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  3. Limnoperna fortunei

Limnoperna fortunei

Basic information
Scientific name Limnoperna fortunei

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Common names Golden mussel
Higher taxon Mytilidae, Mytiloida, Bivalvia, Mollusca
Natural range East Asia, Southeast Asia.
Habitat Fouling on rocks in freshwater.
Invasion information
Range in Japan Tonegawa River System (Chiba and Ibaraki Prefs.), Edo River and Ara River(Tokyo and Saitama Pref.)Lake Oshio (Gumma Pref.), Tenryu River (Shizuoka Pref.), Uregawa River (Aichi Pref.), Kisogawa River System (Gifu, Aichi and Mie Prefs.), and Lake Biwa-Yodogawa River System (Shiga, Kyoto, and Osaka Prefs.). Range in Japan
Origin Possibly continental China and Korea
Date Introduced to western Japan in 1990s and to Kanto District by 2004.
Route Accidental: Hitchhiking on imported fresh water clams, ballast water, or fouling on ships.
Impact Actually: Disturb water channels by mass fouling. An initial intermediate host of trematodes.
Native organism(s) affected: Fishes and some other aquatic species.
Regulation in Japan Import, transport and keeping of genus Limnoperna are prohibited in Japan by the Invasive Alien Species Act.
Introduced range in other countries East Asia, South America
Reference Notes
  • Ito (2007) Spatial Distribution of Golden Mussel, Limnoperna fortunei, in Lake Kasumigaura, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. Jpn J Benthol. 62:34-38 (in Jpn with English abstract)
  • Morton (1982) The Reproductive Cycle in Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker 1857) (Bivalvia:Mytilidea) Fouling Honk Kongs Raw Water Supply System. Oceanol Limnol Sinica. 13(4):312-324.
  • Ecol Soc Japan (ed) (2002) Handbook of Alien Species in Japan. Chijin-Shokan. (in Jpn)
  • etc.
100 of the Japan’s Worst Invasive Alien Species