Regional Emission inventory in ASia (REAS)
Data Download Site

This website provides data sets and related information of the series of Regional Emission inventory in ASia (REAS). First version of REAS (REASv1.1) were developed by Ohara et al. (2007), which accounted for actual emissions during 1980-2003 and projected ones in 2010 and 2020. The inventory was updated by Kurokawa et al. (2013) as REASv2.1 for the period between 2000-2008 and datasets of Regional Emission inventory in Asia for Persistent Organic Pollutants (REAS-POP) 1.0 focusing on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Northeast Asia were also developed (Inomata et al., 2012). The current latest version REASv3.1 provides a long historical emission inventory during 1950-2015 in Asian region.(Kurokawa and Ohara [submitted]).


Remarks for update information

4-December-2019
14-November-2013

 General Information

REAS3.1

Species: SO2, NOx, CO, NMVOC, PM10, PM2.5, BC, OC, NH3, and CO2

Years: 1950-2015

Area: East, Southeast, and South Asia.

Emission sources:
Fuel combustions in power plants, industry, transport, and domestic sectors; Industrial process; Agricultural activities (fertilizer application and livestock); and Others (fugitive emissions, solvent use, human, etc.)
* Emissions from international and domestic aviation and navigation, including fishing ships as well as NOx emissions from soil are not included.

Spatial resolution: 0.25 degree by 0.25 degree

Temporal resolution: Monthly

Notes:
NMVOC emissions from evaporative sources were obtained from Ministry of Environment of Japan (MOEJ, 2017) and National Air Pollution Emission Service of National Institute of Environmental Research for Japan and the Republic of Korea, respectively. For NH3 emissions from agricultural activities, data of base year (2000 and 2005 for Japan and 2000 for others) were obtained from the other research works also used in REAS2.1.


REAS2.1

Species: SO2, NOx, CO, NMVOC, PM10, PM2.5, BC, OC, NH3, CH4, N2O, and CO2

Years: 2000-2008

Area:
East, Southeast, South, and Central Asia. Asian part of Russia (Far East, Eastern and Western Siberia, and Ural)

Emission sources:
Fuel combustions in power plants, industry, transport, and domestic sectors; Industrial process; Agricultural activities (fertilizer application and livestock); and Others (fugitive emissions, solvent use, human, etc.)

Spatial resolution: 0.25 degree by 0.25 degree

Temporal resolution: Monthly

Japan:
Emissions except for the maritime sector were from the Japan Auto-Oil Program (JATOP) Emission Inventory-Data Base (JEI-DB) developed by JPEC (2012a, 2012b, 2012c). Emissions from the maritime sector were taken from the database developed by the Ocean Policy Research Foundation (OPRF, 2012). The maritime emission data were developed under the project named ‘the comprehensive project of assessment for improving the air quality by establishment of the emission control areas (ECA) in Japan’, which is supported from the grant by the Nippon Foundation derived from revenues from motorboat racing. NMVOC evaporative emissions from stationary sources in Japan were from data developed by Ministry of the Environment of Japan (MOEJ, 2009).

Korea, Rep. of:
Emissions relied on the Clean Air Policy Support System (CAPSS) developed by Lee et al. (2011). Data were taken from the National Air Pollutants Emission website maintained by the National Institute of Environment Research-Korea.

Taiwan:
Emissions data sets were obtained from the Environmental Protection Administration of Taiwan at its website.

EDGAR 4.2:
Datasets for aviation (both domestic and international at altitude less than 1km) and international navigation were taken from EDGAR 4.2 (EC-JRC/PBL, 2011). Emissions related to agricultural activities for Asian Russia and Central Asia were also obtained from EDGAR 4.2.


REAS POP 1.0

Species:
fluoranthene (Flu), pyrene (Pyr), benz[a]anthracene (BaA), chrysene (Chr) benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (IcdP), benzo[g,h,i]perylene (BghiP))

Years: 2005

Area: Northeast Asia (China, Far East Russia, North Korea, South Korea, Mongolia, Taiwan, Japan)

Emission sources:
Fuel combustions in power plants, industry, transport, and domestic sectors; Industrial process; and Open biomass burning*

*Fuel consumption rates were derived from REAS 1.11. PAH emission from open biomass burning was estimated using the burned area, the BC emission rate, and the PAH and BC emission factors. The burned area and the BC emission rate were derived from GFEDv3.

Spatial resolution: 0.5 degree by 0.5 degree

Temporal resolution: Monthly

Contact information:
kurokawa(at)acap.asia
tohara(at)nies.go.jp


 Data Sets

Overview Papers


REAS 3.1

Gridded Data Sets (Information for Data)

  S02 NOx CO PM10 PM2.5 BC OC NMV NH3 CO2
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015

Country and Regional Tables (Information for Data)

REASv3.1_SECTOR_1950-2015

REASv3.1_FUEL_1950-2015



REAS 2.1

Gridded Data Sets (Information for Data)

  S02 NOx CO PM10 PM2.5 BC OC NMV NH3 CH4 N2O CO2
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008


Updated Gridded Data Sets for Industry Sector (see Remarks above)

  S02 NOx CO PM10 PM2.5 BC OC NMV NH3 CH4 N2O CO2
2000-2008


Country and Regional Tables (Information for Data)

  S02 NOx CO PM10 PM2.5 BC OC NMV NH3 CH4 N2O CO2
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008

REAS POP 1.0

Gridded Data Sets (Information for Data)

  Flu Pyr BaA Chr BaP BbF BkF BghiP IcdP
2005

REAS 1.11


 References

REAS 3.1

Kurokawa, J. and Ohara, T.: Long-term historical trends in air pollutant emissions in Asia: Regional Emission inventory in ASia (REAS) version 3.1 (submitted to Atmos. Chem. Phys.).

MOEJ (Ministry of Environment of Japan): Report on Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emission Inventory Compiled (in Japanese), 2017

REAS 2.1

Kurokawa, J., Ohara, T., Morikawa, T., Hanayama, S., Greet, J.-M., Fukui, T., Kawashima, K. and Akimoto, H.: Emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases over Asian regions during 2000-2008: Regional Emission inventory in ASia (REAS) version 2, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11019-11058.

EC-JRC/PBL (European Commission, Joint Research Center/Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency), Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR), release version 4.2, 2011.

JPEC (Japan Petroleum Energy Center): Emission inventory of road transport in Japan, JPEC Technical Report, JPEC-2011AQ-02-06, 136pp [in Japanese], 2012a.

JPEC: Emission inventory of sources other than road transport in Japan, JPEC Technical Report, JPEC-2011AQ-02-07, 288pp [in Japanese], 2012b.

JPEC: Speciation profiles of VOC, PM, and NOx emissions for atmospheric simulations of PM2.5, JPEC Technical Report, JPEC-2011AQ-02-08, 69pp [in Japanese], 2012c.

Lee, D. G., Lee, Y.-M., Jang, K.-W., Yoo, C., Kang, K.-H., Lee, J.-H., Jung, S.-W., Park, J.-M., Lee, S.-B., Han, J.-S., Hong, J.-H., and Lee, S.-J.: Korean national emissions inventory system and 2007 air pollutant emissions, Asian J. Atmos. Environ., 5, 278-291, 2011.

MOEJ (Ministry of Environment of Japan): Report on Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emission Inventory Compiled [in Japanese], 2009.

OPRF (Ocean Policy Research Foundation (Ship and Ocean Fundation)): Report for comprehensive study for environmental impact lead by the establishment of emission control area in Japan, ISBN978-4-88404-282-0, 524pp [in Japanese], 2012.


REAS POPs 1.1

Inomata, Y., Kajino, M., Sato, K., Ohara, T., Kurokawa, J., Ueda, H., Tang, N., Hayakawa, K., Ohizumi, T., and Akimoto, H.: Emission and atmospheric transport of particulate PAHs in Northeast Asia, Environ. Sci. Technol., 46, 4941-4949, 2012 [link].

Giglio, L., Randerson, J. T., Van der Werf, G. R., Kasibhatla, P. S., Collatz, G. J., Morton, D. C., and DeFries, R. S.: Assessing variability and long-term trends in burned area by merging multiple satellite fire products, Biogeosci. 7, 1171-1186, 2010 .


REAS 1.11

Ohara, T., Akimoto, H., Kurokawa, J., Horii, N., Yamaji, K., Yan, X., and Hayasaka, T.: An Asian emission inventory of anthropogenic emission sources for the period 1980-2020, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 4419-4444, doi:10.5194/acp-7-4419-2007, 2007.


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