National Institute for Environmental Studies Invasive Species of Japan Japanese | English
  1. Invasive Species of Japan >
  2. Vascular plants >
  3. Casuarina equisetifolia

Casuarina equisetifolia

Basic information
Scientific name Casuarina equisetifolia (No picture)
Common names Beefwood, ironwood
Higher taxon Casuarinaceae, Casuarinales, Magnoliopsida, Magnoliophyta
Natural range Australia, Fiji, Vanuatu, southeast Asia, India, etc.
Habitat Planted in ruderal and coastal habitat.
Invasion information
Range in Japan Ryukyus and Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands. Range in Japan
Origin Australia
Route Deliberate: Erosion control
Impact Change of ecosystem. Decline of barren habitat. The fallen leaves of this species and Ryukyu Islands pine Pinus luchuensis are hard to be decomposed, and interfere the regeneration of native vegetation.
Affected organism: Native plants.
Loss of barren habitat may have caused local extinction of an endemic beetle of Ogasawara Cinidela bonia.
Regulation in Japan
Introduced range in other countries Wide area in tropical and subtropical region. Pakistan, Cook Islands, French Polynesia, Guam, several other Pacific islands, USA mainland, Mexico, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Bahama, several other Antille islands, Ecuador, etc.
Reference Notes
  • Aramoto et al. (2001) Plant resources studies on the natural forest in subtropical Okinawa (VI) : Distribution of the economically important plant in Miyako Island. Sci Bull Coll Agr Univ Ryukyuus. 48, 195-203 (in Jpn with English abst)
  • ISSG. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD) (Accessed on 2012-7-11)
  • JWRC (ed) (2008) A Photographic Guide to the Invasive Alien Species in Japan. Heibonsha, Tokyo (in Jpn)
  • Kawakami et al. (2011) Environmental characteristics of alien Casuarina equisetifolia forests on Nishijima, the Bonin Islands. Ogasawara Res. 36, 1-19 (in Jpn with English abst)
  • Kawakami & Okochi (eds) (2009) Restoring the Oceanic Island Ecosystem. Impact and Management of Invasive Alien Species in the Bonin Islands. Springer, Tokyo, Berlin, Heidelberg, and New York.
  • Koki (1998) Studies on the amount of salt spray in Minami Daito island. J Okinawa Agr. 33(1), 42-46 (in Jpn)
  • Satake et al. (1989) Wild Flowers of Japan, Woody Plants [I]. Heibonsha, Tokyo (in Jpn)
  • Toyoda (ed.) (2003) Flora of Bonin Islands (Enlarged & Revised). Aboc, Kamakura (in Jpn)