Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are hydrocarbons containing multiple-ring structures. They are mainly formed from the incomplete combustion of organic substances. Numerous members of this group have carcinogenic properties and the potential to interfere with hormonal systems and immune responses. (ref. ID; 6708)
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that are formed in processes such as combustion and production of gas and tar. (ref. ID; 7128)

[Acenaphthalene]
Test organisms;
Oligochaeta: Lumbriculus variegatus (ref. ID; 2172)

[Acenaphthene] CAS[83-32-9]
= 1,2-Dihydroacenaphthylene
Chemical formula; C12H10
Chemical characteristics; Lipophilicity log P 4.33. (ref. ID; 6959)
Mode of toxic action; Narcotic. (ref. ID; 3327)
Test organisms;
Protozoa: Tetrahymena pyriformis (ref. ID; 3327)
Oligochaeta: Eisenia fetida (ref. ID; 4954, 6959, 7163)
Oligochaeta: Community (tubificid worms). (ref. ID; 6704)

[Acenaphthylene] CAS[208-96-8]
Chemical formula; C12H8
Test organisms;
Oligochaeta: Eisenia fetida (ref. ID; 4954)

[Anthracene] CAS[120-12-7]
Trade name; Anthracene: Carbofost-4, Carbolineum, Carbotex, Carbozyl
Chemical formula; C14H10
Chemical characteristics; Log Kow 4.54. (ref. ID; 7027)
Purpose for use; Fungicide, herbicide.
Test organisms;
Oligochaeta: Eisenia fetida (ref. ID; 4954)
Oligochaeta: Lumbriculus variegatus (ref. ID; 2172)
Oligochaeta: Community. (ref. ID; 3302, 6874)
Oligochaeta: Community (tubificid worms). (ref. ID; 6704)

[Anthraquinone] CAS[84-65-1]
Chemical formula; C14H8O2
Mode of toxic action; Electron(nucleo)phile. (ref. ID; 3327)
Test organisms;
Protozoa: Tetrahymena pyriformis (ref. ID; 3327)

[Benzo[a]anthracene] CAS[56-55-3]
= 1,2-Benzanthracene
Chemical formula; C8H12
Chemical characteristics; Log Kow 5.91. (ref. ID; 6937, 7027)
Test organisms;
Oligochaeta: Eisenia fetida (ref. ID; 4954)
Oligochaeta: Lumbriculus variegatus (ref. ID; 6937)
Oligochaeta: Community (ref. ID; 6874)
Oligochaeta: Community (tubificid worms) (ref. ID; 6704)

[Benzo[a]pyrene] CAS[50-32-8]
= 3,4-Benzpyrene
Benzo[a]pyrene is released into the environment as a by-product of the combustion of fossil fuels and other materials (wood, oil). Primary anthropogenic sources of BaP include exhaust from motor vehicles and other gasoline and diesel engines; coal-, oil-, and wood burning stoves and furnaces; products from petroleum refineries; and cigarette and barbecue smoke. Benzo[a]pyrene is a hydrophobic compound with a moderately large octanol-water partition coefficient (log Kow = 6.04). On entering aquatic systems, BaP rapidly deposits into the sediment and physically adsorbs on the solid surface or partitions into the organic carbon fraction of the sediment. (ref. ID; 4569)
Chemical formula; C20H11
Chemical characteristics; Log Kow 6.04. (ref. ID; 7027)
Test organisms;
Oligochaeta: Aporrectodea longa (ref. ID; 6137)
Oligochaeta: Eisenia fetida (ref. ID; 4954, 7012)
Oligochaeta: Eisenia fetida andrei (ref. ID; 6908)
Oligochaeta: Ilyodrilus templetoni (ref. ID; 4569, 4990)
Oligochaeta: Lumbriculus variegatus (ref. ID; 1323, 2172, 2169, 4477)
Oligochaeta: Lumbricus rubellus (ref. ID; 7027)
Oligochaeta: Community. (ref. ID; 3302, 6874)
Oligochaeta: Community (tubificid worms). (ref. ID; 6704)

[Benzo[b]fluoranthene] CAS[205-99-2]
= 3,4-Benzofluoranthene
Chemical formula; C20H12
Chemical characteristics; Log Kow 5.80. (ref. ID; 7027)
Test organisms;
Oligochaeta: Eisenia fetida (ref. ID; 4954)
Oligochaeta: Community (tubificid worms). (ref. ID; 6704)

[Benzo(b,k)fluoranthene]
Chemical characteristics; Log Kow 6.20. (ref. ID; 6937)
Test organisms;
Oligochaeta: Lumbriculus variegatus (ref. ID; 6937)

[Benzo[e]pyrene] CAS[192-97-2]
= 1,2-Benzpyrene, 4,5-Benzpyrene
Chemical formula; C20H11
Chemical characteristics; Log Kow 6.44. (ref. ID; 6937)
Test organisms;
Oligochaeta: Lumbriculus variegatus (ref. ID; 2172, 6937)

[Benzo[ghi]perylene] CAS[191-24-2]
Chemical formula; C22H12
Chemical characteristics; Log Kow 6.50. (ref. ID; 7027)
Test organisms;
Oligochaeta: Eisenia fetida (ref. ID; 4954)
Oligochaeta: Community. (ref. ID; 6874)
Oligochaeta: Community (tubificid worms). (ref. ID; 6704)

[Benzo[k]fluoranthene] CAS[207-08-9]
Chemical formula; C20H12
Chemical characteristics; Log Kow 6.00. (ref. ID; 7027)
Test organisms;
Oligochaeta: Eisenia fetida (ref. ID; 4954)
Oligochaeta: Community. (ref. ID; 6874)
Oligochaeta: Community (tubificid worms). (ref. ID; 6704)

[Chrysene] CAS[218-01-9]
= 1,2-Benzophenanthrene
Chemical formula; C18H12
Chemical characteristics; Log Kow 5.86. (ref. ID; 6937, 7027)
Test organisms;
Oligochaeta: Eisenia fetida (ref. ID; 4954)
Oligochaeta: Lumbriculus variegatus (ref. ID; 2172, 6937)
Oligochaeta: Community. (ref. ID; 6874)
Oligochaeta: Community (tubificid worms). (ref. ID; 6704)

[Dibenz[a,h]anthracene] CAS[53-70-3]
= 1,2:5,6-Dibenzanthracene
Chemical formula; C22H14
Test organisms;
Oligochaeta: Eisenia fetida (ref. ID; 4954)
Oligochaeta: Community (tubificid worms). (ref. ID; 6704)

[Dibenzo[a]anthracene]
Chemical characteristics; Log Kow 6.75. (ref. ID; 7027)

[Dimethylbenzanthracene]
Toxicity; Carcinogens. (ref. ID; 868)
Test organisms;
Nematoda: Panagrellus redivivus (ref. ID; 868)

[Fluoranthene] CAS[206-44-0]
= 1,2-Benzacenaphthylene, Benzo[jk]fluorene, Idryl
Chemical formula; C16H10
Chemical characteristics; Log Kow 5.22. (ref. ID; 6937, 7027)
Lipophilicity log P 5.33. (ref. ID; 6959)
Test organisms;
Oligochaeta: Eisenia fetida (ref. ID; 4954, 6959, 7163)
Oligochaeta: Lumbriculus variegatus (ref. ID; 2172, 4446, 6937)
Oligochaeta: Lumbricus rubellus (ref. ID; 7027)
Oligochaeta: Community. (ref. ID; 3302, 6874)
Oligochaeta: Community (tubificid worms). (ref. ID; 6704)

[2-Methylfluoranthene]
Chemical formula;
Test organisms;
Oligochaeta: Community (tubificid worms). (ref. ID; 6704)

[Fluorene] CAS[86-73-7]
Chemical formula; C13H10
Chemical characteristics; Log Kow 4.38. (ref. ID; 6937)
Lipophilicity log P 4.18. (ref. ID; 6959)
Test organisms;
Oligochaeta: Allolobophora tuberculata (ref. ID; 7159, 7163)
Oligochaeta: Eisenia fetida (ref. ID; 4954, 6959, 7159, 7163)
Oligochaeta: Eudrilus eugeniae (ref. ID; 7159, 7163)
Oligochaeta: Lumbriculus variegatus (ref. ID; 2172, 6937)
Oligochaeta: Perionyx excavatus (ref. ID; 7159, 7163)
Oligochaeta: Community (tubificid worms). (ref. ID; 6704)

[Indenopyrene]
Test organisms;
Oligochaeta: Community. (ref. ID; 6874)

[Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene] CAS[193-39-5]
Chemical formula; C22H12
Test organisms;
Oligochaeta: Eisenia fetida (ref. ID; 4954)
Oligochaeta: Community (tubificid worms). (ref. ID; 6704)

[Naphthalene] CAS[91-20-3]
Trade name; naphthalene (J)
Chemical formula; C10H8
Chemical characteristics; Log Kow 3.35. (ref. ID; 6937)
Lipophilicity log P 3.27. (ref. ID; 6959)
Purpose for use; Insecticide, organic solvent & repellent.
Toxicity; LD50 (oral): rat 2200 mg/kg
Test organisms;
Oligochaeta: Eisenia fetida (ref. ID; 4954, 6959, 7163)
Oligochaeta: Lumbriculus variegatus (ref. ID; 2172, 6937)
Oligochaeta: Community. (ref. ID; 3302, 6874)
Oligochaeta: Community (tubificid worms). (ref. ID; 6704)

[1-Amino-4-nitronaphthalene] CAS[776-34-1] UN1294
Chemical characteristics; Log Kow 1.77. (ref. ID; 449)
Test organisms;
Protozoa: Tetrahymena pyriformis (ref. ID; 449)


[Diaminonaphthalene]
= Naphthalenediamine, Naphthylenediamine
Chemical formula; C10H10N2
Isomer: 1,2- CAS[938-25-0]
Isomer: 1,3- CAS[24824-28-0]
Isomer: 1,4- CAS[2243-61-0]
Isomer: 1,5- CAS[2243-62-1]
Isomer: 1,6- CAS[2243-63-2]
Isomer: 1,7- CAS[2243-64-3]
Isomer: 1,8- CAS[479-27-6]
Isomer: 2,3- CAS[771-97-1]
Isomer: 2,6- CAS[2243-67-6]
Isomer: 2,7- CAS[613-76-3]

1,5-Diaminonaphthalene
Chemical characteristics; Log Kow 0.89. (ref. ID; 449)
Test organisms;
Protozoa: Tetrahymena pyriformis (ref. ID; 449)

1,8-Diaminonaphthalene
Chemical characteristics; Log Kow 1.78. (ref. ID; 449)
Test organisms;
Protozoa: Tetrahymena pyriformis (ref. ID; 449)

2,3-Diaminonaphthalene
Chemical characteristics; Log Kow 1.54. (ref. ID; 449)
Test organisms;
Protozoa: Tetrahymena pyriformis (ref. ID; 449)


[1-Cyanonaphthalene]
= Naphthonitrile CAS[86-53-3] UN3439
Chemical formula; C10H7CN
Test organisms;
Protozoa: Tetrahymena pyriformis (ref. ID; 6709)
[Methylnaphthalene]
Chemical formula; C10H7CH3
Isomer: 1- CAS[90-12-0] UN3082
Isomer: 2- CAS[91-57-6] UN3077

1-Methylnaphthalene
Chemical characteristics; Log Kow 3.87. (ref. ID; 6937)
Test organisms;
Oligochaeta: Lumbriculus variegatus (ref. ID; 6937)

2-Methylnaphthalene
Chemical characteristics; Log Kow 4.00. (ref. ID; 6937)
Test organisms;
Oligochaeta: Lumbriculus variegatus (ref. ID; 6937)
Oligochaeta: Community (tubificid worms). (ref. ID; 6704)


[2,6-Dimethylnaphthalene] CAS[581-42-0]
Chemical formula; C10H6(CH3)2
Chemical characteristics; Log Kow 4.31. (ref. ID; 6937)
Test organisms;
Oligochaeta: Lumbriculus variegatus (ref. ID; 6937)

[1,6,7-Trimethylnaphthalene]
Chemical formula;
Chemical characteristics; Log Kow 4.70. (ref. ID; 6937)
Test organisms;
Oligochaeta: Lumbriculus variegatus (ref. ID; 6937)


[Dinitronaphthalene]
Chemical formula; C10H6N2O4
Isomer: 1,3- CAS[606-37-1]
Isomer: 1,5- CAS[605-71-0]
Isomer: 1,6- CAS[607-46-5]
Isomer: 1,8- CAS[602-38-0]

1,3-Dinitronaphthalene
Test organisms;
Protozoa: Tetrahymena pyriformis (ref. ID; 449)

1,5-Dinitronaphthalene
Test organisms;
Protozoa: Tetrahymena pyriformis (ref. ID; 449)

1,8-Dinitronaphthalene
Test organisms;
Protozoa: Tetrahymena pyriformis (ref. ID; 449)


[Octachloronaphthalene]
Test organisms;
Oligochaeta: Eisenia andrei (ref. ID; 7082)
[Tetrachloronaphthalene]
Chemical formula; C10H4Cl4
Isomer: 1,2,3,4- CAS[20020-02-4] UN1920
Isomer: 1,2,5,6-
Isomer: 1,3,5,7-
Isomer: 2,3,6,7-

1,2,3,4-Tetrachloronaphthalene
Chemical characteristics; Log P 5.5. (ref. ID; 507)
Octanol-water partition coefficient log Kow 5.5. (ref. ID; 6961)
Test organisms;
Oligochaeta: Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri (ref. ID; 507)
Oligochaeta: Tubifex tubifex (ref. ID; 507)
Oligochaeta: Community. (ref. ID; 6961)


[Perylene] CAS[198-55-0]
= Peri-dinaphthalene
= Dibenzo[de, kl]anthracene
Chemical formula; C20H12
Chemical characteristics; Log Kow 6.25. (ref. ID; 6937)
Test organisms;
Oligochaeta: Lumbriculus variegatus (ref. ID; 6937)

[Phenanthrene] CAS[85-01-8]
Chemical formula; C14H10
Chemical characteristics; Log Kow 4.57. (ref. ID; 6937, 7027)
Phenanthrene is a three-ring aromatic compound, and has a low vapor pressure, low solubility in water (1.29 mg/L, and a high log Kow (4.46). (ref. ID; 7135)
Test organisms;
Oligochaeta: Dendrobaena octaedra (ref. ID; 6928)
Oligochaeta: Eisenia fetida (ref. ID; 4954)
Oligochaeta: Enchytraeus albidus (ref. ID; 7135)
Oligochaeta: Ilyodrilus templetoni (ref. ID; 4473, 4990)
Oligochaeta: Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri (ref. ID; 2174)
Oligochaeta: Lumbriculus variegatus (ref. ID; 2172, 6937)
Oligochaeta: Lumbricus rubellus (ref. ID; 7027)
Oligochaeta: Community. (ref. ID; 6874)
Oligochaeta: Community (tubificid worms). (ref. ID; 6704)

[1-Methylphenanthrene]
Chemical characteristics; Log Kow 5.14. (ref. ID; 6937)
Test organisms;
Oligochaeta: Lumbriculus variegatus (ref. ID; 6937)

[Pyrene] CAS[129-00-0]
= Benzo[def]phenanthrene
Chemical formula; C16H10
Chemical characteristics; Log Kow 5.18. (ref. ID; 6937, 7027)
Pyrene is a four-ringed PAH. (ref. ID; 7138)
Toxicity; Non-carcinogenic PAH. (ref. ID; 6708)
Test organisms;
Oligochaeta: Dendrobaena octaedra (ref. ID; 6928)
Oligochaeta: Eisenia fetida (ref. ID; 4954, 7137)
Oligochaeta: Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri (ref. ID; 2174)
Oligochaeta: Lumbriculus variegatus (ref. ID; 2166, 2172, 6829, 6937, 6962, 7138)
Oligochaeta: Lumbricus rubellus (ref. ID; 6708, 7027)
Oligochaeta: Community (tubificid worms). (ref. ID; 6704)

[Floodplain PAH Pollution]
Test organisms;
Oligochaeta: Lumbricus rubellus (ref. ID; 7027)

[Soil PAH Pollution]
Test organisms;
Oligochaeta: Eisenia fetida (ref. ID; 6906)