場所：国立環境研究所 研究本館Ⅰ 3階 第2会議室
使用言語：日本語（Slides, Q&A: English 質疑・討論で英語での返答も可能）
演題：Pollution Externalities and Corrective Taxes in a Dynamic Small Open Economy
要旨：This study examines the effects of environmental tax policies in a dynamic model of a polluted small open economy in which there are two sources of pollution, consumption and production, controlled by consumption and income taxes, and accumulated pollution affects a negative effect on household's utility. In a decentralized dynamic competitive equilibrium under exogenous tax rates, we show that whereas a permanent increase in each of the consumption and income taxes unambiguously reduce the steady-state stock of pollution, a temporary increase in these taxes may lead to more pollution in the long run, suggesting that more stringent environmental policy might be ineffective if the regulation is only temporary. We also derive the social optimal solution and examine the optimal tax paths to achieve the social optimum. If distaste and leisure effects are sufficiently strong, tax rates decrease along the optimal path as pollution increases over time, and if these effects are not so strong, the opposite occurs.
演題：Environmental policy in a stagnant economy (with Yoshiyasu Ono, ISER Osaka University)
要旨：Using a dynamic optimization model of a monetary economy in which persistent unemployment occurs, we examine the effects of environmental policies on aggregate consumption and pollution emission in a stagnant economy with persistent deflation. If full employment is achieved, environmental policies, such as imposing an emission tax to restrict pollution and employing labor in the public pollution-abatement sector, naturally crowd out commodity production and hence decrease consumption. If unemployment prevails, however, those environmental policies stimulate private consumption by expanding total employment and mitigating deflation. Their effects on welfare are also examined.