Continuous Observational Data of Atmospheric CH4 Mixing Ratios on Hateruma Island

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The present data set is time series data of atmospheric CH4 mixing ratios measured on Hateruma Island, Japan. Hateruma Island is a small ellipse-shaped island in east-west direction with an area of 13 m2, and is the southwestern-most inhabited island of the Japanese archipelago with a population of 500. The monitoring station is located at the eastern tip of the island. Air is sampled from an intake placed on a tower adjacent to the observation station about 37 m above ground level, and the CH4 mixing ratios are measured semi-continuously by using a gas chromatographic system. Hateruma is influenced by the East Asian monsoon, with northerly winds from the continent in winter and southerly winds from the Pacific Ocean in summer. Since Hateruma is a small island surrounded by seas, the influence from local emission sources is negligible.


Release date
Temporal coverage
1996/01/01 - 2022/12/31
Data provider
Email: cgerdb_admin(at)
File format
Data volume
Ver.1.4 (Last updated: 2023/06/30)

Data Set

CH4 mixing ratios
Time resolution
1 hour (60 minutes preceding the hour)
2 ppb
Observation period
From 1996 (ongoing)
24.06069°N, 123.80939°E
Elevation: 10 m;
Sampling height: 37 m above ground;
Altitude: 47 m;
Measurement method
From an air intake placed on a steel monitoring tower 36.5 m above ground, outside air is drawn in through a stainless tube to a ground-based observation room using a diaphragm pump. A part of the sampled air is led into a Nafion® tube dryer and a cold trap at -40 °C to reduce water vapor in the sample air. Then the CH4 mixing ratio of the dried air sample is determined by a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC/FID).
Every 2 hours, 3 standard gases, which are CH4-in-air mixtures stored in high-pressure cylinders, are measured and calibration curves for the calculation of CH4 mixing ratios are determined. The CH4 mixing ratios of the standard gases is determined against the NIES94 standard scale developed by the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES). Please refer to the webpage "GHGs Monitoring at Hateruma Island and Cape Ochi-ishi" for pictures of the measuring equipment.
Calculation method
The basic GC cycle consists of 12 injections of 3 working standard gases with different CH4 mixing ratios followed by 9 air samples at 10-min intervals for each GC analysis. The atmospheric CH4 mixing ratios are determined by repeating this basic GC cycle. Every calibration curve for 9 consecutive air samples is determined by the 2 sets of the working standard gas analyses before and after the air sample analyses. The 1-hour value of methane mixing ratios is the mean mixing ratio of 3-6 air samples.
In Situ Land-based Platforms > GROUND STATIONS
Atmosphere > Atmospheric Chemistry > Carbon and Hydrocarbon Compounds > Methane
[Free keywords]
Greenhouse gases, methane, CH4, global warming, Hateruma, continuous observations
Update history
A new data set for the period between November 2022 and December 2022 has been added. Ver.1.4.
A new data set for the period between October 2020 and October 2022 has been added. Ver.1.3.
A new data set for the period between May 2020 and September 2021 has been added. Ver.1.2.
A new data set for the period between January 2016 and April 24, 2020 has been added. Ver.1.1.
The data from 1996 to 2015 have been compiled in NASA Ames Format 1001. Ver.1.0.


Tohjima et al. (2013), Temporal changes in the emissions of CH4 and CO from China estimated from CH4/CO2 and CO/CO2 correlations observed at Hateruma Island, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1663-1677, DOI:10.5194/acp-14-1663-2014.
Tohjima et al. (2010), Increasing synoptic scale variability in atmospheric CO2 at Hateruma Island associated with increasing East-Asian emissions. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10:453-462. DOI:10.5194/acp-10-453-2010.
Tohjima et al. (2002), Analysis and presentation of in situ atmospheric methane measurements from Cape Ochi-ishi and Hateruma Island, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 4148, DOI:10.1029/2001JD001003.

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Tohjima et al. (2002), Analysis and presentation of in situ atmospheric methane measurements from Cape Ochi-ishi and Hateruma Island, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 4148, DOI:10.1029/2001JD001003.
Tohjima et al. (2016), Continuous observational data of atmospheric CH4 mixing ratios on Hateruma Island, Ver. x.x (*1), Center for Global Environmental Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, DOI:10.17595/20160901.003. (Reference date: YYYY/MM/DD)(*2)
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