Euglena Ehrenberg, 1838 (ref. ID; 4492, 4950)
Order Euglenales (ref. ID; 4852)
Family Euglenaceae (ref. ID; 4950)

[ref. ID; 1618]
Short or elongated spindle, cylindrical, or band-form; pellicle usually marked by longitudinal or spiral striae; some with a thin pellicle highly plastic; others regularly spirally twisted; stigma usually anterior; chromatophores numerous and discoid, band-form, or fusiform; pyrenoids may or may not be surrounded by starch envelope; paramylum bodies which may be two in number, one being located on either side of nucleus, and rod-like to ovoid in shape or numerous and scattered throughout; contractile vacuole small, near reservoir; asexual reproduction by longitudinal fission; sexual reproduction reported in Euglena sanguinea; common in stagnant water, especially where algae occur; when present in large numbers, the active organisms may form a green film on the surface of water and resting or encysted stages may produce conspicuous green spots on the bottom of pond or pool; in fresh water. (ref. ID; 1618)

[ref. ID; 3490]
The cell is elongate spindle-shaped and more or less pointed in the distal end. The periplast is usually rigid and ornamented with spiral striae. The chloroplasts are numerous and discoidal or rod-shaped, and paramylum granules peculiar to species are scattered. (ref. ID; 3490)
See; Khawkinea


Euglena acus Ehrenberg (ref. ID; 1618, 2735, 3490, 3517, 3697, 4492, 4897, 4950)
Syn; Euglena acus var. minor Hansg. (ref. ID; 4950); Euglena acutissima Lemm. (ref. ID; 4950); Phacus acutissimus Bernard. (ref. ID; 4950)
Description; Body long spindle or cylinder, with a sharply pointed posterior end; flagellum short, about one-fourth the body length; spiral striation of pellicle very delicate; numerous discoid chromatophores; several paramylum bodies, rod-form and 12-20 um long; nucleus central; stigma distinct; movements sluggish. (ref. ID; 1618)
The species is different from E. limnophila in being longer and rigid and in having a pointed distal end and cylindrical paramylum bodies. (ref. ID; 3490)
Measurements; 50-175 by 8-18 um. (ref. ID; 1618)
The elongate spindle-shaped species as long as 145-175 um and as broad as 10-12 um. (ref. ID; 3490)
Euglena deses Ehrenberg (ref. ID; 1618, 2671, 3517, 4897, 4950)
Description; Elongate; highly plastic; faint striae; stigma distinct; nucleus central; chromatophores discoid with pyrenoid; several small rod-shaped paramylum scattered; flagellum less than one-fourth the body length. (ref. ID; 1618)
Measurements; 85-170 by 10-20 um. (ref. ID; 1618)
Euglena ehrenbergi Klebs (ref. ID; 1618, 1980, 2671), ehrenbergii Klebs (ref. ID; 3517, 4209, 4950)
Syn; Amblyophis viridis Ehrenberg (ref. ID; 4950); Euglena deses Stein (ref. ID; 4950)
Description; Cylindrical and flattened, posterior end rounded; plastic, often twisted; spiral striation; numerous small discoid chromatophores; stigma conspicuous; 2 paramylum bodies elongate, up to over 100 um long; flagellum about one-half the body length or less. (ref. ID; 1618)
The large cells of E. ehrenbergii (200-400 um in length) exhibit various types of euglenoid movement including anterior-posterior rounding up, S-shaped bending, and twisting. Their general pellicular ultrastructure resembles that of E. fusca with similar shaped pellicular strips underlying the plasma membrane and microtubules occurring at similar location. In addition to the clearly detectable microtubules, another, less distinct microtubule lies near the groove region. (Microtubules have been observed in similar position in other species such as E. fusca and E. spirogyra). Bridges interconnected adjacent pellicular stripes and show a 20-nm periodicity in longitudinal sections. Plate-like projections protrude from the outer surface of each strip towards the inner surface of is neighbor. In both elongated and rounded cells, they meet the pellicular strips at right angles. Tubules of endoplasmic reticulum run along each pellicular strip and branch to form thinner tubules located between every 3-10 pairs of plate-like projections. (ref. ID; 4209)
Measurements; 170-400 by 15-40 um. (ref. ID; 1618)
Euglena ettlii Wolowski, 1993 (ref. ID; 4825 original paper)
Description; Cells fusiform gradually narrowing and rounded at the apex, at the posterior end tapering and ending in a colourless short tail. The canal opening located subanteriorly. The flagellum ranges to 1/3 of the length of the cell. The eyespot is ovate, red, adjacent to the reservoir. The cell plastidom is light green, and consists of a single chloroplast which is incised and slightly folded. The chloroplast is located in the central part of the cell or shifted to the posterior part. Pyrenoids were never seen. The paramylon grains are abundant, small and rod shaped, distributed throughout the cell. The nucleus, ca 5.5-6.5 um in diameter, is shifted to the posterior part of the cell. Euglenoid movement results in lengthening or widening of the cell. Cells swim rapidly, rotating forwards along the long axis. The pellicle is smooth. Palmelloid cells ca 14.8 um in diameter were observed. Cells 40.0-46.0 um long and 11-17 um wide. (ref. ID; 4825)
Remarks; Euglena archaeoplastidiata Chadefaud, E. cingula Gojdics, E. elongata Schewiakoff, E. minuta Prescott, E. vivida Plaifair, and E. univittata Conrad, are taxa which possess single chloroplasts (Gojdics 1953; Huber-Pestalozzi 1955; Nemeth 1980; Starmach 1983; Tell & Conforti 1986). Pringsheim (1956), however, is of the opinion that only E. univittata is a well-described species, and treats all the others as synonyms of E. pisciformis. The new species differs from all the mentioned species in having incised and slightly folded but not plate-like, ribbon-shaped or saucer-shaped chloroplast. (ref. ID; 4825)
Etymology; The new species is dedicated to Professor Hanus Ettl, the world-renowned phycologist. (ref. ID; 4825)
Euglena gigas Drejepolski (ref. ID; 3490) or Drezep. (ref. ID; 4950)
Description; The cell is strongly spiraled and contains numerous small ovoid chloroplasts and several elongate rod-shaped paramylum bodies. (ref. ID; 3490)
Measurements; The large species of a length of 290 um. (ref. ID; 3490)
Euglena gracilis Klebs (ref. ID; 1618, 1980, 2671, 3490, 3494, 3517, 3646, 4897, 4950) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 3738, 3769, 3934, 4274, 4826)
Syn; Euglena agilis Carter, 1865 (ref. ID; 4950)
Description; Cylindrical to elongate oval; highly plastic; flagellum about the body length; fusiform chromatophores variable in number; nucleus central; pyrenoids; fresh water. (ref. ID; 1618)
The small green flagellate common in fresh water is always metamorphic in living. It has a flagellum as long as a body, a large reservoir, an eye-spot, few discoidal chromatophores and a number of minute rod-shaped paramylum granules. (ref. ID; 3494)
Measurements; 35-55 by 6-25 um. (ref. ID; 1618)
The small species as long as 30-40 um. (ref. ID; 3490)
Length 12-20 um. (ref. ID; 3494)
Euglena klebsi Mainx (ref. ID; 1618)
Description; Form highly plastic; chromatophores discoid; paramylum bodies rod-shaped, up to several; flagellum short. (ref. ID; 1618)
Measurements; 45-85 by 5-10 um. (ref. ID; 1618)
Euglena limnophila Ehrenberg (ref. ID; 3490) or Lemmermann (ref. ID; 2671, 3517, 4950)
Description; The cell is slender, being 55-75 um in length and 6-8 um in breadth, and provided with a short flagellum and the bluntly pointed end. The chloroplasts are numerous and ellipsoidal, while the paramylum bodies are comparatively larger and rod-shaped. (ref. ID; 3490)
Euglena oxyuris Schmarda, 1846 (ref. ID; 4967) reported year? (ref. ID; 1618, 1980, 2671, 2735, 3490, 3517, 4209, 4492, 4897, 4950)
Description; Cylindrical; almost always twisted, somewhat flattened; anterior end rounded, posterior end pointed; pellicle with spiral striae; numerous discoid chromatophores; two ovoid paramylum bodies, 20-40 um long, one on either side of nucleus, and also small bodies; stigma large; flagellum short; sluggish. (ref. ID; 1618)
The cell is comparatively large and cylindrical with a short caudal process, and is ornamented with spiral striae. The chloroplasts are numerous, while the paramylum bodies are only two, large and rod-shaped. (ref. ID; 3490)
The cells of E. oxyuris are of comparable size of those of E. ehrenbergii (about 300 um in length); however, they show only slight bending movements. In cross sections, the pellicular structures resemble those of E. ehrenbergii with distinct pellicular strips and microtubules at similar locations. A distinctive feature of E. oxyuris is that adjacent pellicular strips are sometimes connected with each other by structures corresponding to the plate-like projections of E. ehrenbergii. Continuity between pellicular strips is most pronounced at the anterior part the cell. Bridges between adjacent pellicular strips also seem to be present in this species near the grooves. Although not very clear in cross sections, their periodicity is evident in longitudinal section. As in E. ehrenbergii, tubular endoplasmic reticulum lies between the apposed pellicular strips and extends to the vicinity of the groove near the microtubule and brides. (ref. ID; 4209)
Measurements; 150-500 by 20-40 um. (ref. ID; 1618)
Cell 134-168 um long; 15-18 um broad; tail piece 27-35 um long. (ref. ID; 4492)
Euglena pisciformis Klebs (ref. ID; 1618, 2671, 3517, 4825, 4897, 4950)
Description; Spindle-form with bluntly pointed anterior and sharply attenuated posterior end; slightly plastic; a body-length flagellum, active; a few chromatophores; division into 2 or 4 individuals in encysted stage. (ref. ID; 1618)
Measurements; 20-35 by 5-10 um. (ref. ID; 1618)
Euglena proxima Dangeard, 1901 (ref. ID; 4493) reported year? (ref. ID; 2671, 3490, 3517, 4950)
Description; The spindle-shaped species having numerous small oblong chloroplasts, paramylum grains and a flagellum longer than the body length. (ref. ID; 3490)
Measurements; The median-sized form 60-75 um long. (ref. ID; 3490)
Euglena rubra Hardy (ref. ID; 1618, 1980, 2671, 4950)
Description; Cylindrical; rounded anteriorly and drawn out posteriorly; spiral striation; nucleus posterior; flagellum longer than body; stigma about 7 um in diameter; many fusiform chromatophores aligned with the body striae; numerous haematochrome granules, 0.3-0.5 um in diameter; ovoid paramylum bodies; reproductive and temporary cysts and protective cysts, 34-47 um in diameter, with a gelatinous envelope. Johnson (1939) found that the color of this Euglena was red in the morning and dull green in the late afternoon, due to the difference in the distribution of haematochrome within the body. When haematochrome granules are distributed throughout the body, the organisms is bright-red, but when they are condensed in the center of the body, the organism is dull green. When part of the area of the pond was shaded with a board early in the morning, shortly after sunrise all the scum became red except the shaded area. When the board was removed, the red color appeared in eleven minutes while the temperature of the water remained 21 degrees C. In the evening, the change was reversed. Johnson and Jahn (1942) later found that green-red color change could be induced by raising the temperature of the water to 30-40 degrees C, and by irradiation with infrared rays or visible light. The two workers hold that the function of haematochrome may be protective, since it migrates or a position which shields the chromatophores from very bright light. If this is true, it is easy to find the species thriving in hot weather in shallow ponds where temperature of the water rises to 35-45 degrees C. In colder weather, it is supposed that this Euglena is less abundant and it exists in a green phase, containing a few haematochrome granules. (ref. ID; 1618)
Measurements; 70-170 by 25-36 um. (ref. ID; 1618)
Euglena sanguinea Ehrenberg (ref. ID; 1618, 1980, 2671, 3517, 4897, 4950) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 4826)
Syn; Euglena viridis beta sanguinea Stein (ref. ID; 4950)
Description; Posterior end bluntly rounded flagellum about the body length; pellicle striated; elongate chromatophores lie parallel to the striae; haematochrome granules scattered in sun light and collected in the central are in darkness. (ref. ID; 1618)
Measurements; 80-170 by 25-45 um. (ref. ID; 1618)
Euglena shafiqii Shafiq-ur-Rehman, 1998 (ref. ID; 1980 original paper)
Syn; Euglena haematosolaris Shafiq-ur-Rehman (ref. ID; 1980)
Description; Body is elongated, ca. 50 um long and 10 um broad, with blunt anterior and round posterior ends. The pellicle is distinct and flexible, the anterior portion has a reservoir. A large flagellum, about the length of the body, is attached to the bottom of the reservoir. A paraflagellar body is found near the cytostome. The second flagellum is short and restricted to the reservoir. A yellowish stigma is found at the left side and a star-like reddish-brown contractile vacuole on the right side of the reservoir. Two pairs of highly elastic and flexible Z-shaped light-yellowish tubules are found at the opposite side of the pellicle. Several yellowish brown myonemes are stretched in the middle of the body. There are two paired chromatophores of dark-red colour with dark-brown pyrenoid; each situated at the above and at the right side of the nucleus. Third large almond-shaped chromatophore of pinkish-red colour is found below the nucleus. A large blood-red continuos pulsating chromatophore, surrounded with green pigment, is situated at the posterior end of the body. The whole structure is irregular and spontaneously pulsating, i.e. exhibiting a rhythmic motion of expansion and contraction. A red-coloured nucleus, with two reddish-brown nucleoli, is located at the centre. The whole structure is localized in a dark-brown granular mass. E. shafiqii used its flagellum for locomotion and changing the direction of movement. Normal locomotion, performed by undulations of tip of the flagellum, was slow. Rapid movement, however, was achieved by sinus undulation of the entire flagellum. Spiral undulation of the whole flagellum caused rotation of the body and change in the direction of movement. Normally, the organism does not perform euglenoid movement. However, quick and rapid movements were performed under stressful environment. The organisms performed saprozoic (and saprophytic) and holozoic (and halophytic) nutrition. The organism could bend one third of its body for catching food by the help of the flagellum. E. shafiqii is extremely sensitive to environmental stress. The organism could rapidly transform its body into a round shape when water is shaken. The highly flexible pellicle and other body structures appeared other help in body transformation. The structural anomalies were achieved through I-transition and II-transition phases. (ref. ID; 1980)
Comments; The E. shafiqii differed structurally and behaviourally from known species of Eugelna such as, E. viridis, E. spirogyra, E. gracilis, E. sanguinea, E. oxyuris, E. ehrenbergi and E. rubra. The body of E. shafiqii is elongated egg-shaped. While E. spirogyra and E. rubra are elongated spindle-shaped with pointed posterior end drawn out like a tail. E. gracilis has round anterior end whereas E. oxyuris inherits a large cylindrical body. The cell surface of E. ehrenbergi is spirally striped. There is a morphological peculiarity with respect to the construction of the nucleus in E. shafiqii, showing two reddish-brown nucleoli embedded in fibrillar mass. However, E. viridis has a large and E. oxyuris has a small central nucleolus. E. gracilis has three while E. spirogyra and E. rubra have several nucleoli. The chromatophores in E. shafiqii are three. A bigger almond-shaped chromatophore is located behind the nucleus. The other two chromatophores, however, are paired each located at the anterior and right sides of the nucleus. In other species, the chromatophores are present as fusiform in E. gracilis, disc-like in E. spirogyra and, long rod-like in E. viridis. A peculiar coloured contractile structure, situated at the posterior end of E. shafiqii, is named as continuous pulsating chromatophore due to its typical characteristic of rhythmic contraction and expansion. (ref. ID; 1980)
Euglena sociabilis Dangeard (ref. ID; 1618, 4950) or (Schmitz) Dangeard (ref. ID; 2671)
Description; Cylindrical; delicate pellicle; highly plastic; numerous elongate chromatophores; paramylum bodies discoid; flagellum slightly longer than body. (ref. ID; 1618)
Measurements; 65-112 by 15-30 um. (ref. ID; 1618)
Euglena spirogyra Ehrenberg, 1838 (ref. ID; 4967) reported year? (ref. ID; 1618, 1980, 2671, 3517, 4950)
Description; Cylindrical; anterior end a little narrowed and rounded, posterior end drawn out; spiral striae, made up of small knobs, conspicuous; many discoid chromatophores; two ovoidal paramylum bodies, 18-45 by 10-18 um, one on either side of centrally located nucleus, flagellum about one-fourth the body length; stigma prominent; sluggish. (ref. ID; 1618)
Measurements; 80-125 by 10-35 um. (ref. ID; 1618)
Euglena terricola Dangeard (ref. ID; 1618) or (Dangeard) Lemmermann (ref. ID; 2671, 4950)
Description; Pellicle thin and highly plastic; nucleus central; chromatophores long (20-30 um) rods; paramylum bodies small and annular; flagellum about one-third the body length. (ref. ID; 1618)
Measurements; 65-95 by 8-18 um. (ref. ID; 1618)
Euglena tripteris Dujardin (ref. ID; 1618) or (Dujardin) Klebs (ref. ID; 2671, 3517, 4950)
Description; Elongate; three-ridged, rounded anteriorly and drawn out posteriorly; pellicle longitudinally striated; only slightly plastic; stigma prominent; discoid chromatophores numerous; two paramylum bodies, rod-shaped and one on either side of the nucleus; flagellum about three-fourth the body length. (ref. ID; 1618)
Measurements; 70-120 by 12-16 um. (ref. ID; 1618)
Euglena viridis Ehrenberg (ref. ID; 1618, 1980, 2671, 3517, 4492, 4897, 4950)
Description; Anterior end rounded, posterior end pointed; fusiform during locomotion; highly plastic when stationary; flagellum as long as the body; pellicle obliquely striated; chromatophores more or less band-form, radially arranged; nucleus posterior; nutrition holophytic, but also saprozoic. Multiplication in thin-walled cysts. (ref. ID; 1618)
Measurements; 40-65 by 14-20 um. (ref. ID; 1618)
Euglena zakrysiae Kim & Boo, 2002 (ref. ID; 4493 original paper)
Diagnosis; Cells 35-71 um long, 19-39 um broad nearly rigid, oval to spindle-shaped, rounded anteriorly, bluntly pointed or drawn into a short projection posteriorly. Periplast distinctly and spirally striated (14-16 striae per 10 um). Chloroplasts numerous (9-6 per cell), relatively big (6-9 um in diameter) pariental, disc-shaped with radially sinuous surface and naked pyrenoid. Paramylon grains numerous, small, rod-shaped, scattered throughout the cell. The nucleus spherical or ovoid (9-13 um in diameter), located in the cell center or slightly shifted to the posterior, stigma present. Flagellum approximately equals to the body length; movement moderately swimming. (ref. ID; 4493)
Description; The new species, Euglena zakrysiae is distinguished by its having the naked pyrenoid and very characteristic radially sinuous surface of disc-shaped chloroplasts. These distinctive chloroplast attributes have never been reported for any other species published so far, thereby justifying its designation as a new taxon. Euglena zakrysiae belongs to the subgenus Calliglena (sensu Zakrys 1986), which is characterized primary by axial-to-parietal chloroplasts with pyrenoids. (ref. ID; 4493)
Comments; In the points the cell shape, localization, number of shape of chloroplasts, the new species resembles at first glance Euglena proxima Dangeard (1901), E. retronata Johnson (1944), and E. repulsans Schiller (1952). However, Euglena proxima differs from E. zakrysiae in having lenticular chloroplasts without pyrenoids. Euglena retronata is characterized by discoid chloroplast without pyrenoids and active metabolic shape. Euglena repulsans is very metabolic and has discoid chloroplasts. (ref. ID; 4493)
Etymology; The species is named in honor of the Polish phycologist Dr. Bozena Zakrys, who has much contributed to the knowledge of the genus Euglena. (ref. ID; 4493)
Type locality; Found at four sites - in two polluted garden ponds: in Yeomiji, Jejudo, January 1997 and Duckjinmot, Cheonju, September 1996; also in two old swamps - Uncheonmot, Kwangju, December 1996 and Nambanje, Asan, March 1997, Korea. (ref. ID; 4493)
Type slide; Slide specimens and additional drawing and photographs of this new taxon are deposited in the herbarium of Chungnam National University, Daejon 305-764, Korea. (ref. ID; 4493)