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Bufo marinus

Basic information
Scientific name Bufo marinus

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オオヒキガエル
Common names Cane toad, Marine toad, Giant toad
Higher taxon Bufonidae, Anura, Amphibia
Natural range NW North America to N South America
Habitat Open habitat such as cane fields
Invasion information
Range in Japan Ogasawara (Chichijima and Hahajima Is.), Daito (Kita-daitojima and Minami-daitojima Is.), and Sakishima (Ishigakijima, Iriomotejima, and Hatomajima Is.) Islands. Range in Japan
Origin Saipan (Ogasawara population); Minami-daitojima Is. (Ishigakijima population); Ishigakijima Is. (Hatomajima population), etc.
Date Before W. W. II (Minami-daitojima population); 1949 (Chichijima population, Ogasawara); 1974 (Hahajima population, Ogasawara); around 1978 (Ishigakijima population); around 1984 (Hatomajima population)
Route Deliberate: For biological control of cane agricultural pests
Accidental: Hitchhiking on building material
Impact Predation on invertebrates; Competition with native species; Toxic to predators (e.g., several snakes, birds, and wild cat); Water pollution by infestation of tadpoles.
Affected organism: Ground invertebrates (predation); small reptiles and amphibians (competition); some snakes, birds, and wild cat (toxic);
Regulation in Japan Import, transport and keeping are prohibited in Japan by the Invasive Alien Species Act.
Introduced range in other countries Hawaii, Philippine, New Guinea, Australia, and several Pacific Islands.
Reference Notes
  • JWRC (ed) (2008) A Photographic Guide to the Invasive Alien Species in Japan. Heibonsha, Tokyo (in Jpn)
  • Kidera & Ota (2008) Can Exotic Toad Toxins Kill Native Ryukyu Snakes~ Experimental and Field Observations on the Effects of Bufo marinus Toxins on Dinodon rufozonatum walli. Current Herpetology. 27(1):23-27.
  • Ota et al. (2004) Feral population of amphibians and reptiles in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Global Environmental Research. 8(2):133-143
  • Maeda & Matsui (1999) Frogs and Toads of Japan. Bun-ichi Sogo Shuppan, Tokyo (in Jpn)
  • Maenosono & Toda (2007) Distribution of amphibians and terrestrial reptiles in the Ryukyu Archipelago: A review of published records. Akamata. 18, 28-46 (in Jpn)
  • Ecol Soc Jpn (ed) (2002) Handbook of Alien Species in Japan. Chijinshokan, Tokyo (in Jpn)
  • Okinawa Prefectural Museum (ed) (1996) Naturalized Animals. Okinawa Prefectural Museum, Naha (in Jpn)
  • Sengoku et al. (eds) (1996) The Encyclopedia of Animals in Japan 5 Amphibians, Reptiles, Chondrichthyes. Heibonsha, Tokyo (in Jpn)
  • Tyler (1989) Australian Frogs. Reed Books.
  • Zug & Zug (1979) The Marine Toad, Bufo marinus: a natural history resume of native populations. Smithonian Contributions to Zoology. 284:1-58.
  • etc.
100 of the World’s Worst Invasive Alien Species, 100 of the Japan’s Worst Invasive Alien Species