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Lonchura punctulata

Basic information
Scientific name Lonchura punctulata

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Common names Nutmeg mannikin, Scary-breasted munia, Spice finch, Spotted mannikin, Spotted munia
Higher taxon Estrildidae, Passeriformes, Aves
Natural range India, Sri Lanka, S continental China, Vietnam, Malay Peninsula, Indonasia, Philippine
Habitat Farm area, grassland, shrub, reed bed.
Invasion information
Range in Japan There are records of breeding in Tokyo and Okinawajima Is., and occurrence in Kanagawa Pref. Range in Japan
Date Found in 1961 to 1981, in eastern Japan.
Route Deliberate: Escape or release of pet animal
Impact Potentially: Damage on agriculture in native range and foreign non-native ranges.
Affected organism: Crops
Regulation in Japan No action for prevention, mitigation, control, or eradication.
Introduced range in other countries Arabian Peninsula, Afghanistan, Australia, Hawaii, Guam, Micronesia, Reunion, Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti, Repub. Dominica, Puerto Rico, Lesser Antilles, etc.
Reference Notes
  • Clement et al. (1993) Finch & Sparrow. Christpher Helm, London.
  • Eguchi & Amano (2004) Spread of exotic birds in Japan. Ornithol Sci. 3, 3-12.
  • Eguchi & Fujimaki (eds) (2000) Check-List of Japanese Birds Sixth Revised Edition. The Ornithological Society of Japan, Tokyo (in Jpn)
  • Kawakami & Kanouchi (2012) The Handbook of Introduced Birds in Japan. Bun-ichi Sogo Shuppan, Tokyo (in Jpn)
  • Lepage (ed) (2003-2012) Avibase the world bird database (Accessed on 2012-6-12)
  • Long (1981) Introduced Birds of the World. David & Charles, Newton.
  • etc.