Salpingoeca Clark, 1868 (ref. ID; 4921) or James-Clark, 1867 (ref. ID; 4907, 5772) reported year? (ref. ID; 1618)
Order Choanoflagellida Kent, 1880: Family Salpingoecidae Kent, 1880 (ref. ID; 4907, 5772)

[ref. ID; 1618]
With a vase-like chitinous lorica to which stalked or stalkless organism is attached; fresh or salt water. See Lagenoeca (ref. ID; 1618)

[ref. ID; 4907]
Non-colonial forms with single theca closed at the posterior end, cell with one collar. Distinction between species is mostly based on thecal morphology (Starmach 1985). More than 70 species have been described, many species seem to overlap in characters, and identification is often difficult. Vors (1992) gives a short presentation of taxonomic problems and literature. (ref. ID; 4907)

[ref. ID; 5772]
Choanflagellates surrounded by a single firm organic theca, which is closed at the posterior end and which is visible in the light microscopy (Leadbeater 1991; Thomsen & Buck 1991). The genus accommodates more than 70 species distinguished by thecal morphology mainly at the light microscopical level. Many species are probably synonymous and the identification of species of Salpingoeca is therefore problematic. Furthermore, some "floras" or "faunas" have been found to contain erroneous illustration (e.g. Lemmermann 1914, see Vors 1992), and it is recommended that the type descriptions are consulted for identifications. (ref. ID; 5772)


Salpingoeca amphoridium James-Clark, 1867 (ref. ID; 4907), Clark, 1868 (ref. ID; 4921) or J. Clark (ref. ID; 3517)
Description; Theca 5-7 um long, vase-like, basal globular part sometimes flattened in posterior end, of about half length of theca. Top of neck widens at opening. Cell often contracts in theca, size of cell inside theca varies due to degree of contraction. One single flagellum, usually very difficult to observe because of high beating frequently, length of flagellum up to 7 um. (ref. ID; 4907)
Comments; Problems regarding demarcation of S. amphoridium are discussed by Vors (1992). The organism described above has characters identical to those of S. amphoridium as described by Vors (1992). (ref. ID; 4907)
Salpingoeca camelopardula Norris, 1965 (ref. ID; 5772)
Remarks; This species is very distinct, being the only species with a regular, bilaterally symmetrical (not radiate) theca. The length of the thecal neck may vary. It always protrudes from one end of the thecal chamber. The protoplast does not fill out the theca completely, as noted also by Thomsen (1978). Salpingoeca camelopardula grew well in the crude cultures, where it was found attached to empty thecas of Tetraselmis (Prasinophyceae). The neck of some cells was coiled because straight growth was obstructed by algae that settled on top of the cells. All parts of the S. camelopardula theca appear to be amorphous. (ref. ID; 5772)
Previous records (marine); California, USA (Norris 1965), and Gulf of Elat, Israel (Thomsen 1978). (ref. ID; 5772)
Salpingoeca fusiformis Kent (ref. ID; 1618, 3517)
Description; Lorica short vase-like; body filling lorica; fresh water. (ref. ID; 1618)
Measurements; Lorica about 15-16 um long; flagellum as long as body. (ref. ID; 1618)
Salpingoeca pyxidium Kent (ref. ID; 3497)
Description; The chitinous lorica is ovate and tapers to a pedicel which is variable in length. The body with a wide protoplasmic collar is longer than a lorica, and has a few reflexible grains of reserved substance and a contractile vacuole in the posterior portion. (ref. ID; 3497)
Measurements; Length of a body 8-10 um; one of a lorica 5-8 um; breadth of a lorica 5-6 um; length of pedicel 2-20 um. (ref. ID; 3497)
Salpingoeca ringens Kent, 1880 (ref. ID; 5772)
Syn; Salpingoeca eurystoma Stokes, 1886 (ref. ID; 5772)
Description; Theca with an ovate chamber and a broad, flaring neck. The widest part of the theca is the neck and the theca is typically 1.5 times as long as broad. The chamber gradually tapers towards the posterior, pedicellated end. In the transition zone between the chamber and the pedicel, the chamber may carry a small bulb-like swelling (visible in LM). All parts of the theca appear to be amorphous, except the distal part of the pedicel which is fibrous. At the time when this population was observed, most of the protoplasts were situated in the anterior part of the thecas. The protoplast may leave the theca and swim freely. Vacated thecas may be seen in detritus. Free-swimming cells may have thin pseudopodia protruding from the cell posterior, giving them a spiny appearance. This is also typical of free-swimming cells of Monosiga and Codosiga (Vors 1992). (ref. ID; 5772)
Remarks; The observations on the present specimens are generally in accord with Kent's description of Salpingoeca ringens, although the theca of S. ringens sense Kent (1880) lacks the bulb. However, because the bulb may be absent or weakly developed in the present species, they are regarded as identical. According to Kent, the distinguishing characters of this species are that the widest part of the theca is the anterior neck, and the length of the theca is 1.5 times the width. Salpingoeca eurystoma Stokes, 1886 is a junior synonym of S. ringens, as suggested by Zhukov & Karpov (1985), since the characteristics of the this species are identical with those of S. ringens (Stokes 1886). In the closely related species Salpingoeca inquillata Kent, 1880, the widest part of the theca is the thecal chamber and the length of the theca is two times the width. However, this is not well illustrated by Kent, and his drawings of S. inquillata and S. ringens are much alike. A similar species, Salpingoeca curvipes Kent, 1880, is distiguished by the curvature of the pedicel. This character is not stable. The theca or stalk of sessile choanoflagellates may be straight or bent, depending on the nature of the habitat. A coiled theca and bent stalks have been observed in specimens of S. camelopardula and S. ringens, respectively. Kent (1880) also uses the shape of the protoplast (ovate as opposed to flask-shaped) as a specific character. However, the shape of the protoplast, the degree to which it fills out the theca, and its position in the theca, probably varies according to the age or physiological state of the cell. This is evident from the work of Leadbeater (1977) on Proterosongia choanojuncta (as the Choanoeca perplexa stage), and from the published drawings of Salpingoeca gracilis (De Saedeleer 1927; Ettl 1970; Thomsen 1977). The three species, S. curvipes, S. inquillata and S. ringens, thus do not seem well separated, and they were regarded as synonymous by Boucaud-Camou (1966). However, S. ringens should be excluded from this synonymy, since it is specifically described as having different thecal dimensions. (ref. ID; 5772)
Previous records (marine); England (Kent 1880). (ref. ID; 5772)
Salpingoeca tuba Kent, 1880 (ref. ID; 5772)
Syn; Salpingoeca cylindrica Kent, 1880 (ref. ID; 5772); Salpingoeca petiolata Kent, 1880 (ref. ID; 5772)
Remarks; Salpingoeca tuba Kent, 1880 and Salpingoeca cylindrica Kent, 1880 canot be distinguished (Kent 1880). Salpingoeca tuba is also similar to Salpingoeca petiolata Kent, which is characterized by the protoplast possessing a distinctive posterior stalk. The presence or absence of a pseudopodial stalk is not stable character. The published drawings of S. graclis (De Saedeleer 1927; Ettl 1970; Skuja 1956; Thomsen 1977), clearly show the protoplasts of this species entirely without or with one or more stalks (pseudopodia). Also Ellis describing S. megacheila (Ellis 1930) and Stokes describing S. eurystoma (Stokes 1886), both noted that a posterior stalk ("anchoring filipode" (Ellis 1930) may be absent or present in the same species. The production of posterior pseudopodia is likely to depend on the size of the theca and of the protoplast. It thus seems justifiable to regard S. tuba, S. cylindrica and S. petiolata as synonyms, in concurrence with Boucaud-Camou (1966). The three species have the same status, but Boucaud-Camou chose S. tuba as the senior synonym. Norris (1965) (as Salpingoeca vaginicola) reports the basal part of the theca of S. tuba being expanded or fringed with filamentous threads. Basal filamentous threads are known from other sessile choanoflagellates (Salpingoeca amphoridium (Vors 1992) and P. choanojuncta (Leadbeater 1977) and their presence may be a charateristic feature of all attached salpingoecids. Their development is probably substrate dependent (Norris 1965). Salpingoeca vaginicola Stein, 1878, is superficially similar to S. tuba, but this species has a pointed thecal base with a pedicel. (ref. ID; 5772)
Previous records (freshwater); England (as S. gracilis (plate VI, Fig. 32) (Kent 1880); Germany (Burck 1909); Hungary (France 1897). (ref. ID; 5772)
Previous records (marine); England (Dunkerly 1910; Kent 1880) (as S. vaginicola); California, USA (as S. vaginicola) (Norris 1965); France (Boucaud-Camou 1966). (ref. ID; 5772)
Salpingoeca vaginicola Stein, 1878 (ref. ID; 5772) reported year? (ref. ID; 3497, 3517)
Description; The lorica of the species is fusiform, being slightly flaring in an oral margin and pointing at the distal end without a pedicel. The body has a rather small protoplasmic collar as high as it and a swimming flagellum twice as long as it, and contains a nucleus at the center, rarely a contractile vacuole at the posterior region and a few reflexible grains. (ref. ID; 3497)
Measurements; Length of a body 11-14 um; breadth of a body 3 um; height of a collar 5 um; length of a lorica 13-16 um; breadth of a lorica 4-5 um. (ref. ID; 3497)