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Cygnus atratus

Basic information
Scientific name Cygnus atratus

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Cygnus atratus Cygnus atratus
Common names Black swan
Higher taxon Anatidae, Anseriformes, Aves
Natural range Australia, New Zealand(endemic subspecies C. a. sumnerensis was extinted).
Habitat lakes, ponds, rivers, swamps, waterfront of parks, brackish waters, coasts, harbors.
Invasion information
Range in Japan They breed in Ibaraki and Miyazaki Pref. They also observed in Hokkaido, Iwate, Miyagi, Fukushima, Tochigi, Gunma, Chiba, Tokyo, Saitama, Kanagawa, Osaka and Kyoto Pref. Range in Japan
Origin Unknown
Date Pairs were introduced into Kyoto, Tokyo and Osaka Pref. between 1950-1960, and had bred there in a captive and semi-captive state.
Route Escaped individuals kept for food or ornament.
Impact Competition with native water bird species.
Regulation in Japan None
Introduced range in other countries Belgium, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Slovenia, Singapore, New Zealand (introduced after the endemic subspecies was extinct). They had been observed in several other Europe countries, however, they were not established.
Reference Notes
  • Long (1981) Introduced birds of the world The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments. DAVID & CHARLES, London.
  • Williams (1973) Mortality of the Black Swan in New Zealand — a progress report. Wildfowl. 24, 54-55
  • Kanazawa (2007) A Record of Black Swan Cygnus atratus off the Coast of Cape Shiretoko, Hokkaido. Bulletin of the Shiretoko Museum. 29, 21-22 (in Jpn)
  • Kawakami & Kanouchi (2012) The Handbook of Introduced Birds in Japan. Bun-ichi Sogo Shuppan, Tokyo (in Jpn)
  • Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe (Accessed on 2013-12-03)
  • The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (Accessed on 2013-12-03)
  • Hokkaido Blue List (Accessed on 2013-12-03)
  • Committee for Check-List of Japanese Birds of Ornithol Soc Jp. (ed) (2012) Check-List of Japanese Birds 7th Revised Edition. Ornithol Soc Jpn, Tsukuba.
  • etc.