Global surface ocean CO2 concentration and uptake estimated using a neural network

Click Here to Download Click Here to Download

The ocean absorbs about 25% of the atmospheric CO2 emitted by human activities. The estimate of ocean CO2 uptake provides an important constraint on the global carbon budget. This dataset includes monthly distribution of CO2 fugacity and ocean-atmosphere CO2 flux in 1x1 degree grids for the 1985-2019 period estimated using a neural network. The dataset will be updated annually to include the most recent CO2 observations.


Release date
Temporal coverage
1985 - 2019
Data provider
Email: cgerdb_admin(at)
File format
Data volume
207 MiB
ver.2020.1 (Last updated: 2020/11/17)

Data Set

fCO2 and flux
Time resolution
Spatial resolution
1 x 1 degree
Calculation method
Interpolation of CO2 observations to global ocean using a neural network.
Models/Analyses > Models
Oceans > Ocean Chemistry > Carbon Dioxide
[Free keywords]
Carbon Dioxide, CO2, Ocean, Flux, Budget, Global, Neural Network, Machine Learning
Update history
The update version ver.2020.1 used 1.54 μatm/yr as the global ocean CO2 trend for modelling CO2 distribution and used the monthly mean surface pressure and wind speed at 10 m of ERA5 reanalysis for flux calculation. The trend was re-estimated using the method in the reference with the new data.
Data from 1985 to 2019 are released. ver.2020.0.


Zeng, J., Y. Nojiri, P. Landschützer, M. Telszewski, and S. Nakaoka, 2014: A Global Surface Ocean fCO2 Climatology Based on a Feed-Forward Neural Network. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 31, 1838–1849, doi:10.1175/JTECH-D-13-00137.1.

Terms and Conditions of Use*

*By accessing or using the Service you agree to follow these Terms. If you disagree with any part of the Terms, you may not access the Service.

Citation format
When this data set is referred to in publications, it should be cited in the following format.
Zeng, J (2020), Global surface ocean CO2 concentration and uptake estimated using a neural network, ver.xxxx.x *1, Center for Global Environmental Research, NIES, DOI:10.17595/20201020.001, (Reference date*2: YYYY/MM/DD)
*1 The version number is indicated in the name of each data file.
*2 As the reference date, please indicate the date you downloaded the files.

Advisory Service

Advisory service
If you need scientific advice or expert opinion regarding the contents or scientific validity of this data set or Products derived from it, we can provide an advisory service based on an individual contract, different from the above one.
Depending on the extent of the help required, we can offer collaboration and/or supervision of the work based on the present data set. If you want to use our advisory service, contact the Data Provider.