National Institute for Environmental Studies Invasive Species of Japan Japanese | English
  1. Invasive Species of Japan >
  2. Vascular plants >
  3. Oenothera biennis

Oenothera biennis

Basic information
Scientific name Oenothera biennis

Click to magnify

Common names Common eveningprimrose
Higher taxon Onagraceae, Myrtales, Magnoliopsida, Magnoliophyta
Natural range North America.
Habitat Farm area, pasture field, fruit garden, roadside, riverside, vacancy, etc.
Invasion information
Range in Japan Almost entire Japan Range in Japan
Origin Unknown.
Date 1920s.
Route Deliberate: As ornamental plant
Impact Competition with native species, crop, pasture. Allelopathy. Parasite (insects, fungi)
Affected organism: Native plants, crops, pasture, etc.
Regulation in Japan No action for prevention, mitigation, control, or eradication.
Introduced range in other countries South America, Europe, Africa, Asia, Australia
Reference Notes
  • Hotta et al. (1989) Useful Plants of the World. Heibonsha, Tokyo (in Jpn)
  • Ministry of the Environment, Japan. The Invasive Alien Species Act (Accessed on 2011-1-20) (in Jpn)
  • Osada (1976) Colored Illustrations of Naturalized Plants of Japan. Hoikusha, Tokyo (in Jpn)
  • Satake et al. (1982) Wild Flowers of Japan, Herbaceous Plants [II]. Heibonsha, Tokyo (in Jpn)
  • Shimizu (ed) (2003) Naturalized Plants of Japan. Heibonsha, Tokyo (in Jpn)
  • etc.