World Mangrove Distribution Maps
Global distribution of mangroves has changed throughout geological history and has also been affected through human influence. Although there are no accurate data on the original coverage of mangroves, the current areas represent a considerable decline, especially during the past 50 years, as a result of human activities involving development and conversion in almost all the countries where they are found. According to the World Atlas of Mangroves (2010), the area covered by mangroves globally is 152,360 km2 in over 123 countries and territories of the tropics and subtropics. This represents less than 1% of global tropical forests and less than 0.4% of the total forest area worldwide. Over 65% of the world’s mangroves are distributed in twelve countries, and Indonesia accounts for over 20% of the total global area.
The following global mangrove distribution map and 62 regional/country-by-country maps were prepared for the Atlas (2010). Some maps have been revised and updated by NIES/ISME (i.e. Vietnam). The production of the original GIS dataset was coordinated by ISME and led by FAO, UNEP-WCMC and TNC, mainly by analyzing Landsat imagery covering over 50% of the mangrove areas, which was taken during the period 2000-2003. The data for the remaining coverage of mangroves was generously contributed by various national and international organizations and mangrove experts, and were typically at a resolution of 1:250,000 or better, with consistent age. It is our hope that this will serve as a baseline for future gain/loss assessment.
The global map also shows the latitudinal limits to mangrove distribution. The most northerly mangroves are in Bermuda (32° 20’N) and the most southerly are at Corner Inlet, Australia (38°45’S). The largest mangrove tracts are found on wet deltaic coasts, which extend inland for several tens of kilometers, with large forest trees over 20 m in height and which are high in biomass. The Sundarbans of India and Bangladesh are the best known forests with a total area of 6,500 km2 which extend up to 85 km inland. Large mangrove tracts are also found in Northern Brazil (6,500 km2) and the Gulf of Papua (5,400 km2).
We will be updating the maps periodically to add newer information.
Spalding, M., M Kainuma and L. Collins (2010) World Atlas of Mangroves. A collaborative project of ITTO, ISME, FAO, UNEP-WCMC, UNESCO-MAB, UNU-INWEH and TNC. Earthscan UK and USA. 319pp.
Click the icon to view each map. Maps can be zoomed with "Ctrl + mouse cursor".
* Please note that the purpose of the mangrove distribution maps is to show the distribution of mangroves in each country and does not reflect the actual area. For the purpose of visibility, mangroves are generally drawn with a bounding line of 0.2 point (0.07 mm), this was increased to 0.4 points in a few mangrove restricted places such as the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, eastern China and Taiwan. For Japan, it was increased to 0.7 points for better visibility. The maps also contain information on protected areas relevant to mangroves.
last updated on Oct. 13th, 2015