Peridinium Ehrenberg

[ref. ID; 1618]
Subspherical to ovoid; reniform in cross-section; annulus slightly spiral with projecting rims; hypotheca often with short horns and epitheca drawn out; colorless, green, or brown; stigma usually present; cysts spherical. Salt or fresh water. (ref. ID; 1618)

[ref. ID; 3490]
The cell is globose or biconical and is often slightly compressed dorso-ventrally. The anterior end sometimes has an apical pore or rarely no pore to be rounded. The wall consists of three to five apical and zero to eight anterior intercalary and six to seven precingular plates in the epicone and of two antapical and five postcingular plates in the hypocone. The sutures are often wide and are ornamented with numerous transverse striae. The end of the girdle more or less descends and the sulcus slightly extended into the epicone and is posteriorly widened. (ref. ID; 3490)


Peridinium aciculiferum Lemmermann (ref. ID; 3490, 7121)
Description; The median-sized species as long as 30-45 um and as broad as 24-32 um, is ovoidal and is slightly compressed dorso-ventrally. The wall has seven precingular and four apical and three anterior intercalary plates in the epicone and five postcingular and two antapical plates in the hypocone with three conspicuous spines. (ref. ID; 3490)
Free-living. GenBank accession number EF417315. (ref. ID; 7121)
Geographic origin; Ice-covered lake, Sweden. (ref. ID; 7121)
Peridinium adriaticum Broch (ref. ID; 3494)
Comments; The species differs from P. oblongum (Aurivilius), in having a wider girdle and its well-developed wings. (ref. ID; 3494)
Measurements; Length 72-125 um; breadth 72-117 um. (ref. ID; 3494)
Peridinium applanatum Mangin (ref. ID; 3544)
Description; The transversally oblong theca have long horn and two slender antapical spines. (ref. ID; 3544)
Measurements; Length without a horn and spines 21; breadth 35; length of an apical horn 13; same of an antapical spine 14 um. (ref. ID; 3544)
Peridinium bipes Stein (ref. ID; 3490)
Description; The ovoidal species having along sutures is more or less flattened on the ventral side. The wall consists of seven precingular, four apical and three anterior intercalary plates in the epicone which is somewhat larger in size than the hypocone with two short stout antapical spines, and of five postcingular and two antapical plates in the latter. In them a dorsal anterior intercalary and a hind precingular plates are especially large as compared with the others. (ref. ID; 3490)
Measurements; Examined specimens were as long as 50-70 um and as broad as 46-65 um. (ref. ID; 3490)
Peridinium centenniale (Playfair) Lefevre (ref. ID; 7121)
Description; Free-living. GenBank accession number EF058236. (ref. ID; 7121)
Geographic origin; Freshwater reservoir, Cornwall, England. (ref. ID; 7121)
Peridinium cinctum (Muller) (ref. ID; 3490)
Description; The species having no apical pore is similar to P. volzi in form, size and number of plates, but is different from the latter in shape and position of plates in the epicone, in which the ending apical plate is cuneate and the left apical and anterior intercalary plates are larger than the other right plates. (ref. ID; 3490)
Measurements; Examined organisms were measured 45-55 um in length and 49-58 um in breadth. (ref. ID; 3490)
Peridinium conicum (Gran) (ref. ID; 3494)
Description; The common species having a conical epitheca and a low epitheca with two conical horns. (ref. ID; 3494)
Measurements; Length 87-103 um; breadth 82-100 um. (ref. ID; 3494)
Peridinium crasum Paulsen (ref. ID; 3494)
Description; The small round species with a small apical elevation and acute antapical spines. (ref. ID; 3494)
Measurements; Diameter 30-37 um. (ref. ID; 3494)
Peridinium curtum Balech (ref. ID; 3544)
Description; The round species with two antapical spines. (ref. ID; 3544)
Measurements; Length 27-40; breadth 26-37 um. (ref. ID; 3544)
Peridinium depressum Bailey (ref. ID; 3494)
Description; The large flattened species provided with a tall anterior horn and two triangular antapial horns. (ref. ID; 3494)
Measurements; Length 160-170 um; breadth 135-150 um. (ref. ID; 3494)
Peridinium divergens Ehrenberg (ref. ID; 1618)
Description; Yellowish, salt water. (ref. ID; 1618)
Measurements; About 45 um in diameter. (ref. ID; 1618)
Peridinium hirobis Abe, 1927 (ref. ID; 3494)
Description; The minute round species with 2 long antapical spines. (ref. ID; 3494)
Measurements; Length 25 um; breadth 22 um. (ref. ID; 3494)
Peridinium incertum Balech (ref. ID; 3544)
Description; The globular theca of the large form is characteristic in having bifurcate antapical spines. (ref. ID; 3544)
Measurements; Length 62; breadth 70 um. (ref. ID; 3544)
Peridinium inconspicum Lemmermann (ref. ID; 3490)
Description; The wall of the form consists of seven precingular and four apical and two anterior intercalary plates which are apart from each other in the epicone and five postcingular and two antapical plates in the hypocone with five short spine. (ref. ID; 3490)
Comments; The form of Hokkaido is closely allied to P. inconspicum of Europe, America and Australia in number and arrangement of plates, while differs from the latter only in size which is measured 18-24 um in length in the European form, but in one of Hokkaido 35-45 um in length and 31-35 um in breadth. Therefore, it seems that it is the large-sized variety of the species, which is distinguishable from P. munusculum in arrangement of two intercalary plates. (ref. ID; 3490)
Peridinium mediocre Balech (ref. ID; 3544)
Description; The ovate theca has a short apical horn and prominent double antapical spines. (ref. ID; 3544)
Measurements; Length 40-62; breadth 40-55 um. (ref. ID; 3544)
Peridinium munusculum Lindemann (ref. ID; 3490)
Description; The small polygonal species with three minute antapical spines has seven precingular, four apical and two anterior intercalary plates which are united each other in the epicone and five postcingular and two antapical plates in the hypocone. (ref. ID; 3490)
Measurements; Examined specimens were variable 15-27 um in length and 12-13 um in breadth. (ref. ID; 3490)
Peridinium nanum Balech (ref. ID; 3544)
Description; The small round form is more or less compressed dorso-ventrally, and has several globular chromatophores. (ref. ID; 3544)
Measurements; Length 15-25; breadth 13-27 um. (ref. ID; 3544)
Peridinium nipponicum Abe, 1927 (ref. ID; 3494)
Description; The round species with a small apical elevation and a few fine antapical spines. (ref. ID; 3494)
Measurements; Length 40-42 um; breadth 37-40 um. (ref. ID; 3494)
Peridinium oblongum (Aurivilius) (ref. ID; 3494)
Description; The species with a long apical and two antapical horns. (ref. ID; 3494)
Measurements; Length 105-122 um; breadth 70-82 um. (ref. ID; 3494)
Peridinium orbiculare var. temaris Abe, 1927 (ref. ID; 3494)
Description; The spherical species without an apical elevation and with a prominent fin of the sulcus. (ref. ID; 3494)
Measurements; Length 32-37; breadth 35-47 um. (ref. ID; 3494)
Peridinium palatinum Lauterborn (ref. ID; 3490)
Description; The species ovoidal with the bluntly pointed anterior end having no apical pore. The wall consists of seven precingular, four apical and two anterior intercalary plates in the epicone and of five postcingular and two antapical plates in the hypocone carrying numerous short spines. (ref. ID; 3490)
Measurements; A few specimens as long as 33-35 um. (ref. ID; 3490)
Peridinium pallidum Ostenfeld (ref. ID; 3494)
Description; The oblong species compressed laterally. (ref. ID; 3494)
Measurements; Length 65-80 um; breadth 52-62 um. (ref. ID; 3494)
Peridinium parvicollum Balech (ref. ID; 3544)
Description; The mediate-sized theca of the species consists of a conical epitheca and a hypotheca with double minute antapical spines. (ref. ID; 3544)
Measurements; Length 52-55; breadth 55-60 um. (ref. ID; 3544)
Peridinium pentagonium (Gran) (ref. ID; 3494)
Description; The low and broad species, as long as 70-80 um and as wide as 85-100 um. (ref. ID; 3494)
Peridinium polonicum Woloszynska (ref. ID; 7121)
Description; Free-living. GenBank accession number AY443017. (ref. ID; 7121)
Geographic origin; Freshwater reservoir, Japan. (ref. ID; 7121)
Peridinium quinquecorne Abe, 1927 (ref. ID; 3494) reported year? (ref. ID; 7121)
Description; The small species is more or less compressed and has minute and longer spines of the apical horn and 4 long posterior spines of the hypotheca. The girdle is comparatively wide and located at the middle. Chromatophores are many, ovoidal and brownish green. The pulsing vacuole connecting with a flagellar pore of a transversal flagellum is reddish as looked an eye-spot. (ref. ID; 3494)
Marine, free-living. GenBank accession number AB246744. (ref. ID; 7121)
Measurements; Length 20-42 um; breadth 17-35 um. (ref. ID; 3494)
Peridinium tabulatum Claparede & Lachmann (ref. ID; 1618) or (Ehrenberg) (ref. ID; 3490)
Description; In fresh water. (ref. ID; 1618)
The broadly ovoid species with an apical pore is slightly compressed dorso-ventrally. The cell consists of a high epicone having seven precingular, four apical and three intercalary plates and of a low hypocone with five postcingular and two antapical plates. Sutures are wide and distinct. (ref. ID; 3490)
Measurements; 48 by 44 um. (ref. ID; 1618)
An examined specimen was measured as long as 62 um, as broad as 60 um and as thick as 42 um. (ref. ID; 3490)
Peridinium trochoideum (ref. ID; 1618)
Description; Prior to division, the organism emerges from the theca and after division, a new theca is formed by each daughter; the cysts that often appear in culture, are red and smooth-walled. (ref. ID; 1618)
Peridinium trochoidum (Stein) (ref. ID; 3494)
Description; The small species consisting of conical epitheca with a minute apical elevation, a wide girdle and a hemispherical hypotheca. (ref. ID; 3494)
Measurements; Length 25-35 um; breadth 20-30 um. (ref. ID; 3494)
Peridinium umbonatum Stein (ref. ID; 7121)
Description; Free-living. GenBank accession number AF274271. (ref. ID; 7121)
Geographic origin; Freshwater reservoir. (ref. ID; 7121)
Peridinium volzi Lemmermann (ref. ID; 3490)
Description; The species without an apical pore is rounded in side view and more or less compressed dorso-ventrally. The wall of the epicone is made of seven precingular and four apical and same number anterior intercalary plates and one the hypocone of five postcingular and two antapical plates. (ref. ID; 3490)
Measurements; The examined specimens were measured 45-50 um in length. (ref. ID; 3490)
Peridinium wierzejskii Woloszynska (ref. ID; 7121)
Description; Free-living. GenBank accession number AY443018. (ref. ID; 7121)
Geographic origin; Tsuchiura, Ibaraki, Japan. (ref. ID; 7121)
Peridinium willei Huitfeld-Kaas, 1900 (ref. ID; 3731) reported year? (ref. ID; 3490)
Description; The large rounded species, being 60-78 um long and 53-68 um broad, is more or less compressed dorso-ventrally. The wall consists of fourteen plates in the epicone without an apical pore and of seven ones in the hypocone. In them three dorsal plates, namely an anterior intercalary and a precingular and a postcingular one, are especially large as compared with the others. Ridges of the wall well develop on the girdle, sulcus and sutures of the both ends. (ref. ID; 3490)