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  3. Perna viridis

Perna viridis

Basic information
Scientific name Perna viridis

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Common names Green mussel, green-lipped mussel
Higher taxon Mytilidae, Mytiloida, Bivalvia, Mollusca
Natural range Tropical region of Indian and W Pacific Ocean.
Habitat Fouling on rock and artificial materials in intertidal zone. Tolerant to wide range of salinity. Frequently found around fishery harbor, drain outlet of electric power plant, fouling on aquafarm oysters.
Invasion information
Range in Japan 1960-1980s: Tokyo Bay, Izu Peninsula, Wakayama, Osaka, Hyogo, Kochi, Oita, Okinawajima Is., Ishigakijima Is.
1990-2000s: Yamagata, Tokyo Bay, Shizuoka, Ise Bay, Wakayama Osaka, Hyogo, Tokushima, Kochi, Ehime, Yamaguchi, Fukuoka, Oita, Kagoshima Okinawajima Is.
Range in Japan
Origin Unknown.
Date The first record of Japan was in 1967, at Hyogo Pref.
Route Accidental: Ballast water, or fouling on ship.
Deliberate: Preliminary aquafarming for food (Ishigakijima Island).
Impact Actually: Competition with native species. Water pollution.
Potentially: Hybridization with related species (There is no native Perna in Japan).
Affected organism: Coastal community.
Regulation in Japan No action for prevention, mitigation, control, or eradication.
Introduced range in other countries Coast of Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and Australia.
Reference Notes
  • DECO (ed) (2006) Dictionary of Alien Species. Tokyo-Shoseki, Tokyo. (in Jpn)
  • Ecol Soc Japan (ed) (2002) Handbook of Alien Species in Japan. Chijin-Shokan. (in Jpn)
  • Iwasaki et al. (2004) Human-mediated introduction and dispersal of marine organisms in Japan: Results of a questionnaire survey by the committee for the preservation of the natural environment, the Japanese association of benthology. Jpn J Benthol. 59:22-44. (in Jpn with English abstract)
  • JWRC (ed) (2008) A Photographic Guide to the Invasive Alien Species in Japan. Heibonsha. (in Jpn)
  • etc.