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Psittacula krameri manillensis

Basic information
Scientific name Psittacula krameri manillensis

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Common names Ring-necked parakeet
Higher taxon Psittacidae, Psittaciformes, Aves
Natural range India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, etc.
Habitat Arboreal. Parks, human houses, shrine, etc., with many trees.
Invasion information
Range in Japan Reproduction in Tokyo, Chiba, Kanagawa, Aichi, Kyoto, and Hiroshima Prefs. has been recorded. Recorded in Niigata, Tochigi, Gumma, Saitama, Nagano, Shizuoka, Gifu, Osaka, Hyogo, Ehime, Saga, and Miyazaki Prefs. There have been few records recently except for Kanto District. Range in Japan
Date Since 1969, populations with hundreds of birds was established in south western part of Tokyo unban region.
Route Deliberate: Mass escape of pet animal.
Impact Potentially: Competition with native birds nesting in tree hollow. Nesting on electric pole could cause short circuit. Damage on agriculture in native range. Potential host of psittacosis.
Affected organism: Birds (competition), mammals and birds (psittacosis), crops, etc.
Regulation in Japan No action for prevention, mitigation, control, or eradication.
Introduced range in other countries Spain, Belgium, Canary Islands, etc.
Reference Notes
  • Eguchi & Amano (2000) Problems of introductions and naturalizations in birds. Jpn J Conserv Ecol. 5, 131-148 (in Jpn)
  • Eguchi & Amano (2004) Spread of exotic birds in Japan. Ornithol Sci. 3, 3-12.
  • Eguchi & Fujimaki (eds) (2000) Check-List of Japanese Birds Sixth Revised Edition. The Ornithological Society of Japan, Tokyo (in Jpn)
  • Fukushi (2005) Advances on psittacosis. Modern Media. 51(7), 149-159 (in Jpn)
  • Kawakami & Kanouchi (2012) The Handbook of Introduced Birds in Japan. Bun-ichi Sogo Shuppan, Tokyo (in Jpn)
  • Higuchi et al. (eds) (1997) The Encyclopedia of Animals in Japan 4 Birds II. Heibonsha, Tokyo (in Jpn)
  • Lepage (ed) (2003-2012) Avibase the world bird database (Accessed on 2012-6-07)
  • Nakamura (1988) Alien Animals of Japan. Kanagawa Pref. Mus., Yokohama (in Jpn)
  • etc.