Cyphoderia

Cyphoderia Schlumberger, 1845 (ref. ID; 3693)

Cercozoa: Rhizaria: Euglyphida (ref. ID; 7119)
Rhizopoda: Testacea: Order Testaceafilosa De Saedeleer, 1934: Family Cyphoderiidae Deflandre, 1953 (ref. ID; 7500)
Family Cyphoderiidae Deflandre (ref. ID; 7501)

[ref. ID; 1618]
Test retort-shaped; colorless to yellow; made up of a thin chitinous membrane, covered with discs or scales; aperture terminal, oblique, circular; body does not fill the test completely; nucleus large, posterior; pseudopodia, few, long filose, simple or branched; fresh water. (ref. ID; 1618)

[ref. ID; 1923]
Shell retort-shaped. Rounded scales very distinct. Neck gently recurved never furnished with a disc-shaped collar. Shell generally brownish in color. (ref. ID; 1923)

[ref. ID; 3686]
Shell colourless or yellow; retort-shaped and circular in transverse section; composed of circular shell-plates; aperture terminal, circular. (ref. ID; 3686)

  1. Cyphoderia amphoralis (ref. ID; 7119)
  2. Cyphoderia ampulla Ehrenberg, 1840 (ref. ID; 3686) reported year? (ref. ID; 1618, 1923, 2116, 2304, 2423, 2435, 3190), (Ehrenberg, 1840) Schlumberger, 1845 (ref. ID; 2109), (Ehrenberg) Schlumberger, 1845 (ref. ID; 7500), (Ehrenberg) Leidy, 1879 (ref. ID; 2329, 2441, 2456, 3501) or (Schlumberger) Leidy (ref. ID; 7501) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 3173, 3370, 7119)
  3. Cyphoderia ampulla Leidy, 1878 (ref. ID; 2038) reported year? (ref. ID; 3693)
    See; Cyphoderia margaritacea (ref. ID; 3693)
  4. Cyphoderia ampulla var. maior Penard (ref. ID; 7501)
  5. Cyphoderia ampulla Leidy var. minor Chardez (ref. ID; 2532)
  6. Cyphoderia ampulla var. papillata Wailes (ref. ID; 1923)
  7. Cyphoderia ampulla var. vitraea Wailes (ref. ID; 3501)
  8. Cyphoderia calceolus Penard (ref. ID; 3693)
  9. Cyphoderia compressa Golemansky, 1979 (ref. ID; 2118 original paper, 2216, 2292, 3519) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 7119)
  10. Cyphoderia laevis Penard, 1902 (ref. ID; 3693 original paper) reported year? (ref. ID; 2240)
  11. Cyphoderia littoralis Golemansky, 1973 (ref. ID; 2115, 2116, 2119, 2216, 2425 original paper, 3519)

    Quote from ref. ID; 5000

    Quote from ref. ID; 5852

  12. Cyphoderia littoralis var. simodensis Sudzuki, 1979 (ref. ID; 3519)

    Quote from ref. ID; 5852

  13. Cyphoderia major (ref. ID; 7119)
  14. Cyphoderia margaritacea (Ehrenberg, 1840) Penard, 1902 (ref. ID; 3693 redescribed paper) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 2770)
    Syn; Cyphoderia ampulla Leidy (ref. ID; 3693); Cyphoderia margaritacea Schlumberger (ref. ID; 3693); Difflugia ampulla Ehrenberg, 1840 (ref. ID; 3693); Euglypha curvata Perty (ref. ID; 3693); Euglypha margaritacea Wallich (ref. ID; 3693); Lagynis baltica F.-E. Schulze (ref. ID; 3693)
  15. Cyphoderia margaritacea var. major Penard (ref. ID; 3693)
  16. Cyphoderia perlucidus Beyens, Chardez & De Bock, 1986 (ref. ID; 2122 original paper)
  17. Cyphoderia trochus (Ehrenberg) Leidy, 1879 (ref. ID; 3173)
  18. Cyphoderia trochus Penard, 1899 (ref. ID; 1923, 2109, 3686) reported year? (ref. ID; 3693)

Cyphoderia ampulla Ehrenberg, 1840 (ref. ID; 3686) reported year? (ref. ID; 1618, 1923, 2116, 2304, 2423, 2435, 3190), (Ehrenberg, 1840) Schlumberger, 1845 (ref. ID; 2109), (Ehrenberg) Schlumberger, 1845 (ref. ID; 7500), (Ehrenberg) Leidy, 1879 (ref. ID; 2329, 2441, 2456, 3501) or (Schlumberger) Leidy (ref. ID; 7501) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 3173, 3370, 7119)

Descriptions

Test usually yellow, translucent, composed of discs, arranged in diagonal rows; circular in cross-section; aperture circular; cytoplasm gray, with many granules and food particles; two contractile vacuoles. (ref. ID; 1618)
Fundus rounded or mamillate. Plates rounded or oval, cemented together in diagonal rows, presenting a hexagonal appearance. Pseudopodia few but very long. Protoplasm with minute granules and crystals. Habitat mosses, ooze of ponds and lakes. (ref. ID; 1923)
The shell is colourless or yellow, retort-shaped and circular in transverse section. It is composed of circular or oval, flattened, siliceous shell plates, which are arranged in diagonal rows on an organic matrix so that they either lie close or touch, but do not overlap. The aperture is circular and surrounded by a row of shell plates. The specimen with a paillose aboral region that we examined, did not vary in any other respect from specimens identified as C. ampulla, and it is included in the list of measurements, although Wailes (1913) describes it as a variety C. a. papillata. C. ampulla differs from C. trochus in having smaller shell plates that do not overlap. (ref. ID; 3686)

Measurements

60-200 um long; diameter 30-70 um. (ref. ID; 1618)
Length 61-195 um. Several varieties of this species are known, sometimes confused with C. trochus. (ref. ID; 1923)
Length of shell 87-135; diameter of shell 34-51; diameter of aperture 13-17; diameter of shell plates 1.9-2.4 um (n=4). (ref. ID; 3686)

Cyphoderia ampulla var. papillata Wailes (ref. ID; 1923)

Descriptions

With a more or less sharply rounded fundus. This variety resembles the type except in the outline of the fundus. Plates never overlapping. Habitat Sphagnum and aquatic vegetation. (ref. ID; 1923)

Measurements

Length 113-135 um. (ref. ID; 1923)

Cyphoderia compressa Golemansky, 1979 (ref. ID; 2118 original paper, 2216, 2292, 3519) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 7119)

Descriptions

This species was described from underground water littorals of marine beaches, and is similar to the common freshwater species C. ampulla (Ehrenberg, 1840). It is distinguished from C. ampulla by the strong lateral compression of the shell. In transverse section C. compressa is oval and appears to taper evenly along most of the shell length, whereas in C. ampulla the transverse section is circular and has the greatest diameter around the mid-point of the shell and tapers rapidly at both extremities. In species of Cyphoderia there appears to be two main arrangements of the siliceous shell plates, these are (i) individually separate plates that lie close together and (ii) those that overlap. The shell plates of C. compressa are similar to those of C. ampulla, although the number of kidney-shaped plates -about 1.8 um long and 1.4 um wide- and the amount of visible organic matrix appears to be greater in the former species. (ref. ID; 2292)

Cyphoderia perlucidus Beyens, Chardez & De Bock, 1986 (ref. ID; 2122 original paper)

Descriptions

The shell, is as characteristic for the genus, retort-shaped and circular in transverse section. The bent collar at the apertural end makes an angle of 30-40 degrees with the longitudinal axis. The aperture is circular, the aboral region rounded. The shell is composed of numerous very small circular shell plates, the whole being transparent and fragile. (ref. ID; 2122)

Measurements

Length of shell 50-58, diameter of shell 25-27, diameter of aperture 10-11 um (n=5). (ref. ID; 2122)

Cyphoderia trochus Penard, 1899 (ref. ID; 1923, 2109, 3686) reported year? (ref. ID; 3693)

Descriptions

Membrane composed of imbricated scales. The character imbricated (or not) is generally given by the study of the optical section of the empty shell. The circular biconvex imbricated plates are arranged in diagonal rows. In optical section the test is quite different from C. ampulla. The true type (shell conical) seems to be restricted to deep-water lakes. The varieties are found in Sphagnum and other aquatic vegetation. (ref. ID; 1923)
The shell is colourless or yellow, retort-shaped and circular in transverse section. It is composed of circular, bi-convex, siliceous shell plates, which overlap each other and are arranged in diagonal rows. The aperture is circular and surrounded by a ring of shell-plates. Specimens with the aboral region either pointed or flattened have been described as varieties of C. trochus, however, we regard such variation to be intraspecific. The degree of imbrication of the shell plates and the length of the neck also appear to vary. The measurements taken from Cash et al., (1915) are those for C. trochus var. amphoralis. (ref. ID; 3686)

Measurements

Length of the commonest form, var. amphoralis Wailes, 87-150 um. (ref. ID; 1923)
Length of shell 105-137; diameter of shell 35-55; diameter of aperture 14-19; diameter of shell plates 3.0-3.5 um (n=14). (ref. ID; 3686)