World Mangrove Distribution Maps

Global distribution of mangroves has changed throughout geological history and has also been affected through human influence. Although there are no accurate data on the original coverage of mangroves, the current areas represent a considerable decline, especially during the past 50 years, as a result of human activities involving development and conversion in almost all the countries where they are found. According to the World Atlas of Mangroves (2010), the area covered by mangroves globally is 152,360 km2 in over 123 countries and territories of the tropics and subtropics. This represents less than 1% of global tropical forests and less than 0.4% of the total forest area worldwide. Over 65% of the world’s mangroves are distributed in twelve countries, and Indonesia accounts for over 20% of the total global area.

The following global mangrove distribution map and 62 regional/country-by-country maps were prepared for the Atlas (2010). Some maps have been revised and updated by NIES/ISME (i.e. Vietnam). The production of the original GIS dataset was coordinated by ISME and led by FAO, UNEP-WCMC and TNC, mainly by analyzing Landsat imagery covering over 50% of the mangrove areas, which was taken during the period 2000-2003. The data for the remaining coverage of mangroves was generously contributed by various national and international organizations and mangrove experts, and were typically at a resolution of 1:250,000 or better, with consistent age. It is our hope that this will serve as a baseline for future gain/loss assessment.

The global map also shows the latitudinal limits to mangrove distribution. The most northerly mangroves are in Bermuda (32° 20’N) and the most southerly are at Corner Inlet, Australia (38°45’S). The largest mangrove tracts are found on wet deltaic coasts, which extend inland for several tens of kilometers, with large forest trees over 20 m in height and which are high in biomass. The Sundarbans of India and Bangladesh are the best known forests with a total area of 6,500 km2 which extend up to 85 km inland. Large mangrove tracts are also found in Northern Brazil (6,500 km2) and the Gulf of Papua (5,400 km2).

We will be updating the maps periodically to add newer information.


Spalding, M., M Kainuma and L. Collins (2010) World Atlas of Mangroves. A collaborative project of ITTO, ISME, FAO, UNEP-WCMC, UNESCO-MAB, UNU-INWEH and TNC. Earthscan UK and USA. 319pp.

Mangrove distribution maps

Western Indo-Pacific R1_Western Indo-Pacific.jpgR1_Western Indo-Pacific.jpg

1. Kenya and Tanzania Click to enlargeClick to enlarge
2. Madagascar 2_Madagascar_2.jpg2_Madagascar_2.jpg
3. Mozambique 3_Mozambique_2.jpg3_Mozambique_2.jpg
4. South Africa 4_South_Africa_2.jpg4_South_Africa_2.jpg
5. Red Sea 5_Red_Sea_2.jpg5_Red_Sea_2.jpg

6. Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman 6_Arabian_Gulf_and_Gulf_of_Oman_2.jpg6_Arabian_Gulf_and_Gulf_of_Oman_2.jpg
7. Gulf of Aden 7_Gulf_of_Aden_2.jpg7_Gulf_of_Aden_2.jpg
8. Northern Bay of Bengal 8_Northern_Bay_of_Bengal_2.jpg8_Northern_Bay_of_Bengal_2.jpg
9. Southern India, Sri Lanka and the Maldives 9_Southern_India_Sri_Lanka_and_the_Maldives_2.jpg9_Southern_India_Sri_Lanka_and_the_Maldives_2.jpg
10. Pakistan and north-west India 10_Pakistan_and_north-west_India_2.jpg10_Pakistan_and_north-west_India_2.jpg

Central Indo-Pacific R2_Central Indo-Pacific.jpgR2_Central Indo-Pacific.jpg

11. South Sumatra and Java 11_South_Sumatra_and_Java_2.jpg11_South_Sumatra_and_Java_2.jpg
12. Borneo 12_Borneo_2.jpg12_Borneo_2.jpg
13. Sulawesi 13_Sulawesi_2.jpg13_Sulawesi_2.jpg
14. Nusa Tenggara 14_Nusa_Tenggara_2.jpg14_Nusa_Tenggara_2.jpg
15. Papua (Indonesia) 15_Papua_(Indonesia)_2.jpg15_Papua_(Indonesia)_2.jpg
16. Peninsula Malaysia and Sumatra 16_Peninsula_Malaysia_and_Sumatra_2.jpg16_Peninsula_Malaysia_and_Sumatra_2.jpg
17. Myanmar 17_Myanmar_2.jpg17_Myanmar_2.jpg
18. Northern Philippines 18_Northern_Philippines_2.jpg18_Northern_Philippines_2.jpg
19. Southern Philippines 19_Southern_Philippines_2.jpg19_Southern_Philippines_2.jpg
20. Thailand 20_Thailand_2.jpg20_Thailand_2.jpg
21. Cambodia and southern Vietnam 21_Cambodia_and_southern_Vietnam_2.jpg21_Cambodia_and_southern_Vietnam_2.jpg

22. Northern Vietnam and South China 22_Northern_Vietnam_and_South_China_2.jpg22_Northern_Vietnam_and_South_China_2.jpg
23. Eastern China and Taiwan 23_Eastern_China_and_Taiwan_2.jpg23_Eastern_China_and_Taiwan_2.jpg
24. Japan 24_Japan_3.jpg24_Japan_3.jpg
25. Northern Australia 25_Northern_Australia_2.jpg25_Northern_Australia_2.jpg
26. North-eastern Australia 26_North-eastern_Australia_2.jpg26_North-eastern_Australia_2.jpg
27. Eastern Australia 27_Eastern_Australia_2.jpg27_Eastern_Australia_2.jpg
28. South-eastern Australia 28_South-eastern_Australia_2.jpg28_South-eastern_Australia_2.jpg
29. South Australia 29_South_Australia_2.jpg29_South_Australia_2.jpg
30. Western Australia 30_Western_Australia_2.jpg30_Western_Australia_2.jpg
31. North-western Australia 31_North-western_Australia_2.jpg31_North-western_Australia_2.jpg
32. New Zealand 32_New_Zealand_2.jpg32_New_Zealand_2.jpg


Eastern Indo-Pacific R3_Eastern Indo-Pacific.jpgR3_Eastern Indo-Pacific.jpg

33. Fiji 33_Fiji_2.jpg33_Fiji_2.jpg
34. Papua New Guinea 34_Papua_New_Guinea_2.jpg34_Papua_New_Guinea_2.jpg
35. Solomon Islands 35_Solomon_Islands_2.jpg35_Solomon_Islands_2.jpg

36. Vanuatu and New Caledonia 36_Vanuatu_and_New_Caledonia_2.jpg36_Vanuatu_and_New_Caledonia_2.jpg
37. Western Micronesia 37_Western_Micronesia_2.jpg37_Western_Micronesia_2.jpg
38. Kiribati and Tuvalu 38_Kiribati_and_Tuvalu_2.jpg38_Kiribati_and_Tuvalu_2.jpg

The Americas R4_The Americas.jpgR4_The Americas.jpg

39. Yucatan, Belize and northern Honduras 39_Yucatan_Belize_and_northern_Honduras_2.jpg39_Yucatan_Belize_and_northern_Honduras_2.jpg
40. Cuba and Jamaica 40_Cuba_and_Jamaica_2.jpg40_Cuba_and_Jamaica_2.jpg
41. Eastern Greater Antilles 41_Eastern_Greater_Antilles_2.jpg41_Eastern_Greater_Antilles_2.jpg
42. Lesser Antilles 42_Lesser_Antilles_2.jpg42_Lesser_Antilles_2.jpg
43. Gulf of California 43_Gulf_of_California_2.jpg43_Gulf_of_California_2.jpg
44. Gulf of Mexico 44_Gulf_of_Mexico_2.jpg44_Gulf_of_Mexico_2.jpg
45. Central America 45_Central_America_2.jpg45_Central_America_2.jpg

46. Florida and the Bahamas 46_Florida_and_the_Bahamas_2.jpg46_Florida_and_the_Bahamas_2.jpg
47. Northern Brazil 47_Northern_Brazil_2.jpg47_Northern_Brazil_2.jpg
48. North-eastern Brazil 48_North-eastern_Brazil_2.jpg48_North-eastern_Brazil_2.jpg
49. Southern Brazil 49_Southern_Brazil_2.jpg49_Southern_Brazil_2.jpg
50. Northern Colombia and western Venezuela 50_Northern_Colombia_and_western_Venezuela_2.jpg50_Northern_Colombia_and_western_Venezuela_2.jpg
51. Pacific South America 51_Pacific_South_America_2.jpg51_Pacific_South_America_2.jpg
52. Eastern Venezuela and the Guianas 52_Eastern_Venezuela_and_the_Guianas_2.jpg52_Eastern_Venezuela_and_the_Guianas_2.jpg

West and Central Africa R5_West and Central Africa.jpgR5_West and Central Africa.jpg

53. North-west Africa 53_North-west_Africa_2.jpg53_North-west_Africa_2.jpg
54. Guinea Bissau to Sierra Leone 54_Guinea_Bissau_to_Sierra_Leone_2.jpg54_Guinea_Bissau_to_Sierra_Leone_2.jpg
55. Liberia, Cote d'Ivorie and Ghana 55_Liberia_Cote_d'Ivorie_and_Ghana_2.jpg55_Liberia_Cote_d'Ivorie_and_Ghana_2.jpg

56. Gulf of Guinea 56_Gulf_of_Guinea_2.jpg56_Gulf_of_Guinea_2.jpg
57. Gabon to Angola 57_Gabon_to_Angola_2.jpg57_Gabon_to_Angola_2.jpg

Click the icon to view each map. Maps can be zoomed with "Ctrl + mouse cursor".

* Please note that the purpose of the mangrove distribution maps is to show the distribution of mangroves in each country and does not reflect the actual area. For the purpose of visibility, mangroves are generally drawn with a bounding line of 0.2 point (0.07 mm), this was increased to 0.4 points in a few mangrove restricted places such as the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, eastern China and Taiwan. For Japan, it was increased to 0.7 points for better visibility. The maps also contain information on protected areas relevant to mangroves.

last updated on Oct. 13th, 2015