Potential Diversified Transportation Energy Mix Solutions for the ASEAN Countries

Oka K., Mizutani W., Ichikawa S.

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Potential Diversified Transportation Energy Mix Solutions for the ASEAN Countries

Author:Oka K., Mizutani W., Ichikawa S.
Journal:Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment, 13 (1), 45-61

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Transportation, Energy, Biofuel, Climate change, Policy


The objective of this study is to investigate potential diversified transportation energy source solutions and their effective use up to 2030 in order to establish sustainable energy use in road transportation. Five Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries (Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, and Vietnam) are examined by considering their economy, energy status, and automotive market scale. In this study, existing energy policies, fuel supply, demand status, petroleum and alternative fuel products, such as natural gas and biofuels, and oil refining/biofuels production capacity are investigated as components of energy mixing. If there are gaps between oil reduction targets and Business as Usual (BAU) consumption, or the required amount of biofuel use to achieve introduction target and possible supply, measures such as improved new vehicle fuel economy, adjustment of biofuel utilization, and natural gas utilization are considered to minimize gaps or to meet policy targets. An appropriate and cost-effective combination of measures is proposed as an alternative case for each country’s needs. Results show that biofuel utilization is one of the measures that is crucial in meeting policy targets. Even in the alternative case, however, estimated demand volume of biofuel exceeds domestic supply volume in some countries, while estimated demand volume of biofuel is lower than domestic supply volume in other countries. In order to solve these gaps and cultivate biofuel security within the ASEAN region, a concept of multi-national cooperation of biofuel is proposed. Creating policies to diminish barriers that prevent the trade of biofuels between neighboring countries is the key to success.

Fig. Proposal of biofuel supplementation scheme in the ASEAN region, “Biofuel Balancing Concept in the ASEAN” in 2030.

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