Rabdiophrys Rainer, 1968 (ref. ID; 3541 original paper)
Phylum Rhizopoda von Siebold, 1845: Class Filosea Leidy, 1879: Order Cristidiscoidida Page, 1987: Family Pompholyxophryidae Page, 1987 (ref. ID; 4747)

[ref. ID; 4747]
Diagnosis; Cells covered with both plate- and spine-scales. The cell diameter is 25-40 um; the diameter of the plate-scales is 1.5-5.5 um. The plate-scales consist of two layers, which are fused peripherally, elsewhere connected by intercalary material appearing as hexagonally arranged black dots. The proximal plate has many very minute perforations and the distal plate has 1-10 large pores or many minute perforations in the central area. The spine-scales are variable in structure and length (0.8-12.2 um); they consist of a base plate with a hollow spine and species-specific structures on its apex. The cytoplasm has many large granules and there are very large food-vacuoles. The filopodia are very thin. (ref. ID; 4747)
Remarks; The genus Rabdiophrys Rainer, 1968, was erected for rotosphaerids with both plate- and spine scales. As pointed out by several authors (Nicholls 1983; Croome 1987), are re-diagnosis, based on both light and electron microscopic observations of a Rabdiophrys species, was needed to clarify its position over against Pinaciophora and Pompholyxophrys. (ref. ID; 4747)
Type species; Rabdiophrys anulifera: its type species had been studied by light and electron microscopy by Siemensma in 1981. (ref. ID; 4747)


Rabdiophrys anulifera Rainer, 1968 (ref. ID; 3541 original paper) reported year? (ref. ID; 4796) or Rainer, 1968, emend. Siemensma, 1981 (ref. ID; 4747)
Syn; Pinaciophora pinea Nicholls, 1983 (ref. ID; 4747)
Diagnosis; Cells 27-35 um in diameter, covered with plate- and spine-scales. The species resembles much R. monopora, and differs from it in having small (1.2-3.4 um) as well as long spine-scales (10-12.2 um) and an aberrant ultrastructure of the plate-scales. Both species have plate-scales consisting of 2 layers fused peripherally and in the case of R. anulifera by 2 concentric internal rims, one lying halfway between the periphery and the central hole and the other rim just around the border of the central hole. These rims can sometimes be seen by SEM. In R. monopora the 2 layers of the plate-scales are also used peripherally, but they are interconnected by material which appears in places as black dots, as could be seen by TEM. The diameter of the plate-scales of R. anulifera is 2.1-2.8 um with the central hole ca. 0.8 um in diameter. The spine-scales are distally strongly flattened and somewhat broadened, ornamented with 2 small and pointed teeth. The shaft is 0.24-0.50 um in diameter; the apex is ca. 0.7 um broad. Proximally the shaft is connected to a circular base plate, 0.57-1.2 um in diameter, by four wing-like structures. (ref. ID; 4747)
Remarks; This species was studied with transmission electron microscopy by Nicholls (1983) and described as Pinaciophora pinea, now a junior synonym of R. anulifera.
Type locality; This species has been reported from Germany (Rainer 1968), all from freshwater localities. (ref. ID; 4747)
Rabdiophrys denticulata (Thomsen) (ref. ID; 4796) or (Thomsen, 1978) Roijackers & Siemensma, 1988 (ref. ID; 4747 redescribed paper)
Re-diagnosis; Cells covered by both plate- and spine-scales. The plate-scales are discoid, circular in outline, with a diameter of 3.5-4.5 um. The proximal plate is perforated by many very minute pores; the distal plate has 5-9 holes and is fused to the proximal plate peripherally and by many internal ridges, forming hexagonal patterns of black dots as seen by TEM. The spine-scales are tubular, 2.9-3.5 um long, proximally broadened and fused to the circular base plate by several struts, distally also broadened and terminating in up to six minute spines; the apex is open, giving access to the hollow tubular part of the spine-scale. (ref. ID; 4747)
Remarks; This species is described by Thomsen (1978). The description is, however, too broad and includes the new species R. thomseni. Therefore, a rediagnosis has become necessary. Thomsen (1978) recognised the differences in the spine-scales and the plate-scales in the two specimens which he studied. From his Fig. 16, it is clear that the spine-scales have an open apex which lacks any separating lamella. His Fig. 15 indicates the existence of such a lamella (compare with our Fig. 16). The oval plate-scale in Fig. 15 (Thomsen 1978) differs from the circular plate-scales illustrated in his Fig. 16 (Thomsen 1978). (ref. ID; 4747)
Rabdiophrys thomseni Roijackers & Siemensma, 1988 (ref. ID; 4747 original paper)
Diagnosis; Cells covered by both plate- and spine-scales. The spine-scales are straight, completely bent or have a straight tubular part and a curved lamella. The plate-scales are oval in outline, with a diameter of 3.0-5.4 um. The proximately plate is perforated by many minute pores; the distal plate has 6-9 holes and is fused to the proximal plate peripherally and by many internal ridges, forming hexagonal patterns of black dots as seen by TEM. The spine-scales are 2.4-6.1 um long. They consist of a hollow tube, terminating proximately in several struts by which the tube is fused to the base plate, and distally in up to 6 teeth. There are, however, distally some extra holes in the tubular part of the spine-scales near to the struts, thus giving a much more complicated structure. The 2 middle spines at the apex of some spine-scales are very extended and reach about the same length the shaft (2 um); these 2 middle spines are fused by a very thin lamella, thus forming 2 circular holes, when seen from the top of the spine-scale. In other spine-scales a third spine is extended and fused to the two middle spine, giving 3 circular holes, when viewed from the top. Then there are spine-scales that have extremely variable structures at the 2 or 3 extended spines. (ref. ID; 4747)
Remarks; The plate-scales are identical to those of Pinaciophora rubicunda. We have collected both species together. Raphidiophrys thomseni differs from R. denticulata in having very variable spine-scales with their apex divided into 2 or 3 holes. For the time being there is no indication that the possession of spine-scales is facultative for any species, so we do not consider Pinaciophora rubicunda as a spine-scales lacking ecotype of Rabdiophrys thomseni, as one could suggest. (ref. ID; 4747)
Type locality; Collected from algae along the southern coast of Sweden, between Morrum and Karlshamn, August 1986. (ref. ID; 4747)
Rabdiophrys triangular (Thomsen, 1978) Roijackers & Siemensma, 1988 (ref. ID; 4747 redescribed paper)
Emended diagnosis; Cells globose to ovoid, 39-42 um in diameter. Plate-scales triangular, with slightly concave sides (1.5-1.7 um long) and rounded tips. The plate-scales have (2-)3(-4) holes in the upper plate. The spine-scales have a remarkable structure: they consist of a hollow tube (0.3-0.4 um diameter halfway along the spine and 0.24-0.16 um at the base; spine length: (0.8-1.5 um), broadened towards its apex, terminating in a trumpet-like opening (0.5-0.7 um). The tube itself is surrounded by four smaller tubular structures, each 0.21-0.23 um in diameter and 0.35 long, connected to the central spine by tapering lamellae up to 2/3 of the spine-length. The base of the spine is not circular but octagonal. The spine base and the 4 tubular appendices are perforated by many minute holes. An emended diagnosis is needed because of the insufficient description of the spine-scales. These spine-scales are remarkable in their shape and structure. They were fairly uniform in shape on all observed cells. (ref. ID; 4747)
Rabdiophrys turrisfenestrata Wujek & O'Kelly, 1991 (ref. ID; 4796 original paper)
Diagnosis; Cells covered with scales of two kinds. Plate scales elliptical or nearly so, 1.8-2.2 um long by 1.2-1.5 um wide, 1.4-2.0 um2 in area. The central region of the distal scale layer with 5-8 perforations 0.10-0.16 um in diameter; other small, irregularly spaced perforations present outside the circumference of the larger perforations. Intercalay plate scale layer visible from above as small dots, representing columnar thickenings, across the scale from the central region to inside the rim. Proximal layer with few, minute, scattered performations. Scale rim narrow, patternless. Spine scales 2.7-3.3 um long, with a perforated, buttressed base 0.65-0.72 um wide, a shaft 0.10-0.15 um wide at its narrowest point, and two small teeth at the apex. A perforated ridge bisects each of the broad faces of the scale. Perforations in the ridge run from the base, reducing in number, to the apex. (ref. ID; 4796)
Derivation of epithet; From the Latin, Turris, spire or tower; fenestra, window or hole. The epithet refers to the appearance of the fenestrated ridge in the spine scale. (ref. ID; 4796)
Type material; Collected from Lake Moeraki (NZMS 1-S77-045304; 43 degrees 43'S, 169 degrees 17'E), a small eutrophic lake in the South Island of New Zealand, on 28 December 1988. Holotype (transmission electron micrograph negative) deposited with Electron Microscopy Unit, Biotechnology Division, DSIR, Palmerston North, No. 690-2 (1989). Iconotype, Fig. 1. (ref. ID; 4796)