Trachelomonas Ehrenberg (ref. ID; 4965), Ehrenberg, 1833 emend. Deflandre, 1926 (ref. ID; 4950) or Deflandre (ref. ID; 4966)
Order Euglenales (ref. ID; 4826)
Family Euglenaceae (ref. ID; 4966)

[ref. ID; 1618]
With a lorica which often possesses numerous spines; sometimes yellowish to dark brown, composed of ferric hydroxide impregnated with a brown manganic compound; a single long flagellum protrudes from the anterior aperture, the rim of which is frequently thickened to form a collar; chromatophores either two curved plates or numerous discs; paramylum bodies small grains; a stigma and pyrenoid; multiplication by fission, one daughter individual retains the lorica and flagellum, while the other escapes and forms a new one; cysts common; fresh water. (ref. ID; 1618)

[ref. ID; 3490]
The cell carrys a lorica characteristic to species and has a single long flagellum, a conspicuous eye-spot and a number of discoid chloroplasts. The lorica with a pore from which a flagellum projects, is variable in shape, size, colour and surface ornamentation. The colour of the lorica is changeable pale yellow to dark brown according to amounts of iron salts. (ref. ID; 3490)

[ref. ID; 4965]
The morphology of the lorica is used as a taxonomical character to separate species, varieties and formae. Different types of envelope ornamentations, like punctuations, spines, scrobiculations, warts, tubercles, ridges, etc. have been described in numerous works. (e.g. Deflandre 1926; Huber-Pestalozzi 1955; Conforti & Tell 1986). (ref. ID; 4965)


Trachelomonas abrupta var. obesa (Playfair) Defl. (ref. ID; 4950, 4966)
Syn; Trachelomonas australis var. obesa Playfair (ref. ID; 4950); Trachelomonas abrupta var. bonnieri Drez. (ref. ID; 4950)
Description; Lorica 29-31 um long, 25-27 um broad, ellipsoid-cylindrical with slightly arched, sometimes parallel sides, poles broadly rounded. Pore without collar. Membrane yellowish to brownish, strongly punctuate (80-100/100 um2) scabrous, ornamented with granulations or protuberances. (ref. ID; 4966)
Trachelomonas abrupta var. obesa f. minor Conforti (ref. ID; 3550)
Measurements; Lorica 15-20 um long, 11-14 um wide. (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas acanthostoma Stokes em. Deflandre (ref. ID; 3550, 4950)
Measurements; Lorica 21-22 um long, 17-18 um wide. (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas aculeata Dolgoff (ref. ID; 3490, 4950)
Description; The lorica 15 um in diameter is small and spherical, and is provided with a small collar and a few long radiating spines. (ref. ID; 3490)
Trachelomonas allorgei Deflandre var. allorgei (ref. ID; 3550)
Description; Pore surrounded by a cylindrical long neck (6-7 x 4-5) with conical divergent spines at the tip. Posterior end narrowed into a long conical cauda (10-12 um long). Envelope yellowish to deep brown, irregular and strongly punctuated (40-45/100 um2). (ref. ID; 3550)
Measurements; Lorica 52-53 um long, 18-18.5 um wide, fusiform. (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas allorgei var. brevicollis Conforti & Ruiz, 2001 (ref. ID; 3550 original paper)
Diagnosis; Varietas different a typo parvo longituidine coli, 2-2.5 um longa, 4.5-5 um lata. (ref. ID; 3550)
Comments; This variety presented the same characteristics as the variety type, the only difference being the shorter length of the neck (2-2.5 x 4.5-5 um), irregular at the distal end. Posterior end narrowed into a long conical cauda (10-11 um long). Envelope yellowish to deep brown, irregular and strongly punctuated (68-75/100 um2). The studied lorica showed numerous bacteria adhered on this surface. These organisms could be considered T. fusiformis Stokes, but in this taxon the cauda is not clearly differentiated from the body as it is in the observed specimens. (ref. ID; 3550)
Type locality; In Chunam lacu, Keung Nam, Corea. (ref. ID; 3550)
Measurements; Lorica 43-44 um long, 16-16.5 um wide, fusiform. (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas armata (Ehrenberg) (ref. ID; 3490) or (Ehrenberg) Stein (ref. ID; 3517, 3550, 4950)
Description; The lorica is elliptical with a low collar and a number of long curved spines on the posterior region. The typical form is smooth on the surface of the lorica, but those of the specimens examined in the present work are spiniferous on the entire or partial surface. According to Skvortzow (1925), forms spiniferous entirely seem to belong to var. plancionica Skvortzow, ones partially in the anterior half to var. ovata Skvortzow and those also partially in the anterior and posterior regions to var. steini Lemmermann. (ref. ID; 3490)
Measurements; The size is comparatively constant, being 40-42 um in length and 32-34 um in transdiameter. (ref. ID; 3490)
Lorica 43-45 um long, 37-39 um diameter. (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas armata var. armata f. inevoluta Defl. (ref. ID; 4966)
Description; The organisms observed from Colombian Amazonia were smaller, 27-30 um long, 24-27 um diam., than those described by Tell & Conforti (1986), 38 x 31 um. Lorica widely cylindrical or quadrangular with broad poles and more or less parallel sides. Membrane fine and sparsely punctuate. It can be observed a group of areolae (1-2 um diam.), resembling the bases of spines, around the posterior end. Pore with an annular thickening. It is necessary to clarify that the areolae do not resemble broken spines, we observed this character many times and the cut is never so "clean" nor in all spines. (ref. ID; 4966)
Trachelomonas armata var. gordeievi Skv. (ref. ID; 4950), gordeievii Skv. (ref. ID; 4966)
Description; Lorica 37-40 um long, 28-31 um diam., broadly ellipsoidal or ovoid with anterior end narrower than the posterior one. Membrane yellowish to brownish apparently smooth, ornamented with conical spines (1-1.5 um long) at the anterior end and a crown of very long spines at the posterior one (15-18 um long). Pore surrounded by 10-12 conical spines (1.5-2.5 um long). This variety has been originally described with S.E.M. by Coute and Therezien (1985). (ref. ID; 4966)
Trachelomonas armata var. gordeievii f. minor (ref. ID; 4966 original paper)
Description; This forma presents the same characteristics as the variety, the only difference being the minor dimensions of the lorica, 31-34 um long, 29-31 um broad. (ref. ID; 4966)
Trachelomonas armata var. longispina Playfair emend. Defl. (ref. ID; 4950, 4966)
Description; Lorica 39-41 um long, 29-31 um broad, ellipsoid. Membrane yellowish sometimes colourless, finely punctuate (120-150/100 um2) and with conical spines (1.8-2 x 0.3-0.5 um) regularly distributed (6-10/100 um2). Posterior end ornamented with a crown of very long curved spines (12-14 x 2-3 um). This variety was already described with S.E.M. by Coute & Iltis (1981) and Coute & Therezien (1985). (ref. ID; 4966)
Trachelomonas armata var. nana Balech f. spinosa (ref. ID; 4966 original paper)
Description; Lorica 29-32 um long, 25-27 um broad, ellipsoid or slightly ovoid with rounded ends, anterior end narrower than the posterior one. Pore surrounded by a crown of 8-12 short conical spines (1-1.5 um long). Membrane yellowish to deep brown, with closely distributed punctuations and very scattered (13-15/100 um2) short conical spines (0.8-1 um long). Posterior end ornamented with a crown of well developed (10-12 um long), curved, more or less convergent conical spines. Balech in his description of var. nana, reported "ovoid with flattened poles, specially the posterior one..." and this fact is shown in his photo 184, although in the fig. 65, the anterior pole is very much narrower than the posterior one. This forma presents the characteristics of the type variety, the only difference being the short conical spines that ornamented the pore and the body of the lorica. Balech's variety shows only a posterior crown of long spines. (ref. ID; 4966)
Trachelomonas armata var. setosa Drez. (ref. ID; 4966)
See; Trachelomonas drezepolskii (ref. ID; 4950)
Description; Lorica 35-38 um long, 27-29 um broad, ellipsoid. Membrane finely punctuate (120-150/100 um2) with scattered (10-20/100 um2) conical spines (0.3-0.5 um long). Posterior end ornamented with a crown of long spines (6-8 um), straight or slightly divergent. Pore without collar surrounded by short spines at the distal end. This variety could be considered T. superba var. swirenkiana, but this taxon the spines are not regularly distributed on the body surface, as in the specimen shown. Moreover, the length/breadth ratio in our specimens is closer to that in T. armata var. setosa than in T. superba var. swirenkiana. (ref. ID; 4966)
Trachelomonas armata var. steini Lemmermann (ref. ID; 3490) or Lemmermann emend. Defl. (ref. ID; 4950), var. steinii Lemmermann emend. Defl. (ref. ID; 4966)
Description; Lorica 34-37 um long, 29-32 um broad, ellipsoid with both ends rounded. Membrane finely (100-150/100 um2) punctuate. Anterior end ornamented with conical spines of variable length (0.5-1.5 um long) and very long curved spines (8-12 um long) at the posterior one. Pore surrounded by an annular thickening ornamented with a crown of spines (1-2 um long). This variety has been described with S.E.M. by Coute & Iltis (1981) and Conforti & Tell (1986). (ref. ID; 4966)
Trachelomonas australica var. granulata (Playfair) Defl. (ref. ID; 4950, 4966)
Syn; Trachelomonas hispida var. granulata Playfair (ref. ID; 4950)
Description; Lorica 22-24 um long, 17-21 um broad, ellipsoid. Membrane finely punctuate (80-100/100 um2), ornamented with short conical spines densely (30-50/100 um2) distributed, sometimes the ornamentation includes granules or papillae loosely arranged. Pore surrounded by a double annular thickening dentate at the distal end. (ref. ID; 4966)
Trachelomonas bacillifera var. minima f. sparsispina Deflandre, 1926 (ref. ID; 3550)
Description; Pore without collar (2.5-3 um diameter), surrounded by blunt spines whose length is equal to the ones on the body of the lorica. Envelope reddish-brown, regularly punctuated (96-100/100 um2) ornated with obtuse short spines (0.5-1 um long) sparsely distributed (20-25/100 um2). Several studied specimens showed numerous bacteria adhered on their surface. (ref. ID; 3550)
Measurements; Lorica 18.5-19 um long, 17.5-19 um wide, ellipsoid to ovoid. (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas bernardinensis W. Vischer emend. Defl. (ref. ID; 4950, 4966)
Description; Lorica 35-37 um long, 18-20 um broad, elongate-ellipsoid with the sides usually regularly arched, but sometimes slightly attenuated towards the anterior end. Membrane deep brown sparsely punctuate with numerous adhered particles on its surface. Pore surrounded by a wide conical collar (3-4 x 5.5 um) with spines or crenulate at the tip. Posterior end gradually tapering to a conical cauda. (ref. ID; 4966)
Comments; Deflandre (1926) described this taxon as showing a strongly scrobiculated membrane. Within the material examined, we found a pool of specimens, with a punctuated membrane that presented variable quantities of agglutinated particles. Perhaps, this material could appear as scrobiculations in light microscope. (ref. ID; 4966)
Trachelomonas cervicula Stokes (ref. ID; 3517, 3550, 4950)
Syn; Trachelomonas volvocina var. cervicula (Stokes) Lemm. (ref. ID; 4950)
Measurements; Lorica 30-32 um diameter. (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas cordata var. minor Deflandre, 1926 (ref. ID; 3550), f. minor Deflandre (ref. ID; 4950)
Description; Pore surrounded by a right cylindrical collar 1-1.5 x 2-2.5 um, which present an external, very thin, basal, annular thickening. (ref. ID; 3550)
Measurements; Lorica 12-13 um long, 11-12 um diameter, globular, slightly acuminate to the posterior end, smooth in surface. (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas crebea Kellicot emend. Deflandre (ref. ID; 3550, 4950)
Measurements; Lorica 21-23 um long, 16-18 um wide, neck 3 x 3-3.5 um. (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas cucurbitiformis Hada, 1959 (ref. ID; 3490 original paper)
Syn; Trachelomonas cucurbita var. ovata Skvortzow, 1925 (ref. ID; 3490)
Description; The lorica is pod-shaped with a cylindrical collar and blunt posterior end, and light or dark brown in colour. (ref. ID; 3490)
Comments; The form studied in the present work is obviously identified with Skvortzow's T. cucurbita var. ovata, but ovata had been previously used for varieties of other species, therefore, the author has given the new name to the invalid one. (ref. ID; 3490)
Measurements; A few specimens as long as 32-42 um and as broad as 12-16 um. (ref. ID; 3490)
Trachelomonas curta var. curta Da Cunha emend. Deflandre (ref. ID; 3550)
Measurements; Lorica 17-30 um long, 20-31 um diameter. (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas curta var. minima Tell & Zalocar de Domitrovic, 1985 (ref. ID; 3550)
Description; Lorica compressed globose, smooth. Pore 2.5-3 um diameter, surrounded by an annular thickening. (ref. ID; 3550)
Measurements; Lorica 12-13.5 um long, 13-14.5 um diameter. (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas cylindracea (Playf.) Popova (ref. ID; 3550)
Syn; Trachelomonas volzii var. cylindraceae Playf. (ref. ID; 3550)
Description; Posterior end broadly rounded, anterior end conical, narrowed into a cylindrical, right, long collar (4-6 x 4 um). Lorica smooth. (ref. ID; 3550)
Measurements; Lorica 36-38 um long, 12.5-14 um wide, cylindrical. (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas cylindrica Ehrenberg (ref. ID; 3490, 3517) or Ehrenberg sec. Playf. (ref. ID; 3550, 4950)
Description; The lorica is small, being 15 um long and 8 um broad, and oblong with a low collar. (ref. ID; 3490)
Lorica 17-18 um long, 8.5-10 um wide, cylindrical, posterior end rounded, anterior end slightly flattened with pore surrounded by a very short neck (0.5 um long). Envelope hyaline to yellowish, smooth. (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas cylindrica var. hispidula Skvortzow (ref. ID; 3490)
Description; The lorica of the variety is distinguishable from one of the typical in being spiniferous on the entire surface. (ref. ID; 3490)
Measurements; The size of the typical form is larger than that of the var. hispidula, being as long as 25-33 um and as broad as 15-18 um. (ref. ID; 3490)
Trachelomonas dangeardiana var. glabra (Playfair) Deflandre (ref. ID; 3550)
Description; Ends broader rounded. Envelope dark brown, finely punctuated ornate with a crown of long conical spines (5-6 um long) at the posterior end. These spines presented clear pores in its bases. (ref. ID; 3550)
Measurements; Lorica 33-34 um long, 21-23 um diameter. (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas dastuguei Balech (ref. ID; 4950, 4966)
Description; Lorica 54-59 um long, 16-20 um broad, spindle-shaped, sides regularly arched. Anterior end narrowed into a cylindrical neck (8-9 x 5-6 um). Posterior end gradually tapering towards a subconical tail (12-13 x 5-6 um). Membrane yellowish to deep brown, punctuated and ornamented with conical spines arranged in definite areas. Around the distal end of the neck there is a crown of 5-6 robust spines (4-5 x 1.5-2 um). The body presents conical spines of variable length: the longer ones are located on the ends and the smaller (1.5-2 x 0.5-1 um) spines are distributed scattered (7-10/100 um2) on the central part of the body. The tail is like a truncated cone with 4 robust spines (4-5 x 1-1.5 um) on the free end. (ref. ID; 4966)
Comments; From comparison with other descriptions of this species in S.E.M., we can conclude that the number punctuations seems to be very variable: from 60-70/100 um2 (Tell & Coute 1980) or 80-85/100 um2 (Conforti and Tell 1986), to very scattered, as we observed in our materials (20-40/100 um2). (ref. ID; 4966)
Trachelomonas duquei (ref. ID; 4966 original paper)
Description; Lorica 36-37 um long, 31-33 um wide, broadly ovate with regularly arched sides. Anterior and posterior ends obtusely rounded to flattened. Membrane brown, strongly punctuated (82-90/100 um2) and ornamented with conical spines (1.5-2.5 um long), irregularly distributed (11-15/100 um2). The punctuations are so large (0.4-2 um diam.) and variable in shape, that this feature suggests that some of the might be the result of fusions. (ref. ID; 4966)
Comments; This newly established species resembles T. allia var. obesa Balech (30-32 x 23-25 um), but it differs mainly in its larger dimensions, the anterior and posterior end flattened, the clearly arched sides and the strongly punctuated membrane. The shape of our specimens does not resemble T. bacillifera Playf.: sides are more curved in the latter and the length/breadth ratio is also different. (ref. ID; 4966)
Trachelomonas dybowskii Drez. (ref. ID; 4950, 4966)
Syn; Trachelomonas intermedia var. levis Playfair (ref. ID; 4950)
Description; Lorica 24-26 um long, 21-23 um wide, broadly ellipsoidal with slightly arched or parallel sides, uniformly rounded poles. Membrane smooth, yellowish-brown. Pore without collar, sometimes surrounded by an annular thickening. (ref. ID; 4966)
Comments; The organisms from Colombian Amazonia were bigger than those described by Drezepolski (1921/22); 18-22 x 15-19 um). (ref. ID; 4966)
Trachelomonas flava Palmer (ref. ID; 3550, 4950)
Description; Pore (1.5-2 um diameter) surrounded by an internal annular thickening. Envelope very sparsely punctuated, ornamented with very short rounded papilla. (ref. ID; 3550)
Measurements; Lorica 8-10 um long, 9-10 um diameter, compressed globose. (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas fusiformis Stokes (ref. ID; 3550)
Measurements; Lorica 51-69 um long, 17-26 um wide. (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas globularis f. collaris (Schk.) Popova (ref. ID; 3550)
Description; Pore large (3.5-4.5 um diameter) surrounded by a short collar. Envelope ornamented with scarce short conical spines (0.8-1.5 um long) scattered at irregular distances from each other (20-25/100 um2) and very little papilla densely distributed. (ref. ID; 3550)
Measurements; Lorica 12-13 um long, 11-12 um wide, spherical. (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas globularis f. crenulatocollis (Szab.) Popova (ref. ID; 4966), var. crenulatocollis Szab. (ref. ID; 4950)
Description; Lorica 20-22 um long, 19-21 um broad, subspherical. Pore surrounded by a very short collar (0.5-1 um), irregularly dentate. Membrane brownish, with short conical spines (1-1.5 um long) very scatterly distributed (12-15/100 um2). (ref. ID; 4966)
Trachelomonas granulosa Playfair var. granulosa (ref. ID; 3550)
Description; Pore (2-2.5 um diameter) surrounded by an annular thickening. Envelope finely punctuated (148-160/100 um2), ornamented with very short projections, irregularly distributed (150-160/100 um2) and numerous small papillae, closely disposed. (ref. ID; 3550)
Measurements; Lorica 15-17 um long, 12.5-14 um wide, ovoid. (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas granulosa var. subglobosa Playfair (ref. ID; 3550, 4950)
Description; Pore (1.5-2 um diameter) provided with an annular thickening. Envelope finely punctuated (380-400/100 um2), ornamented with very short projections irregularly distributed (150-160/100 um2). (ref. ID; 3550)
Lorica 26-28 um long, 24-26 um broad, subspherical. Membrane yellowish or reddish-brown, loosely punctuated (50-100 um2), ornamented with short obtuse spines (0.5 x 0.8 um long) irregularly scattered (10-15/100 um2), which confers to the contour of the lorica an undulate appearance. Pore without collar. (ref. ID; 4966)
Measurements; Lorica 17-19 um long, 16-17 um wide, subglobose. (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas helvetica Lemmermann (ref. ID; 3550) or Lemmermann emend. Defl. (ref. ID; 4950)
Syn; Chonemonas acuminata Perty (ref. ID; 4950); Trachelomonas conica var. caudata Playfair (ref. ID; 4950)
Description; Anterior end rounded, sides regularly arched, narrowed at the posterior end into a conical rounded short cauda (4-4.5 um long). Pore large, surrounded by strong conical spines (1.5-2 um long). Envelope deep brown, regular and finely punctuated, ornated with scattered (35-40/100 um2) conical spines (1-1.5 um long). (ref. ID; 3550)
Measurements; Lorica 30-30.5 um long, 15-15.5 um wide, ellipsoid to ovoid. (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas hexangulata var. repanda Prescott (ref. ID; 3550, 4950)
Measurements; Lorica 43-45 um long, 19-20.5 um wide. (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas hirsuta Conforti & Ruiz, 2001 (ref. ID; 3550 original paper)
Description; Pore 1.8-2 um diameter, with an annular thickening, surrounded by conical spines. Lorica dark brown to reddish brown, very finely punctuated (180-200/100 cm2) and ornamented by conical spines (1-1.5 um, long) very dense and regularly distributed (44-50/100 cm2). In observations made with high magnification, we could observe that the spines bases are connected, which determine that the envelope presents irregular thick in optical view. (ref. ID; 3550)
Measurements; Lorica 16-18 um long, 14-16 um diameter, ellipsoid. (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas hirta Da Cunha (ref. ID; 4950, 4966)
Description; Lorica 21-24 um long, 19-21 um wide, broadly ellipsoidal with round ends to subspherical. Pore without collar. Membrane reddish-brown to deep brown, notoriously punctuated (80-100/100 um2) with long conical spines (2-3 um long) irregularly distributed (8-10/100 um2). This species was already described with S.E.M. by Conforti and Tell (1986). (ref. ID; 4966)
Trachelomonas hispida (Perty) (ref. ID; 1618, 3490) or (Perty) Stein em. Deflandre (ref. ID; 3517, 4682, 4950)
Description; Lorica oval, with numerous minute spines; brownish; 8-10 chromatophores; many varieties. (ref. ID; 1618)
The lorica is ellipsoid with a low collar, hispidulous on the entire surface, and yellowish brown in colour. (ref. ID; 3490)
Measurements; 20-42 by 15-26 um. (ref. ID; 1618)
Its size is variable 28-32 um in length and 20-22 um in transdiameter. (ref. ID; 3490)
Trachelomonas hispida f. minor Bourr. (ref. ID; 4950, 4966)
Description; Lorica 21-23 um long, 16-18 um broad, ellipsoid, covered densely (15-20/100 um2) with short conical pointed spines (1-1.5 um long). Pore with or without annular thickening surrounded by spines (1-2 um long). Membrane yellowish or reddish-brown finely (100-200/100 um2) punctuated. This species has been already described with S.E.M. by Coute & Iltis (1981). (ref. ID; 4966)
Trachelomonas hispida var. crenulatocollis Maskell (ref. ID; 3490) or (Maskell) Lemm. (ref. ID; 3550, 4950, 4966)
Syn; Trachelomonas crenulatocollis Maskell, 1886 (ref. ID; 4950)
Description; The lorica of the variety differs from one of the typical form in having a higher collar with radial spines projecting anterior wards at the margin. (ref. ID; 3490)
Lorica 26-32 um long, 20-23 um broad, ellipsoid, strongly and irregularly punctuate (80-100/100 um2) with scattered (9-15/100 um2) conical spines (0.5-1.5 um long), distributed mainly around the ends. Pore surrounded by a cylindrical neck ornamented with 10-12 spines at the tip, which are longer than those in the body, which diverge distally. The observed specimens presented the neck almost cylindrical; notwithstanding, we shouldn't say our specimens belong to fo. recta because the spines are divergent from the edge of the neck. (ref. ID; 4966)
Measurements; Lorica 22.5-24 um long, 15.5-16 um wide; collar 3-3.5 x 4-4.5 um. (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas hispida var. duplex Defl. (ref. ID; 4950, 4966)
Description; Lorica 28-30 um long, 23-25 um broad, ellipsoid. Membrane yellowish to reddish-brown notoriously punctuate (80-100/100 um2), with short conical spines irregularly distributed mainly around the ends, some also scattered on the middle surface. Pore surrounded by a depressed annular thickening. This species was already described with S.E.M. by Coute and Therezien (1985). (ref. ID; 4966)
Trachelomonas hispida (Perty) Stein em. Deflandre var. hispida (ref. ID; 4966)
Description; Lorica 21-23 um long, 18-20 um broad, ellipsoid. Pore surrounded by an annular thickening. Membrane deep to reddish-brown, finely punctuated (84-100 um2) with short conical pointed spines (0.7-1 um long), scatterly distributed (50-70/100 um2), among these there are very little papillae irregularly located. (ref. ID; 4966)
Trachelomonas hispida var. hispida f. hispida (Perty) Stein em. Deflandre (ref. ID; 3550)
Measurements; Lorica 23-26 um long, 21-22 um wide. (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas hispida var. hispida f. minor Bourr. (ref. ID; 3550)
Measurements; Lorica 18-20 um long, 14-17 um diameter. (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas horrida Palmer (ref. ID; 3490, 4950)
Description; The lorica is oblong, being 38-40 um in length and 27-28 um in transdiameter, and has a wide collar and radiating strong spines of lengths of 6-10 um on the entire surface. (ref. ID; 3490)
Trachelomonas horrida var. spinicollis Conf. (ref. ID; 4966)
Description; Lorica 39-41 um long, 25-27 um broad, ellipsoid. Pore surrounded by a cylindrical collar (5.5-6 x 4.5-5 um) with conical spines (1-1.5 um long) at the distal end and some others placed on the lateral. Membrane reddish-brown, punctuated, ornamented with robust conical spines (3.5-4 um long), irregularly distributed (32-38/100 um2), among these spines little granulations are present. This variety was originally described by Conforti (1993) in materials from Camaleao Lake (Brazil). (ref. ID; 4966)
Trachelomonas intermedia var. minor Tell (ref. ID; 3550)
Measurements; Lorica 12-13 um long, 10-11 um wide. (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas intermedia var. papillata Skuja (ref. ID; 4950) or (Skuja) Popova (ref. ID; 4966)
Description; Lorica 24-27 um long, 21-23 um broad, ellipsoid. Membrane finely punctuated (100-200/100 um2) ornamented with short conical spines scatterly (10-20/100 um2) distributed. This variety was originally reported in materials from Lituania. (ref. ID; 4966)
Trachelomonas irreguaris Svir. (ref. ID; 4965) or Swir. (ref. ID; 4950, 4966)
Description; Lorica 23-25 um long, 18-20 um broad, ellipsoid. Posterior end slightly flattened. Pore (4-4.5 um diam.) surrounded by an annular thickening or a very short collar. Membrane scrobiculated, strongly punctuated (85-100/100 um2) and with scattered (5-10/100 um2) obtuse spines (1-1.5 um long). Dispersed warts are also are observed sometimes. (ref. ID; 4966)
Trachelomonas kelloggii Skvortzow (ref. ID; 3490, 4966) or Skv. emend. Deflandre (ref. ID; 4950)
Description; The lorica is ellipsoid, being 29 um in length and 22 um in breadth, and had a rather wide short collar and few minute spines on the anterior and posterior regions. (ref. ID; 3490)
Lorica 32-34 um long, 30-32 um broad, ellipsoid or ovoid with rounded ends. Pore surrounded by a crown of 8-10 conical spines (1.5-2 um long). Membrane reddish-brown, finely punctuated (100-110/100 um2) ornamented with conical spines, distributed mainly around the ends (7-10/100 um2). In some specimens we could observe scattered spines on the middle surface. This species was already described with S.E.M. Conforti and Tell (1986). (ref. ID; 4966)
Trachelomonas lacustris var. lacustris (ref. ID; 3550)
Description; Lorica 21-28 um long, 10.5-15 um wide, cylindrical with the sides slightly curved to parallel. Ends broader rounded. Pore provided with an annular thickening, surrounded by conical spines of even length or longer than the rest of the envelope. Lorica punctuate (172-180/100 um2), ornate with irregular distributed (150-160/100 um2) conical spines short (0.5-0.87 um long) and very small papilla closely distributed (2100-2200/100 um2). (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas lacustris var. ovalis Drez. (ref. ID; 3550)
Measurements; Lorica 28-30 um long, 14.5-16 um wide. (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas magdaleniana Defl. (ref. ID; 4950, 4966)
Description; Lorica 104-106 um long, 19-20 um broad, spindle-shaped with regularly arched sides; anterior end narrowed into a long neck (15-17 x 4-5 um) ornamented with conical spines, usually 5, at the tip (they are broken in the photographed specimen). Posterior end narrowed into a long tail (27-29 x 8-10 um) with 3-4 spines at the end. Membrane reddish to deep brown, punctuated and ornamented with conical curved spines of variable length (1-5 um long) irregularly distributed along the lorica, mainly on the middle part of the body. This taxon was observed with S.E.M. by Conforti (1993) in materials from Brazil. (ref. ID; 4966)
Trachelomonas margaritifeta Conrad (ref. ID; 3490, 4950)
Description; The lorica is broadly fusiform with a short cylindrical collar and coarsely perforate on the entire surface. (ref. ID; 3490)
Measurements; Only one specimen 38 um long and 20 um broad. (ref. ID; 3490)
Trachelomonas megalacantha var. crenulatocollis Bourr. (ref. ID; 4950) or Bourr. & Manguin (ref. ID; 4966)
Description; Lorica 53-55 um long, 29-31 um broad, ellipsoid. Membrane strongly (100-200/100 um2) punctuated, with robust long and divergent conical spines (10-12 x 2-4 um) scatterly (3-4/100 um2) distributed. Pore with a depressed collar (6-7 um diam.) bearing teeth on the distal end (13 um long). (ref. ID; 4966)
Trachelomonas mucosa Swirenko (ref. ID; 3490, 4950)
Description; The lorica is ellipsoidal with a low collar and smooth on the surface. The species was measured 27 um in length and 22 um in transdiameter. (ref. ID; 3490)
Trachelomonas nadsonii var. inermis Conforti & Ruiz, 2001 (ref. ID; 3550 original paper)
Description; This variety presented the same characteristics as the variety type, the only difference being surface without conical spines. Lorica 54-71 um long, 17-21 um wide, fusiform with regularly arched sides; anterior end narrowed into a long cylindrical collar (9-10 x 4.5-5 um), ornamented with conical divergent spines at the tip (1-1.5 um). Posterior end narrowed into a long conical cauda (11-12 um long). Envelope reddish to deep brown, punctuated (80-90/100 um2). (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas nadsonii var. nadsonii (ref. ID; 3550)
Measurements; Lorica 74-76 um long, 18-22 um wide. (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas oblonga Lemmermann (ref. ID; 3490, 3517, 4950)
Description; The lorica is comparatively small, being as long as 20 um and as broad as 15 um, and oblong without a collar and any surface ornamentation. (ref. ID; 3490)
Trachelomonas oblonga var. attenuata Playfair (ref. ID; 3550, 4950)
Syn; Trachelomonas minuscula Drez. (ref. ID; 4950)
Description; Lorica 9-19 um long, 7-14 um wide, elongated ellipsoid, smooth in surface. Anterior end rounded, posterior end slightly acuminate. Pore 1.5-2 um diameter. (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas oblonga var. australica Playfair (ref. ID; 3550, 4950)
Description; Lorica 13-14 um long, 11-12 um wide, elongated ellipsoid, smooth in surface. Pore with a strong annular thickening surrounded by a short collar (2.5-3 x 1-1.5 um). (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas perlata Deflandre var. crateriphora Conforti & Ruiz, 2001 (ref. ID; 3550 original paper)
Description; This taxon differs from the type by the central depression located at the anterior end. Lorica 8-9 um long, 9-10 um diameter, subspherical with the posterior end rounded. Pore surrounded by an annular thickening (1.5-2 um diameter), located in the bottom of a circular depression (3-4 um diameter). Envelope yellowish brown fine and sparsely punctuated, ornated by little obtuse protuberances, which are regularly distributes on the lorica (200-210/100 um2) up to the external edge of the depression which surface is smooth. (ref. ID; 3550)
Comments; The newly established variety resembles T. curta f. crassatiifera Safon., but it shows protuberances located only around the external edge of the depression. (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas piscatoris Fisher (ref. ID; 1618) or (Fischer) Stokes (ref. ID; 4950)
Syn; Trachelomonas hispida var. piscatoris (Fischer) Playfair (ref. ID; 4950)
Description; Lorica cylindrical with a short neck and with numerous short, conical spines; flagellum 1-2 times body length. (ref. ID; 1618)
Measurements; 25-40 um long. (ref. ID; 1618)
Trachelomonas planctonica var. flexicollis Balech (ref. ID; 3550, 4950, 4966)
Description; Lorica 21-23 um long, 17-19 um broad, ellipsoid, with the posterior ends slightly flattened. Pore with an oblique or sometimes curved collar (3-4 um long) and irregularly denticulated at the tip (1-1.2 um long). Membrane with scattered punctuations (58-70/100 um2). (ref. ID; 4966)
Measurements; Lorica 27-28 um long, 20-21 um diameter. (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas planctonica var. oblonga Drez. (ref. ID; 3550, 4682, 4950)
Description; This variety presented the same characteristics as the variety type, the only difference is the ovoid shape of the envelope. Lorica 22-23 um long, 17-19 um wide, collar 1.5-3 x 4 um distal conical spines 0.8-1 um long. Punctuations 112-120/100 um2. (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas planctonica var. planctonica (ref. ID; 3550)
Description; Pore surrounded by a cylindrical, short collar (2.5-3 x 3-4 um), whose distal end is ornated by divergent conical spines (0.8-1 um long). Envelope strong and sparsely punctuated (95-100/100 um2). (ref. ID; 3550)
Measurements; Lorica 20-22 um long, 20-21 um wide, subspherical. (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas playfairi Deflandre (ref. ID; 3550, 4950)
Description; Pore surrounded by a curved cylindrical neck (2.5-3 x 3-3.5 um), smooth to slightly irregular at the tip. Envelope light brown, ornate with very fine punctuations, which are indistinguishable with optical microscope. (ref. ID; 3550)
Measurements; Lorica 18-19 um long, 14-16 um wide, ellipsoid to ovoid. (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas pseudocaudata Defl. (ref. ID; 4950, 4966)
Description; Lorica 35-60 um long, 17-23 um broad, regularly ellipsoid. Membrane irregularly punctuate (50-100/100 um2), covered densely with robust obtuse spines mainly distributed at the posterior end and exogenous particles randomly distributed. Pore surrounded by an annular thickening and a distinct cylindrical (5.5 x 5 um) collar which may be denticulatd or not. Posterior end with a short tail (3-4 um long), sometimes truncated. (ref. ID; 4966)
Trachelomonas pseudohispida Hada, 1959 (ref. ID; 3490 original paper)
Syn; Trachelomonas hispida var. papillata Skvortzow, 1926 (ref. ID; 3490)
Description; The lorica is ellipsoid with a pore surrounded by a row of more or less long spines and has a few minute spines distributed irregularly on the surface. (ref. ID; 3490)
Comments; Skvortzow (1925) has given the name of papillata to varieties of several species of Trachelomonas, therefore, the author proposes to call the Skvortzow's T. hispida var. papillata as T. pseudohispida for the escape of confusion. (ref. ID; 3490)
Measurements; Several specimens as long as 29-37 um, as broad as 20-27 um and dark brown in colour. (ref. ID; 3490)
Trachelomonas pusilla Playfair (ref. ID; 3550, 4950)
Description; Lorica subspherical to heart shaped, anterior end slightly flattened and posterior end acuminate. Pore 1.5-2 um diameter surrounded by an annular thickening. Envelope thin, yellowish brown to brown, smooth. (ref. ID; 3550)
Measurements; Lorica 7-15 um long, 5-14 um wide. (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas raciborskii Woloszynska (ref. ID; 2251, 3490)
Description; The lorica is ellipsoidal with a scarcely visible collar and spiniferous on both ends. A few specimens 34-38 um in length, 26-27 um in transdiameter and dark brown in colour. (ref. ID; 3490)
Trachelomonas raciborskii var. incerta Drez. (ref. ID; 4950, 4966)
Description; Lorica 21-23 um long, 16-18 um broad, ellipsoid. Membrane reddish to deep brown, finely (80-100/100 um2) punctuated, ornamented with irregular tubercles or obtuse spines in both ends. Pore without collar. (ref. ID; 4966)
Trachelomonas raciborskii var. nova Drejepolski (ref. ID; 3490) or Drez. (ref. ID; 4950, 4966)
Description; The lorica of the variety is apparently different from one of the typical in being spiniferous only in the anterior region. (ref. ID; 3490)
Lorica 30-34 um long, 25-27 um broad, ellipsoid. Membrane finely (60-70/100 um2) punctuated, with scattered (5/100 um2) conical spines variable length distributed only in the anterior end. Pore with an annular thickening, without a collar. These organisms could be considered T. acanthostoma Stokes em. Defl., but this taxon bears just one or two crown of spines. In our specimens, the spines are disposed irregularly at the anterior end, with no organization in concentric circles at all. (ref. ID; 4966)
Measurements; The variety was 39 um long and 30 um broad. (ref. ID; 3490)
Trachelomonas robusta Swir. emend. Deflandre (ref. ID; 3550, 4950, 4966)
Description; Lorica 19-23 um long, 17-20 um broad, ellipsoid, strongly and irregulaly punctuate (84-100/100 um2), with robust scattered (5-12/100 um2) conical spines (1.5-4 um long). Pore without collar, normally surrounded by some spines the length of which is equal or greater than that of the ones on the body of the lorica, divergent or not. Membrane deep or reddish-brown. This species has been already described with S.E.M. by Coute & Iltis (1981), Conforti & Tell (1986), Coute & Therezien (1985) and Conforti (1993). (ref. ID; 4966)
Measurements; Lorica 24-31 um long, 17-20.5 um wide, spines 1.5 um long. (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas rotunda Swir. emend. Deflandre (ref. ID; 3550, 4950)
Description; Envelope subspherical to ellipsoid, dark brown, very thick, strong and densely scrobiculated (390-410/100 um2). (ref. ID; 3550)
Measurements; Lorica 15-17 um long, 14-15 um wide, pore 2-2.5 um diameter. (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas rugulosa Stein em. Deflandre var. minima Conforti & Ruiz, 2001 (ref. ID; 3550 original paper)
Description; This new taxon differs from the type variety by the smaller dimensions of the envelope, 10-11 um long, 9-10 um broad. Lorica ellipsoid, pore 1.2-1.5 um diameter, surrounded by an annular thickening. Envelope strong, reddish brown to deep brown, ornamented by ridges (1-1.2 um wide) arranged longitudinally (9-10/10 um), branched or not, which are born near the pore and finish in the posterior end. (ref. ID; 3550)
Comments; This newly established variety resembles Trachelomonas costatus Phillipose, but it differs mainly in the larger size of the lorica and the ornamentation with longitudinal ridges without branches. (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas rugulosa var. paralella Tell & Zaloc. (ref. ID; 3550)
Measurements; Lorica 20-21 um long, 18-19 um diameter. (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas rugulosa f. steinii Defl. (ref. ID; 4950, 4966), var. steinii Deflandre (ref. ID; 3550)
Description; Pore (2.5-3 um diameter) surrounded by an annular thickening (0.8-1 um thick). Envelope reddish brown, ornamented densely with slightly anastomosing ribs which radiate from the pore giving to the lorica a brain surface appearance. (ref. ID; 3550)
Lorica 22-24 um diam, spherical; pore with an annular thickening (1.5-2 um diam.); membrane thick, yellowish to reddish-brown, ornamented with a number of more or less regular, slightly anastomosing ribs that appear to radiate from the pore. (ref. ID; 4966)
Measurements; Lorica 16-17 um diameter, spherical. (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas sculpta Balech var. asiatica Conforti & Ruiz, 2001 (ref. ID; 3550 original paper)
Description; This new variety differs from the type variety in its smaller size (12-14 um diameter) and the surface ornamented by deep depressions, closely arranged (44-50/100 um2), which show more irregular contour and are larger than those described by T. sculpta var. sculpta Balech. (ref. ID; 3550)
Trahcelomonas selecta Deflandre (ref. ID; 3550, 4950)
Syn; Trachelomonas stokesi Drez. var. amphora Drez. (ref. ID; 4950); Trachelomonas stokesi Drez. var. granulata Drez. (ref. ID; 4950)
Measurements; Lorica 20-22 um long, 19.5-21 um wide. (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas similis Stokes var. costata Conforti & Ruiz, 2001 (ref. ID; 3550 original paper)
Description; This new variety presented the same characteristics as the type, the difference being the surface ornamented by ridges arranged longitudinally which are born at the posterior end and reach up near the pore. Lorica 29-30 um long, 21-22 um wide, ovoid, deep brown. Pore surrounded by a curved neck (4 x 4 um). (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas similis Stokes var. similis (ref. ID; 3550)
Measurements; Lorica 28-30 um long, 20-22 um diameter. (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas similis Stokes var. spinosa Huber-Pestalozzi (ref. ID; 3550, 4950, 4966)
Description; Lorica 24-25 um long, 16-17 um broad, ellipsoid, with ends rounded or the posterior slightly acuminate. Pore surrounded by a collar oblique (3.5-4 x 4.5 um), ornamented with spines irregularly placed on the sides and the distal end (1-1.5 um). Membrane reddish-brown, punctuated (50-100/100 um2) and with conical spines (1.5-2 um long) sparsely distributed (10-15/100 um2). This variety was already described with S.E.M. by Conforti & Tell (1986), Rino & Pereira (1989-1990), Conforti (1993), Coute & Therezien (1994). (ref. ID; 4966)
Measurements; Lorica 28-31 um long, 20-21 um diameter. (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas spirillifera Schkorbatov, 1940 (ref. ID; 4965) reported year? (ref. ID; 3550)
Description; Wall thick, color variable from clear brown to reddish dark brown. Envelopes showed variable surface from slight to strongly ornamented, which presented independent irregular elevations or conspicuous ridges, till anastomosing continuous ridges. Pore (1.2-1.5 um diameter) surrounded by an annular thickening or very short neck (0.5-0.7 um high). (ref. ID; 3550)
[Light microscopy]: Cell 8-9 um long, 6-7 um wide, ovoid. Chromatophores two parietal, elongate, extending through the entire cell length, each with a double-sheathed pirenoid. Stigma and flagellum not observed. Lorica subspherical to ovoid, 11-14 um long, 10-13 um wide. Wall thick, color variable, ranging from clear brown to reddish dark brown. Envelope surface showing very variable ornamentation, ranging from slightly to strongly ornamented, presenting independent irregular elevations or conspicuous ridges, that anastomose into continuos ridges. Pore surrounded by an annular thickening or a very short neck. (ref. ID; 4965)
[Scannning electron microscope]:
Type a - Lorica finely punctuate, presenting only small irregularly scattered elevations on the surface. Pore 1.2-1.5 um in diameter, surrounded by an annular thickening or a very short neck (0.5-0.7 um high).
Type b - Lorica finely punctuate (1500-1550 per 100 um2), with scattered (120-180 per 100 um2) bigger punctuations surrounded by clear areolae, among which some grains are irregularly distributed. Pore provided with an annular thickening, surrounded by an external crown formed by an irregular granules accumulation.
Type c - Lorica finely punctuate, with scattered (180-200 per 100 um2) bigger punctuations surrounded by clear areolae, located in depressions and limited by irregular elevations. Pore (1.2-1.5 um diam.) with an annular ring or a very short neck (0.6-0.7 um high), surrounded by an external crown (1.8-2 um diam.) formed by the accumulation of irregular granules.
Type d - Lorica finely punctuate, with scattered (100-120 per 100 um2) bigger areolate punctuations, placed in depressions enclosed by well developed irregularly distributed anastomosing ridges. Pore with the same characteristics of type c. (ref. ID; 4965)
Comments; T. rugulosa var. meandrina Conr., T. vermiculosa var. vermiculosa Palmer, and T. vermiculosa var. tiszae Szab. resemble lorica types b and c, but they differ in their spherical shape and in the bigger dimensions of the envelopes. Among the taxa with ellipsoid lorica, T. irregularis Svir. could coincident with the ornamentation type a or b, but the cell differs in the three chromatophores without pyrenoids (Balech 1944). T. felix Skvortsov, T. nigra Swir., and T. pseudofelix Defl. (= T. intermedia var. manchurica Skvortsov and T. intermedia var. pekinensis Skvortsov) present ornamentation that are similar to the type c. The two latter species also showed a type c like annular thickening. However, all three are bigger than our specimens. T. xenosoma Middel. is an other example of a species with spherical or ovoid lorica and very variable ornamentation, but it differs in the presence of a short denticulate neck in the pore and in the bigger dimensions. T. atrata var. pustulosa Conr., T. koliana Hort., and T. gregussii Hort., all have similar dimensions and shape, but each one could represent an ornamentation type similar to those observed in our specimens. However, they differ in their conspicuous curved neck. Among the taxa ornamented with tubercles, Bourrelly (1987) described T. pseudofelix var. helicoida and T. pseudofelix var. ornata, both showing the same dimensions, shape and color, and differing only in the protuberances disposition. Their lorica are very similar to our type c specimens, however, they differ in their bigger dimension. Sanchez Castillo & De La Rosa Alamos (1993) described an important surface variability in a new taxon, T. tuberculata var. nevadensis, which was related to heavier iron mineralization of the lorica. This variety presents chloroplast without pyrenoids and a clearly different ultrastructual ornamentation pattern as compared to our specimens. At least, T. spirillifera Schkorb., was the only species that presents the same lorica dimensions, similar pore structure than our specimens and its ornametations was coincident with our type a. (ref. ID; 4965)
Measurements; Lorica 11-14 um long, 10-13 um wide, ovoid. (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas superba var. spinosa Prescott (ref. ID; 4950, 4966)
Description; Lorica 33-37 um long, 27-30 um broad, ellipsoid or slightly ovoid, with rounded ends. Membrane reddish-brown with punctuations closely distributed (200/100 um2) and scattered conical spines (10-15/100 um2) of variable length (1.5-3 um long). Posterior end ornamented with a crown of well developed spines (3-10 um long) which are curved and more or less convergent. This variety has been already described with S.E.M. by Rino & Pereira (1989-1990). (ref. ID; 4966)
Trachelomonas sydneyensis var. grandicollis Deflandre (ref. ID; 3550, 4950)
Measurements; Lorica 35-39 um long, 21-24 um wide. (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas sydneyensis var. minima Playfair, 1915 (ref. ID; 3550) reported year? (ref. ID; 4950)
Measurements; Lorica 20-21 um long, 17-18 um wide, collar 1 x 4 um. (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas urceolata Stokes, 1887 (ref. ID; 4950) reported year? (ref. ID; 1618)
See; Strombomonas urceolata (ref. ID; 4950)
Description; Lorica vasiform, smooth with a short neck. (ref. ID; 1618)
Measurements; About 45 um long. (ref. ID; 1618)
Trachelomonas vemiculosa Palmer (ref. ID; 1618, 4950), vermiculosa var. vermiculosa Palmer (ref. ID; 4965)
Description; Lorica spherical; with many sausage-form markings. (ref. ID; 1618)
Measurements; 23 um in diameter. (ref. ID; 1618)
Trachelomonas verrucosa Stokes (ref. ID; 1618, 3517, 4950)
Description; Lorica spherical, with numerous knob-like attachments; no neck. (ref. ID; 1618)
Measurements; 24-25 um in diameter. (ref. ID; 1618)
Trachelomonas verrucosa var. granulosa (Playfair) Conr. (ref. ID; 3550, 4950)
Syn; Trachelomonas volvocina var. granulosa Playfair (ref. ID; 4950)
Description; Lorica 9-10 um diameter, spherical, reddish brown ornamented by grains very regular and densely distributed (88-95/100 um2). (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas verrucosa var. verrucosa f. irregularis Deflandre (ref. ID; 3550)
Description; Lorica 10-12 um diameter, spherical. Pore 1.2-1.5 um diameter surrounded by clear annular thickening. Envelope without punctuations, ornate very little grains scarcely distributed (160-179/100 um2), surface very irregular with numerous papillae among the grains. (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas volvocina Ehrenberg (ref. ID; 3490, 3501, 3517, 4682, 4950, 4966) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 4826)
Description; The lorica is simplest in shape, namely spherical without a collar and any surface ornamentation. Being 10-25 um in diameter, its size is considerably variable and its colour is also changeable. (ref. ID; 3490)
Lorica 23-26 um diam., spherical, pore surrounded by a depressed collar (3-5 um diam.). Membrane smooth, hyaline yellowish to deep reddish-brown. Two chloroplasts with one pyrenoid each (observed by light microscope). (ref. ID; 4966)
Trachelomonas volvocinopsis Swirenko (ref. ID; 3517, 3550, 4950)
Syn; Trachelomonas indica Skv. (ref. ID; 4950)
Description; Lorica 22-24 um diameter, pore 2-3 um diameter, surrounded by a strong annular thickening. (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas wislouchi Skvortzow (ref. ID; 3490)
Description; The lorica as long as 25 um and as broad as 23 um is broadly ovoid with a short collar, a wide outer one and numerous stout spines on the entire surface, and is brown or dark brown in colour. (ref. ID; 3490)
Trachelomonas wislouchii Skvortzow em. Deflandre var. minor Conforti & Ruiz, 2001 (ref. ID; 3550 original paper)
Description; Lorica 13-13.5 um long, 20.5-22 um diameter, flattened spherical, posterior end uniformly arched, anterior end plane. Pore surrounded at a certain distance by an annular thickness (5-6 um diameter). Envelope yellowish to light brown, finely punctuated with very short sparsely conical spines, which are absent in the inner surface to the annular thickness. (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas woycickii var. pusilla Drez. (ref. ID; 3550)
Description; Lorica 10-11 um diameter. Lorica spherical, yellowish brown to dark brown. Envelope punctuated, ornamented with short conical spines (0.5-1 um long) regularly distributed (96-100/100 um2), the surface among the spines is very irregular. (ref. ID; 3550)
Trachelomonas zingeri Roll (ref. ID; 4950, 4966)
Description; Lorica 31-34 um long, 21-23 um broad, ellipsoid, with both ends rounded. Membrane yellowish or reddish-brown, strongly and regularly punctuated (100-150/100 um2), ornamented with robust (4-6 um long) conical spines regularly (8-10/100 um2) distributed. The determination of this taxon was specially uneasy. We included it in T. zingeri, though in the figure given by Roll (Huber-Pestalozzi 1955), the sides are slightly straighter than in our specimens. In addition, though the anterior spines are not longer than posterior ones in the specimens shown, we observed this feature many times under light microscope. Finally, it differs from T. spectabilis Defl. by its larger dimensions (53-55 x 32-35 um). (ref. ID; 4966)