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  3. Lindernia dubia

Lindernia dubia

Basic information
Scientific name Lindernia dubia

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アメリカアゼナ
Common names Falsepinpernel
Higher taxon Scrophulariaceae, Scrophulariales, Magnoliopsida, Magnoliophyta
Natural range North America.
Habitat Paddy field, riverside, roadside, lakes/pond side, swamp, drained land, etc.
Invasion information
Range in Japan Almost entire Japan Range in Japan
Origin Unknown.
Date The first record was in 1936, at Hyogo Pref.
Route Accidental: Details unknown.
Impact Competition with native species and crops.
Affected organism: Native grasses (e.g., Lindernia pyxidaria), rice plant, etc. This species have become more common than L. pyxidaria in some area.
Regulation in Japan No action for prevention, mitigation, control, or eradication.
Introduced range in other countries East Asia, Northeast Asia, North Asia, Southeast Asia, Central Asia, Himalaya, South Asia, West Asia, Europe.
Reference Notes
  • Osada (1976) Colored Illustrations of Naturalized Plants of Japan. Hoikusha, Osaka (in Jpn)
  • Satake et al. (1982) Wild Flowers of Japan, Herbaceous Plants [II]. Heibonsha, Tokyo (in Jpn)
  • Shimizu (ed) (2003) Naturalized Plants of Japan. Heibonsha, Tokyo (in Jpn)
  • etc.