Vorticella Linnaeus, 1767 (ref. ID; 2014) or Ehrenberg, 1838 (ref. ID; 1248) , , ,
Class Oligohymenophora: Subclass Peritricha: Order Peritrichida: Suborder Sessilina (ref. ID; 2014)
Class Oligohymenophora De Puytorac et al, 1974: Subclass Peritricha Stein, 1859: Order Peritrichida Stein, 1859: Suborder Sessilia Kahl, 1933: Family Vorticellidae Ehrenberg, 1838 (ref. ID; 4798)
Family Vorticellidae Kent (ref. ID; 1248)

[ref. ID; 2014]
Inverted bell-shaped body borne upon a contractile stalk. Always solitary although many species are gregarious. The stalk is oval in cross-section and contains a sinusoidal contractile muscle-like strand or myoneme, which causes contraction to take place in a spiral not zigzag manner. Impregnation by silver reveals a pattern of equally spaced horizontal lines which encircle the body. There are no vertical divisionary lines as in Pseudovorticella. Vorticella could be confused with two solitary peritrichs which are borne on contractile stalks; Haplocaulus which contracts in a zigzag manner and Pseudovorticella as mentioned above.
Quote; Colin R. Curds, Michael A. Gates and David McL. Roberts "British and other freshwater ciliated protozoa Part II Ciliophora: Oligohymenophora and Polyhymenophora" Cambridge University Press, 1983 (ref. ID; 2014)


Vorticella campanula Ehrenberg, 1831 (ref. ID; 1248, 1620, 1629, 1896, 4488, 4610, 7693) or 1838 (ref. ID; 1557) reported year? (ref. ID; 1219, 1618, 2082, 2245, 2668, 3343, 3698, 5462) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 3689)
Syn; Vorticella aperta Fromentel, 1874 (ref. ID; 1620)
Description; Body shape is bell-shaped, very changeable in outline, sometimes bending back. The central part of cell is filled with refractile reserve granules, therefore the animals are very conspicuous by their darkish body and they are easy to recognize; the peristome extends considerably outwards; vestibulum is very large and equipped with an outer undulating membrane; pellicle faintly annulated; the stalk may be somewhat invaginated into the basal portion of the body. Macronucleus is extending more or less along the longitudinal axis of the cell, very long and worm-like. Micronucleus is one. Contractile vacuole is one near the buccal cavity. (ref. ID; 1219)
Usually in groups; endoplasm filled with refractile reserve granules; vestibule very large with an outer pharyngeal membrane; fresh water. (ref. ID; 1618)
Measurements; Body size: 50-160 um long, 35-100 um wide; Stalk size: about 230-350 um long, 6-12 um wide. (ref. ID; 1219)
50-157 by 35-99 um; peristome 60-125 um wide; stalk 50-415 by 5.6-12 um. (ref. ID; 1618)
Silverlines from anterior end to aboral ciliary wreath (extremes 69-77, mean 72); silverlines from aboral ciliary wreath to scopula (extremes 27-33, mean 29); silverlines ratio 0.40 (ref. ID; 2082)
Length of cell 70-85 um. (ref. ID; 3343)
Vorticella campanula var. monilata (ref. ID; 1219)
Description; Numerous small pellicular tubercles. (ref. ID; 1219)
Vorticella chlorellata Stiller, 1940 (ref. ID; 2082 redescribed paper, 4613)
Diagnosis; On average 55 x 40 um, campanulate, green by symbiotic algae. Macronucleus J-shaped in main body axis. One contractile vacuole at ventral wall of vestibulum. On average 39 silverlines (pellicular striae) between anterior end and aboral ciliary wreath and 21 silverlines between aboral cilia wreath and scopula. Epiplanktonic. (ref. ID; 2082)
Neotype specimens; No type material of V. chlorellata has been mentioned in the literature. Thus, Foissner et al. (1996) have deposited two neotype slides with specimens from Salzburg, prepared as described, in the collection of microscope slides of the Oberosterreichische Landesmuseum in Linz (LI), Austria. (ref. ID; 2082)
Description; Size in vivo 53 x 40 um on average. Urceolate to pyriform-campanulate. Stalk up to 3 times as long as body, with inconspicuous granules, contracts distinctly helicoidally. Contracted specimens pyriform to ellipsoid; myoneme system very similar to that in other convallaria-type vorticellids, details, however, could be not recognized because it stained too faintly. Macronucleus in longitudinal axis of cell, J-shaped; micronucleus not observed. One contractile vacuole at mid-ventral portion of vestibulum. Cells packed with symbiotic green algae and thus conspicuously green-coloured. Symbiotic algae globular, 5-6 um across, with bowl-shaped chloroplast containing distinct pyrenoid, thus very likely belonging to genus Chlorella. Pellicle and silverline system as in other members of genus, transverse striation distinct in living specimens, pellicular pores present but not countable because preparations were too mediocre. Structure of inactive and active aboral ciliary wreath also as in other vorticellids. Scopula margin formed by rather widely spaced granules surrounding argyrophilic centre. Oral apparatus of usually structure, peristomial collar distinctly projecting, in fully extended specimens spread brim-like. Peristomial disc slightly convex. Vestibulum large, obliquely extending to body centre. Oral infraciliature quite similar to other members of genus, details, however, difficult to recognize due to heavily stained symbiotic algae. Haplokinety (undulating membrane) and polykinety (adoral ciliature) describe 1.5 turns (about 540 degrees) at peristomial disc before plunging down into vestibulum and accomplishing a further turn. Epistomial membrane, at least its basal bodies, recognizable in both sessile specimens and swarmers, located at vestibular opening, i.e. far from distal and of adoral ciliary spiral. (ref. ID; 2082)
[Swarmer]: Swarmer observed only in stained preparations, disc-shaped with scopula in centre of aboral pole. Infraciliature as in sessile specimens, except for aboral ciliary wreath whose anlage develop to small kineties bearing long cilia. (ref. ID; 2082)
Comments; This population matched the original of V. chlorellata quite nicely in habitat (on planktonic colonies of Gloeotricha), symbiotic algae, shape and size (55-60 um). The only significant deference concerns the location of the contractile vacuole, which Stiller (1940) illustrated at the dorsal vestibular wall and described as follows: "The contractile vacuole is located at the level of the peristomial disc, rarely slightly underneath". However, Stiller (1940) mentioned that interior details were difficult to recognize due to the symbiotic algae; Foissner et al. (1996) can confirm this. Furthermore, Stiller illustrated the vestibulum plunging down vertically into the cell, which is unlikely for such a type of Vorticella usually having the vestibulum obliquely directed to the dorsal side. Thus, it is reasonable to assume that Stiller (1940) also misinterpreted the location of the contractile vacuole. Vorticella chlorellata is distinctly different from V. chlorostigma (Ehrenberg, 1831), in size, macronucleus, and silverline number. Thus, Foissner et al. (1996) refuse synonymization as suggested by Warren (1986). Pratt and Rosen (1983) found a green Vorticella attached to planktonic Anabaena, Microcystis, and Tabellaria. They identified it as Pseudovorticella margaritata f. chlorelligera (now P. fasciculata). Unfortunately, they did not provide any morphological details, and thus their determination cannot be confirmed or rejected. However, that habitats suggest that it was V. chlorellata. Vorticella chlorellata is easily confused with Vorticella fasciculata Muller, 1773, which is very similar in size, shape, location of contractile vacuole, and colour, i.e. bears symbiotic green algae, too. However, V. fasciculata has a reticulate silverline system and thus belongs to Pseudovorticella. As concerns the number of silverlines, V. chlorellata is very close to V. picta which, however, lacks symbiotic algae and has two contractile vacuoles and very distinct stalk granules. (ref. ID; 2082)
Measurements; Body length (in vivo) 53.0 (44-64); body width (in vivo) 40.0 (34-48) um. Silverlines from anterior end to aboral ciliary wreath (extremes 35-40, mean 39); silverlines from aboral ciliary wreath to scopula (extremes 19-24, mean 21); silverlines ratio 0.54 (ref. ID; 2082)
Vorticella chlorostigma (Ehrenberg, 1831) Ehrenberg, 1838 (ref. ID; 2082 redescribed paper)
Diagnosis; On average about 100 x 70 um, conspicuously companulate due to large, protruding peristomial collar, green by symbiotic algae. Macronucleus horseshoe-shaped near body centre. One contractile vacuole at dorsal wall of vestibulum. On average 107 silverlines (pellicular striae) between anterior end and aboral ciliary wreath and 50 silverlines between aboral ciliary wreath and scopula. (ref. ID; 2082)
Neotype specimens; No type material of V. chlorostigma has been mentioned in the literature. Thus Foissner et al. (1996) have deposited four neotype slides with silver nitrate prepared (dry method) specimens in the collection of microscope slides of the Oberosterreichische Landesmuseum in Linz (LI), Austria. (ref. ID; 2082)
Description; The observations on this species are not as detailed as they should be because they were made 20 years ago when the senior author was still a beginner. However, the main characteristics were well documented and are thus described, so much the more as they prove the species status of V. chlorellata Stiller. Length in vivo about 85-110 um. Distinctly campanulate due to widely protruding peristomial collar; body proper, however, calciform to almost cylindrical. Stalk up to 500 um long, with distinct granules, contracts helicoidally. Contracted specimens pyriform, usually with bulged anterior region due to withdrawn peristomial collar. Macronucleus in transverse axis of cell, almost circular ("horseshoe-shaped"; controlled in hematoxilin stained sliver nitrate slides). One contractile vacuole at dorsal wall near proximal end of vestibulum. Cells packed with symbiotic algae about 5 um in diameter with bowl-shaped chloroplast containing distinct pyrenoid, thus very likely belonging to genus Chlorella. Pellicle and silverline system as in other members of genus, transverse striation, however, extremely narrow and thus hardly recognizable in live specimens; 20-41 (average 30, n = 6) distinct pellicular pores per 10 um2. Structure of inactive and active aboral ciliary wreath also as in other vorticellids. Scopula margin formed by rather widely spaced granules surrounding argyrophilic centre. Oral apparatus of usually structure, peristomial collar, however, very flexible and distinctly projecting, in fully extended specimens brim-like and frequently slightly curved backwards. Peristomial disc flat, slightly convex or slightly concave. Vestibulum large, obliquely extending to body centre. Oral infraciliature not studied. (ref. ID; 2082)
[Swarmer]: Swarmer slightly conical an asymmetrical, with broadly rounded aboral end and scopula in centre of aboral pole. (ref. ID; 2082)
Comments; Foissner et al. (1996) population matched the original description, which is, understandably, rather incomplete (V. corpore ovato-conico, campanulato, annulato, ovario viridi, frontis margine exserto), in most main characters, viz. size (about 70-100 um according to Ehrenberg 1831, 1838), shape, symbiotic algae, and habitat (attached to a variety of solid substrates like roots of water plants and blades grass). One of the specimens illustrated by Ehrenberg (1838) shows a bright blister at the margin of the cell, indicating that the contractile vacuole is at the ventral wall of the vestibulum, which would be different to our specimens. Alternatively, this blister can be interpreted as the vestibular opening, which appears, if specimens are observed in an oblique angle, as a roundish, bright spot. In the absence of any other controversial data, it seems reasonable to identify our population as V. chlorostigma (Ehrenberg, 1831). Graham and Graham (1980) provided some beautiful micrographs from a zoochlorellae-bearing Vorticella attached small pieces of debris in Lake Wingra, USA. The specimens shown look very similar to those we investigated and have the same size, viz. 75-108 x 58-85 um (average 93 x 68, n = 10). Thus, these populations are very likely conspecific. Unfortunately, Graham and Graham (1980) did not provide any details as to the nucleus, contractile vacuole, and number of pellicular striae. At first glance, V. chlorostigma highly resembles V. chlorellata Stiller, 1940. However, size, nucleus, and especially the number of silverlines are totally different. Thus, both are distinct species. Certainly, V. chlorostigma is also easily confused with green V. fasciculata Muller, 1773 which, however, has a reticulate silverline system and thus belongs to the genus Pseudovorticella. Vorticella sinuata Zacharias, 1903 also resembles V. chlorostigma in size (125 x 60 um), habitat (Utricularia pond), symbiotic green algae, and macronucleus shape. However, V. sinuata has a different, highly characteristic shape and is thus very likely another distinct, green species. Vorticella chlorostigma is unusual not only by the symbiotic green algae but also by the horseshoe-shaped macronucleus. Usually, Vorticellas of these size and shape have a long, J-shaped nucleus. However, V. marginata Stiller, 1931, which highly resembles V. chlorostigma in size, shape and extremely fine pellicular striation, has the same type of macronucleus. Obviously, these species form a particular group within the genus, as also indicated by the high number of silverlines, which distinguishes V. chlorostigma from all other species investigated so far. (ref. ID; 2082)
Measurements; Silverlines from anterior end to aboral ciliary wreath (extremes 101-118, mean 107); silverlines from aboral ciliary wreath to scopula (extremes 41-55, mean 50); silverlines ratio 0.47. (ref. ID; 2082)
Vorticella conochili Stokes (ref. ID; 2232)
Description; This species is commensals of Conochilus unicornis. The shape is campanulate, not much elongated, the pellicule is fine but densely striated, crescent-shaped macronucleus situated transversally, contractile vacuole under vestibulum. The peduncle has a characteristic structure; it is marked by the absence of myoid filaments in the lower part of the stalk. Contractability is thus restricted to the upper part, which is 40-42 um long. (ref. ID; 2232)
Vorticella conosoma Stokes, 1888 (ref. ID; 1335, 1620, 2232)
Description; This species is commensals of Conochilus unicornis. (ref. ID; 2232)
Vorticella convallaria-complex (ref. ID; 2028, 4610)
Measurements; Silverlines from anterior end to aboral ciliary wreath (extremes 70-90, mean 80); silverlines from aboral ciliary wreath to scopula (extremes 19-27, mean 22); silverlines ratio 0.27 (ref. ID; 2082)
Vorticella convallaria Linne, 1758 (ref. ID; 1248), Linnaeus, 1758 (ref. ID; 1114, 1557, 1620, 1629, 1896, 2245, 7418), Linnaeus, 1767 (ref. ID; 7693) reported year? (ref. ID; 1219, 1618, 3342, 3698, 5462), (Linnaeus, 1758) Linnaeus, 1767 (ref. ID; 4813) or (L.) Noland (ref. ID; 2668) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 191, 4405)
Syn; Hydra convallaria Linnaeus, 1758 (ref. ID; 4610, 4813)
Description; Body is bell-shaped. There are no, or only a few, darkish looking refractile granules, the animal therefore never looks dark but is very often yellow-tinted; the peristomal area of V. convallaria is narrower than in V. campanula; the annulation of the pellicle is easily visible; macronucleus and contractile vacuole as in V. campanula; food vacuole with oval contour. (ref. ID; 1219)
Fine structure of the scopula-stalk region. (ref. ID; 7418)
Measurements; Body length 30-120 um, width 35-70 um, peristome width 55-75 um, stalk length 100-500 um, width 4-6.5 um. But, body shape and size, including the ratio of length to peristomal width, may vary greatly in V. convallaria. (ref. ID; 1219)
50-95 by 35-53 um; peristome 55-75 um wide; stalk 25-460 by 4-6.5 um. (ref. ID; 1618)
40-57 x 20-30 um. (ref. ID; 3342)
Vorticella dimorpha Stiller (ref. ID; 2232)
Description; This species is commensals of Conochilus unicornis. (ref. ID; 2232)
Vorticella infusionum-complex (ref. ID; 2082, 4610)
Measurements; Silverlines from anterior end to aboral ciliary wreath (extremes 28-40, mean 34); silverlines from aboral ciliary wreath to scopula (extremes 6-13, mean 9); silverlines ratio 0.26. (ref. ID; 2082)
Vorticella marginata Stiller, 1931 (ref. ID; 1620, 1629, 2082, 2668, 4488, 4610) or 1940 (ref. ID; 1248)
See; Description of V. chlorostigma (ref. ID; 2082)
Vorticella mayeri Faure-Fremiet, 1920 (ref. ID; 4610, 4613) or 1924 (ref. ID; 1335, 1620, 1629, 2668) reported year? (ref. ID; 3342)
See; Pelagovorticella mayeri (ref. ID; 4613)
Measurements; 51 um. (ref. ID; 3342)
Vorticella microstoma-complex (ref. ID; 2082, 4610)
Measurements; Silverlines from anterior end to aboral ciliary wreath (extremes 43-65, mean 51); silverlines from aboral ciliary wreath to scopula (extremes 10-14, mean 11); silverlines ratio 0.22. (ref. ID; 2082)
Vorticella microstoma Ehrenberg, 1830 (ref. ID; 1219, 1335, 1557, 1620, 1629, 1896, 2245) reported year? (ref. ID; 1618, 3342, 3491, 5462, 7191)
Syn; Vorticella infusionum Dujardin, 1841 (ref. ID; 1620)
Description; Body vase-like, length 35-120 um; long contractile stalk about 20-400 um; pellicle annulated; cytoplasm slightly yellowish; peristome with buccal ciliation that winds counterclockwise to the buccal cavity; anterior region rather narrow by comparison with other species of the genus; 1 long band-form macronucleus extending more less along the longitudinal axis of the cell; a single micronucleus; a contractile vacuole is located near the buccal cavity. Mature sessile individuals without body ciliation; the sessile individual may develop to the free-swimming defined ecological condition. e.g., lack of oxygen and high carbon dioxide tension. Asexual reproduction is by longitudinal binary fission; one daughter cell usually remains on the stalk, while the other is provided with a posterior ciliary girdle ("free-swimming larvae"). Conjugation by sessile macroconjugants and free-swimming microconjugants with posterior ciliary girdle; the microconjugant is formed by unequal division. (ref. ID; 1219)
Measurements; V. microstoma may vary greatly in size, shape, and stalk-length. (ref. ID; 1219)
35-83 by 22-50 um; peristome 12-25 um wide; stalk 20-385 by 1.5-4 um. (ref. ID; 1618)
40-60 x 20-30 um; diameter of peristome 16-20 um. (ref. ID; 3342)
Vorticella monilata Tatem, 1870 (ref. ID; 1248, 1557, 1620, 2245, 2668) reported year? (ref. ID; 1618, 5462, 5624)
See; Pseudovorticella monilata (ref. ID; 2082)
Description; Body with pellicular tubercles composed of paraglycogen; two contractile vacuoles; fresh water. (ref. ID; 1618)
Measurements; 50-78 by 35-57 um; peristome 36-63 um wide; stalk 50-200 by 5-6.5 um. (ref. ID; 1618)
Vorticella nebulifera var. similis Stokes, 1887 (ref. ID; 1248) or (Stokes) Noland & Finley (ref. ID; 1219)
Syn; Vorticella similis Stokes (ref. ID; 1219)
Description; Body shape: similar to some varieties of V. convallaria. Body very translucent, pure misty white or slightly grayish in colour, food vacuoles oblong or spindle-shaped. Macronucleus: long and band-like, as in V. convallaria. (ref. ID; 1219)
Measurements; Body size: 40-90 um long, 20-50 um wide; peristome width 30-70 um. Stalk size: about 50-800 um long. (ref. ID; 1219)
Vorticella octava-complex (ref. ID; 2082, 4610)
Measurements; Silverlines from anterior end to aboral ciliary wreath (extremes 24-39, mean 30); silverlines from aboral ciliary wreath to scopula (extremes 9-16, mean 11); silverlines ratio 0.37 (ref. ID; 2082)
Vorticella picta (Ehrenberg, 1831) (ref. ID; 1248, 1335, 1557, 1620, 1629, 2082, 2245) or (Ehrenberg, 1831) Ehrenberg, 1838 (ref. ID; 4610) reported year? (ref. ID; 1618)
Syn; Carchesium pictum Ehrenberg, 1831 (ref. ID; 4610)
Description; Two contractile vacuoles; with refractile granules in stalk; fresh water. (ref. ID; 1618)
Measurements; 41-63 by 20-37 um; peristome 35-50 um; stalk 205-500 by 4-7 um. (ref. ID; 1618)
Silverlines from anterior end to aboral ciliary wreath (extremes 35-46, mean 40); silverlines from aboral ciliary wreath to scopula (extremes 22-27, mean 25); silverlines ratio 0.62. (ref. ID; 2082)
Vorticella similis Stokes, 1887 (ref. ID; 922) reported year? (ref. ID; 3342) Stokes, 1887- Noland, 1931
See; Vorticella nebulifera var. similis (Stokes) Noland & Finley (ref. ID; 1219)
Syn; Vorticella nebulifera Ehrenberg
Measurements; 54-79 x 27-60 um, diameter of peristome 41 um (by the smaller size). (ref. ID; 3342)
Vorticella sinuata Zacharias, 1903 (ref. ID; 1620, 2082)
Description; See the description of V. chlorostigma. (ref. ID; 2082)
Vorticella striata Dujardin, 1841 (ref. ID; 1620, 4654) reported year? (ref. ID; 3343) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 191)
Measurements; Length of cell 30-35 um. (ref. ID; 3343)
Vorticella striata f. octova Stokes (ref. ID; 5462), var. octava Stokes (ref. ID; 2668) or (Stokes) Noland & Finley (ref. ID; 1219, 2245)
Syn; Vorticella octava Stokes (ref. ID; 1219, 2245)
Description; Body shape: vase-like, undergoes some variation in size and outline; body resembles that of V. microstoma, but V. octava is smaller, the pellicular annulations are very distinct, about 25-40 striae: peristome border is thicker than in V. microstoma but shows much variation. Cytoplasm translucent or slightly misty white. Surface of body slightly ribbed. Macronucleus: thick, sausage-like; lies transverse to the longitudinal axis. Contractile vacuole: one near the buccal cavity. (ref. ID; 1219)
Measurements; Body size: 20-60 um long, 15-40 um wide; peristome width 13-40 um. Stalk size: 20-300 um long. (ref. ID; 1219)