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  3. Phleum pratense

Phleum pratense

Basic information
Scientific name Phleum pratense

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Common names Timothy
Higher taxon Poaceae, Poales, Liliopsida, Magnoliophyta
Natural range Europe.
Habitat Crop field, some kind of farm area, grassland, stream, urban area, vacancy, waterfront.
Invasion information
Range in Japan Almost entire Japan. Relatively abundant in northern and upland area. Range in Japan
Date Introduced in 1874 to Hokkaido.
Route Deliberate: as a pasture grass
Impact Competition with native and crop plants (especially in upland). Host for insects and fungi. Allergen for hay fever.
Affected organism: Native and crop plants.
Regulation in Japan No action for prevention, mitigation, control, or eradication.
Introduced range in other countries Asia, Oceania, North and South America
Reference Notes
  • Osada (1976) Colored Illustrations of Naturalized Plants of Japan. Hoikusha, Tokyo (in Jpn)
  • Shimizu (ed) (2003) Naturalized Plants of Japan. Heibonsha, Tokyo (in Jpn)
  • etc.