National Institute for Environmental Studies Invasive Species of Japan Japanese | English
  1. Invasive Species of Japan >
  2. Aves >
  3. Phasianus colchicus karpowi

Phasianus colchicus karpowi

Basic information
Scientific name Phasianus colchicus karpowi

Click to magnify

コウライキジ
Common names Ring-necked Pheasant
Higher taxon Phasianidae, Galliformes, Aves
Natural range The Korean Peninsula. Other subspecies are distributed in Caspian Sea to Continental China.
Habitat Lowland. Prefer to grasslands.
Invasion information
Range in Japan Hokkaido, Pacific side of Kanto to Tokai Districts, Nara, Ehime, Fukuoka, Miyazaki, mainland Kagoshima Prefs, Tsushima, and Osumi, Amami, Okinawa, and Sakishima Islands. Range in Japan
Origin Korean Peninsula
Date Middle 19 C (1851-1867) in Tsushima. 1930s or later in other area.
Route Deliberate: For sports hunting. In almost area except Hokkaido (occupied by a native pheasant P. versicolor), release was for a brief duration, whereas this species was intensively introduced in Hokkaido until establishment.
Impact Hybridization with native pheasant Phasianus versicolor (the hybrid is fertile). Damage on agriculture in other countries.
Affected organism: Japanese green pheasant Phasianus versicolor.
Regulation in Japan No action for prevention, mitigation, control, or eradication. Since 1984 hunting in Hokkaido is prohibited, for population decline.
Introduced range in other countries Unknown. Conspecific (subspecies unknown) are established in Europe, N America, Hawaii, Australia, New Zealand, etc.
Reference Notes
  • Ecol Soc Japan (ed) (2002) Handbook of Alien Species in Japan. Chijin-Shokan. (in Jpn)
  • Eguchi & Amano (1999) Naturalization of exotic birds in Japan. Jpn J Ornithol. 47, 97-114 (in Jpn)
  • Eguchi & Amano (2004) Spread of exotic birds in Japan. Ornithol Sci. 3, 3-12.
  • Eguchi & Fujimaki (eds) (2000) Check-List of Japanese Birds Sixth Revised Edition. The Ornithological Society of Japan, Tokyo (in Jpn)
  • Higuchi et al. (eds) (1997) The Encyclopedia of Animals in Japan 4 Birds II. Heibonsha, Tokyo (in Jpn)
  • Kawakami & Kanouchi (2012) The Handbook of Introduced Birds in Japan. Bun-ichi Sogo Shuppan, Tokyo (in Jpn)
  • Kiyosu (1978) The Birds of Japan. Kodansha, Tokyo (in Jpn)
  • Lepage (ed) (2003-2010) Avibase the world bird database (Accessed on 2012-6-07) http://avibase.bsc-eoc.org/
  • Nakamura (1988) Alien Animals of Japan. Kanagawa Pref. Mus., Yokohama (in Jpn)
  • etc.
100 of the Japan’s Worst Invasive Alien Species