, 661, 1332, 1923, 2110, 2120, 2121, 2147, 2177, 2329, 2333, 2441, 2456, 2490, 2539, 2558, 4737, 4755, 4821, 5461) reported year? (ref. ID; 3383, 3595, 3693) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 2863)

Descriptions

Oral extremity broad. Shell in broad view of nearly uniform width, with semicircular extremities; body scales circular, imbricated. Aperture circular, oblique, invaginated, seeming oval in front view. Habitat mosses and Sphagnum. (ref. ID; 1923)
Shell ovoid in ventral view, slightly compressed, composed of circular idiosomes of different size. Aperture oval, slightly invaginated. Nucleus with a central nucleolus. (ref. ID; 4755)
The varieties of the soil-inhabiting T. complanatum Penard, 1890 are shown to be adaptive morphos of an extreme polymorphism. (ref. ID; 4821)

Measurements

Length 25-60 um. (ref. ID; 1923)

Trinema enchelys (Ehrenberg, 1838) (ref. ID; 3686) reported year? (ref. ID; 1618, 3693), (Ehrenberg) Leidy, 1878 (ref. ID; 650, 3279, 3382, 7500), (Ehrenberg, 1838) Leidy, 1878 (ref. ID; 4755, 5461) or (Ehrenberg, 1838) Leidy, 1879 (ref. ID; 661, 1332, 1335, 1923, 2050, 2081, 2110, 2121, 2147, 2235, 2236, 2238, 2239, 2329, 2330, 2356, 2456, 2538, 2564, 2558, 2683, 2852, 4737) reported year? (ref. ID; 3501, 3595)

Synonym

Arcella enchelys Ehrenberg, 1844 (ref. ID; 1332); Difflugia enchelys Ehrenberg, 1838 (ref. ID; 1332) reported year? (ref. ID; 3693); Euglypha enchelys Wallich, 1864 (ref. ID; 1332); Euglypha pleurostoma Carter, 1857 (ref. ID; 1332); Trinema Delage & Herouard, 1896 (ref. ID; 1332); Trinema acinus Dujardin, 1841 (ref. ID; 1332) reported year? (ref. ID; 3693); Trinema enchelli Crevier, 1870 (ref. ID; 1332); Trinema enchelys Leidy (ref. ID; 3693)

Descriptions

One to two contractile vacuoles; pseudopodia attenuate, radiating. (ref. ID; 1618)
Shell of large size with distinct plates, oviform, compressed anteriorly. Body scales circular. Aperture circular, oblique, invaginated, and surrounded by a number of rows of very minute scales. Pseudopodia few, fine, and long. Habitat mosses, Sphagnum and aquatic vegetation; common. (ref. ID; 1923)
The shell is ovoid and flattened slightly in the apertural region. It is composed of approximately fifty, large, circular, incompletely overlapping shell-plates and an unknown number of smaller, oval, shell-plates. The aperture is circular, sub-terminal and invaginated. It is bordered by an inner circle of about forty denticulate apertural-plates, and two or three rows of small, oval, shell-plates. Each apertural-plate is circular, and carries a median, dorsal tooth. Both Chardez (1956) and Thomas (1958) have shown the differences in shape and size of the shell of this species. (ref. ID; 3686)
Shell elliptic, oval in transverse section. Aperture circular, invaginated, toothed. Distinction between T. enchelys and the very similar T. lineare only by their size. (ref. ID; 4755)

Measurements

30-100 um long; 15-60 um wide; scales 4-12 um in diameter. (ref. ID; 1618)
Length 40-100 um. (ref. ID; 1923)
Length 32-42 um. (ref. ID; 2356)
Shell length 47-78, width 19-34; diameter of aperture 11-20; diameter of large shell-plates 5.6-10.3, diameter of small shell-plates 1.9-4.3; diameter of apertural plates 0.9-1.8 um (n=13). (ref. ID; 3686)

Trinema lineare Penard, 1890 (ref. ID; 650, 661, 1332, 1923, 2038, 2083, 2099, 2110, 2146, 2147, 2189, 2236, 2441, 2449, 2456, 2489, 2538, 2541, 2683, 2852, 2862, 3223, 3382, 3686, 4664, 4737, 4755, 5461, 7500) reported year? (ref. ID; 1618, 3342, 3383, 3501, 3595, 3693) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 6795)

Synonym

Arcella enchelys Ehrenberg, 1847 (ref. ID; 1332); Arcella enchelys Ehrenberg, 1854 (ref. ID; 1332); Arcella enchelys alpha Ehrenberg, 1854 (ref. ID; 1332); Arcella hyalina Ehrenberg, 1841 (ref. ID; 1332); Trinema acinus Leidy, 1879 (ref. ID; 1332); Trinema enchelys f. beta Averintzeff, 1906 (ref. ID; 1332)

Descriptions

Test transparent; scales indistinct; filopodia. (ref. ID; 1618)
Shell of small size, plates indistinct. Usually the plates are distinguishable only about the edges where they may appear as minute undulations. Aperture round. Habitat mosses, Sphagnum, aquatic vegetation, moistened soils. Generally distributed and apparently the commonest form of all Rhizopoda. (ref. ID; 1923)
The shell is composed of approximately fifty, large, circular, incompletely overlapping, shell-plates, and an unknown number of small, oval to circular, shell-plates which either haphazardly fill the interstices or are completely overlaid by the large shell-plates. The aperture is normally circular, invaginated and situated sub-terminally. It is bordered by an inner circle of from 18 to 28 small, denticulate apertural-plates and one or two rows of small shell-plates. The apertural-plates may occasionally be moved from their marginal position to form double rows, or to be displaced out of symmetry. (ref. ID; 3686)
Shell elliptic, oval in transverse section. Shell platelets hardly seen in vivo, but distinct after silver-staining. Aperture circular, invaginated, toothed. Individuals with an evaginated aperture, as described by Meisterfeld (1979), have never been observed. Nucleus with a central nucleolus. (ref. ID; 4755)

Comments

Cash et al. (1915), Chardez (1956, 1970) and Thomas (1958) have illustrated variation in the position of the aperture, including examples of evaginated apertures. Whilst, in clonal cultures several abnormal forms have been observed (Hedley and Ogden 1974). (ref. ID; 3686)

Measurements

About 35 um by 17 um. (ref. ID; 1618)
Length 16-30 um. (ref. ID; 1923)
The length of the test was 22 um, the width was 11 um and the pseudostome had a diameter of 6 um. (ref. ID; 2683)
30-37x14 um. (ref. ID; 3342)

Trinema lineare Penard var. minuscula Chardez, 1968 (ref. ID; 2144, 2146, 2449, 2456) or 1971 (ref. ID; 650, 4860)

Descriptions

This variety is a size variety of Trinema lineare. The shell of this variety is smaller than that of Trinema lineare. Otherwise shells in shape and in surface structure in accord with Trinema lineare. A variety which lives in aerophytical mosses, in soil and in sea interstitial. (ref. ID; 4860)

Measurements

Length of the shell 17-21 (19+/-2), diameter of the shell 5-8 (6.5+/-1.5), aperture of the shell 3-5 (4+/-1) um (n=156). (ref. ID; 4860)

Trinema penardi Thomas & Chardez, 1958 (ref. ID; 650, 661, 2054, 2110, 4755, 5461)

Descriptions

Shell composed of two independent parts. Outer component carries the circular shell platelets, inner part forms the oval aperture. In contrast to the very similar T. galeata, the inner shell does not form an anterior apertural rim. (ref. ID; 4755)

Measurements

Thomas and Chardez (1958) give a size of 42-55x20-30x14-20 um, and a major axis of the aperture of 10-15 um. The measurement of our population vary in a wider range (for example length 30-65 um), and only the character "diameter of idiosomes" has a V<10. (ref. ID; 4755)