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Solanum carolinense

Basic information
Scientific name Solanum carolinense

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Common names Carolina horse nettle, horsenettle
Higher taxon Solanaceae, Solanales, Magnoliopsida, Magnoliophyta
Natural range North America.
Habitat Farm area, fruit garden, pasture, vacancy, roadside, riverside, etc.
Invasion information
Range in Japan Almost entire Japan including Okinawa Range in Japan
Origin Unknown.
Date Late 19C (1867-1885).
Route Accidental: With pasture (at a pasture field in Sanrizuka, Chiba Pref.)
Impact Competition with native plants and crops. Disturbance of pasturage by spine. Solanine (an alkaloid harmful to cattles). Parasite (insects, fungi, viruses).
Affected organism: Native grasses, cattles, etc.
Regulation in Japan Import of Solanacea plants from countries or areas with Ceratitis capitata, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Globodera rostochiensis, Globodera pallida, Synchytrium endobioticum, or Peronospora tabacina is prohibited by the Plant Protection Law. Keeping this species is prohibited in Shiga Pref. Import to South Korea is prohibited.
Introduced range in other countries Europe, Asia, Oceania
Reference Notes
  • DECO (ed) (2006) Dictionary of Alien Species. Tokyo-Shoseki, Tokyo (in Jpn)
  • Ecol Soc Jpn (ed) (2002) Handbook of Alien Species in Japan. Chijinshokan, Tokyo (in Jpn)
  • JWRC (ed) (2008) A Photographic Guide to the Invasive Alien Species in Japan. Heibonsha, Tokyo (in Jpn)
  • Ministry of the Environment, Japan. The Invasive Alien Species Act (Accessed on 2011-1-27) (in Jpn)
  • Osada (1976) Colored Illustrations of Naturalized Plants of Japan. Hoikusha, Osaka (in Jpn)
  • Shimizu (ed) (2003) Naturalized Plants of Japan. Heibonsha, Tokyo (in Jpn)
  • etc.