Monsoon Asia Rice Calendar (MARC): a gridded rice calendar in monsoon Asia based on Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 images

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This dataset is a gridded (0.5 degree) rice calendar in monsoon Asia based on Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 satellite images. The dataset uses the feature-based algorithm (Zhao et al., 2023) to extract the rice transplanting and harvest date, as well as the fitted Weibull function to recognize the number of rice cropping automatically. The variation of transplanting and harvest dates was calculated by the 3 × 3 pixel window over the year 2019 and 2020 using von Mises method. This dataset provides two types of rice calendar: group-based and grid-based rice calendar, and the variation of these two rice calendars, respectively.


Release date
Temporal coverage
2019/01/01 - 2020/12/31
Data provider
Email: cgerdb_admin(at)
File format
Data volume
264 KB
ver.1.0 (Last updated: 2023/07/28)

Data Set

Transplanting date, Harvest date, Number of cropping, Vairation of transplanting date, Variation of harvest date
Time resolution
1 day
Spatial resolution
0.5x0.5 degree
Spatial coverage
Latitude: -10 - 53.5 °
Longitude: 61 - 153 °
Calculation method
The time series of backscattering at Vertical-Horizontal (VH), vegetation index of Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and Normalized Difference Yellow Index (NDYI) were extracting from the Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 satellite images, respectively. LOESS was used to smooth these time series data. Feature-based algorithm was used to detect the transplanting date and harvest date by the detection of minimum of VH and peak NDYI. The number of rice cropping was recognized by using the Weibull function. The variation of transplanting date and harvest date was calculated by von Mises likelihood estimate using 3 × 3 pixel window over the year 2019 and 2020.
[Free keywords]
Rice calendar, Gridded, Sentinel-1, Sentinel-2, Monsoon Asia, Number of cropping, Transplanting date, Harvest date
Space-based Platforms > Earth Observation Satellites > Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2
Other > Maps
Agriculture > Agricultureral plant science > Cropping systems
Update history
Version 1.0 was released (ver.1.0)

Reference Information

Zhao, X., Nishina, K., Akitsu, T.K., Jiang, L., Masutomi, Y., and Nasahara, K.N. (2023) Feature-based algorithm for large-scale rice phenology detection based on satellite images, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 329, DOI:10.1016/j.agrformet.2022.109283.

Funding Agency

Funding Agency
Name of Funding Agency: NEDO
Funding Number: JPNP18016

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Citation format
When this data set is referred to in publications, it should, as a general rule, be cited in the following format.
Zhao et al. (2023), Monsoon Asia Rice Calendar (MARC): a gridded rice calendar in monsoon Asia based on Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 images, Ver.x.x*1, NIES, DOI:10.17595/20230728.001. (Reference date*2: YYYY/MM/DD)
*1 The version number is indicated in the name of each data file.
*2 As the reference date, please indicate the date you downloaded the files.

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