Lagenophrys Stein, 1851 (ref. ID; 2014) or 1852 (nec 1851) (ref. ID; 4335)
Class Oligohymenophora: Subclass Peritricha: Order Peritrichida: Suborder Sessilina (ref. ID; 2014)
Family Lagenophryidae Butschli, 1889 (ref. ID; 1248)

See; Circolagenophrys (ref. ID; 4216)
Synonym; Stylohedra Kellicott, 1885 (subjective junior synonym). Its type-species is Stylohedra lenticula Kellicott, 1885 by monotypy). Cirolagenophrys Jankowski, 1980 (subjective junior synonym). Its type-species is Lagenophrys Stein, 1852 by designation. (ref. ID; 4335)

[ref. ID; 2014]
Rounded body enclosed within a pseudochitinous lorica which lies on its side attached to crustacea. The animal attached laterally to the lorica (often by means of a short stalk-like structure) but able to move about freely inside. The peristome region like that of Opercularia extending out of the complicated neck region of the lorica. The latter may be closed by a triangular sail-like muscular membrane stretching between the top of the lorica and the dorsal edge of the aperture. The genus is most easily mistaken for Operculigera which closes the aperture by means of an operculum. It could also be confused with Platycola in which the animal is attached posteriorly and is without a complicated valve in the neck of the lorica.
Quote; Colin R. Curds, Michael A. Gates and David McL. Roberts "British and other freshwater ciliated protozoa Part II Ciliophora: Oligohymenophora and Polyhymenophora" Cambridge University Press, 1983 (ref. ID; 2014)

[ref. ID; 3674]
Lagenophrys is a genus of loricate peritrichs which are ectocommensals of crustaceans. Most species of the genus have a flattened, hemispheroidal lorica which is attached to the exoskeleton of the host by its lower surface. The aperture of the lorica is provided with a closure apparatus consisting of a pair of flexible lips connected to a sleevelike invagination, the loricastome. The lips of the lorica aperture differ among the species of Lagenophrys and constitute one of the principal taxonomic characters by which they are distinguished. The body is attached to the posterior half of the loricastome by part of the edge of the peristomial lip. Attachment of the oral area of the body to the lorica prevents the body from contracting when fixed; consequently, most characteristics are unchanged after fixation. (ref. ID; 3674)

[ref. ID; 4267]
Binary fission occurs along a plane extending diagonally across the body in Lagenophrys. Of the two daughthers produced by fission, the one on the right remains attached to the lorica aperture and resumes adult structure and feeding activities after a short period of quiescence. The daughter to the left becomes a telotroch, which soon develops a trochal band of long cilia and exits the lorica by squeezing through its aperture. The body of the telotroch of Lagenophrys is somewhat flattened and is distorted in the same way as the body of the adult. The anlage of the edge of the peristomial lip is also shaped like the lips of the adult's lorica aperture rather than the edge of the adult's peristomial lip. In the adult, the peristomial myoneme consists of a slender band with thickened ends that spans the posterior half of the peristomial lip. The anterior half of the peristomial myoneme is not visible in adults stained with protargol or hematoxylin, suggesting that it is either absent or extremely slender. In telotrochs, however, the peristomial myoneme conforms to the shape of the anlage of the edge of the peristomial lip, and its anterior and posterior halves are equal in width and development. Darkly stained bands that appear to be somatic myonemes were observed in the cytoplasm of telotrochs stained with protargol. Seventeen to nineteen of these bands are located around the periphery of the body, just beneath its surface. Ventrally, the peripheral bands terminate in the vicinity of the trochal band of kinetosomes, and they extend dorsally to a point approximately midway up the side of the body. Three or four additional bands, similar to the peripheral bands, are found in the center of the body. In Lagenophrys, metamorphosing individuals expand the body to the dimensions of the lorica while the lorica material is hardening. They do this by developing a large "growth cavity" in the center of the body. The growth cavity is actually the hyperexpanded contractile vacuole. (ref. ID; 4267)

[ref. ID; 4335]
Emended description; Closure apparatus of lorica aperture consists of two opposing lips formed from folds of lorica material. Lips of lorica aperture oriented parallel to transverse axis of body and lorica. Both lips of aperture thin-walled and flexible, although some species have edge of one or both lips thickened. Some species with tubercles or serrations on edges of one or both lips of aperture but none with spines arising from edge of anterior lip. Lips of aperture usually with convexly curved edges. Lips down together equally in closure of aperture; edges of lips pressed together to effect closure and neither lip loses its shape in doing so. Loricastome present, consisting of tubular passageway that extends from ventral edge of aperture lips into interior of lorica. Edge of peristomial lip of trophont permanently associated with posterior surface of loricastome. Thickened myonemal band present only in posterior half of edge of peristomial lip. Shape of macronucleus differs among species in genus. All species undergo second type division in evacuating host before its ecdyses. Fifty-four species are assigned to Lagenophrys. (ref. ID; 4335)
Type species; Lagenophrys vaginicola Stein, 1852 by precedence of description. (ref. ID; 4335)


Lagenophrys aegleae Mouchet-Bennati, 1932 (ref. ID; 3674, 4335)
Redescription; The lorica is hemispheroidal, being roughly oval in dorsal view, and has an asymmetrical outline similar to that of L. anticthos. The lorica rim is unthickened. A curved fold or ridge is present in the dorsal surface of lorica immediately posteriad of the lorica aperture. The lips of the lorica aperture are short and are located close to the anterior margin of the lorica. The posterior lip is slightly longer than the anterior lip. The ends of the lips abut at the left, but the end of the posterior lip extends are slight distance beyond the end of the anterior lip at the right. The edges of both lips of the lorica aperture are moderately thickened, and the posterior lip is slightly thicker than the anterior lip. A slender crochet extends ventrad from each end of the anterior lip. The crochets are approximately equal in thickness and length. The macronucleus is ovoid or reniform and is located in the right half of body. It is oriented approximately parallel to the long axis of body. The micronucleus is ovoid. It is usually located near the center of the macronucleus but can also be found near one of the ends of the macronucleus. The infraciliature was not observed. (ref. ID; 3674)
Host specificity; Lagenophrys aegleae has been found only on members of the genus Aegla. (ref. ID; 3674)
Lagenophrys anticthos Clamp, 1988 (ref. ID; 3674 original paper, 4323, 4335)
Description; The lorica is hemispheroidal, being roughly oval in dorsal view, and has an asymmetrical outline. It present the appearance of having been elongated along an axis running obliquely from the upper left part to the lower right part. The size of the lorica is extremely variable. The majority of individuals in the samples examined had loricae in the lower or middle parts of the range in regard to length and width. Some individuals were extremely large, however. The largest individuals in the sample that was measured had loricae nearly twice as large as the smallest individuals. The anterior part of the lorica rim is heavily thickened, but the remainder of the lorica rim is only slightly to moderately thickened. There is a curved, slightly thickened ridge located immediately anteriad of the aperture. This ridge probably corresponds to the anterior crescentic thickening seen in some other species of Lagenophrys. It curves posteriad around each side of the aperture, and extends farther around the aperture on the left than on the right, especially in larger individuals. The lips of the lorica aperture are short and are located some distance (approximately 1/6 the length of the lorica) posteriad of the lorica's anterior margin. The structure of the lips of the lorica aperture varies according to the size of the lorica. In small to moderately large individuals, both lips of the aperture have moderately thickened edges, and the anterior lip is divided into two grossly unequal elements by a deep cleft in its edge. In the largest individuals, only the posterior lip of the aperture is thickened. The anterior lip of these individuals either not divided into separate elements or has only a faint indication of the cleft seen in the anterior lip of smaller individuals. In addition, the medial part of the anterior lip is strongly arched from edge to base in the largest individuals, and the inner surface of the arched part is marked by several transverse ridges or folds. There is a large, stout crochet at each end of the anterior lip of the aperture. The right crochet is always longer and more massive than the left crochet. The shape of each crochet also varies with the size of the individual. In small to moderately large individuals, the distal end of the left crochet is recurved, but that of the right crochet is not. Both crochets are longer and have complex, twisted shapes in the largest individuals. In their left crochet, the proximal half curves first mediad and then back laterad. The distal half of their left crochet is much thicker than the proximal half and curves mediad from the point where it joins the proximal half. The proximal half of their right crochet curves anteriad and mediad, then posteriad and mediad. Its distal half is much thicker than the proximal half and curves anteriad and dorsad, then sharply posterior. The macronucleus is ovoid or reniform and is located in the right half of the body. It is oriented approximately parallel to the long axis of body. The micronucleus is ovoid and is separated from the macronucleus by a large distance in many individuals. If found near the macronucleus, the micronucleus is usually near the anterior or center of the macronucleus, never near its posterior. The infraciliature was not observed. (ref. ID; 3674)
Host specificity; Lagenophrys anticthos was found only on members of the crayfish genus Parastacus, all of which are burrowing forms. (ref. ID; 3674)
Lagenophrys callinectes Couch, 1967 (ref. ID; 4323, 4335) reported year? (ref. ID; 4267) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 191)
Description; Lorica hemispheroidal, suboval in dorsal view, slightly longer than wide. Anterior margin of lorica early straight. Lorica rim only slightly to moderately thickened. Lips of lorica aperture short, located distance equal to 1/7-1/8 of length of lorica behind anterior margin of lorica. Both lips of lorica aperture moderately arched, with edges heavily thickened; anterior lip much thicker than posterior lip. Anterior lip divided into 2 greatly unequal elements by deep cleft; left element of lip 35-60% as long as right element. Anterior lip with long, slender, slightly curved subequal crochets. Edge of posterior lip divided into 2 subequal elements by deep, medial cleft. Trochal band of kinetosomes and infraciliature of peniculi as in L. eupagurus. Macronucleus cylindroid, elongate, moderately curved, located along right and posterior edges of body, conforming to curve of edge of body. Ends of macronucleus as in L. eupagurus. Micronucleus ovoid, usually located near center of macronucleus, rarely near left or right end. (ref. ID; 4323)
Type locality and host; United States, Maryland, Chesapeake Bay; on Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, gill lamellae. (ref. ID; 4323)
Type material examined; Holotype slide: protargol preparation; International Protozoan Type Slide Collection 24239. Paratype slide; hematoxylin preparation; International Protozoan Type Slide Collection 24240. (ref. ID; 4323)
Lagenophrys dennisi Clamp, 1987 (ref. ID; 4267 original paper, 4335)
Description; Lorica hemispheroidal, suboval (longer than wide) or subcircular in dorsal view. Anterior part of lorica rim slightly thickened; reminder of rim unthickened. Lorica without anterior crescentic thickening or anterior bulge. Lips of lorica aperture moderately tall, located close to anterior margin of lorica. Both lips aperture highly arched, unthickened, smooth, without projections or indentations. Anterior lip without distinct crochets but with lateral, inner edges slightly thickened. Trochal band of kinetosomes unbroken. Infraciliature of peniculi as follows: rows of P1 equal in length, ending at cytostome; rows of P2 equal in length, ending at distal curvature of P1. Peniculus 2 separated from P1 by wide gap. Peniculus 3 with two rows: row 1 slightly longer than row 2. Row 1 of P3 beginning moderate distance above distal end of P2; row 2 of P3 beginning only slight distance above distal end of P2. Rows of P3 closely parallel for entire length, ending at cytostome at same point as distal end of P1. Macronucleus cylindroid, elongate, sharply curved or bent at point to right of center, extending from approximate center of body to anterior end of body, nearly spanning body from left to right. Left arm of macronucleus more or less straight, slanting posteriad from left to right at slight to moderate angle to transverse axis of body. Left end of macronucleus clavate, often grossly thicker than rest of nucleus. Right arm of macronucleus noticeably shorter than left arm, rarely approaching length of left arm; right arm slightly to moderately curved, lying along right side of body. Micronucleus ovoid, usually located near left end of macronucleus, occasionally near center of macronucleus, rarely near right end of macronucleus. (ref. ID; 4267)
Etymology; The species is named in honor of Michael Denis in appreciation for his friendship and considerable help in field collecting. (ref. ID; 4267)
Type locality and host; United States, Missouri, Jefferson Co., 4.3 km NNE Hillsboro, creek running parallel to MO 21 at Hayden Rd.; 5/10/78; J. C. Clamp, L. Parks: on Orconectes illinoiensis Brown, exposed body surfaces (exclusive of branchial chamber or gills) and surfaces of developing eggs. (ref. ID; 4267)
Type material; A holotype slide (hematoxylin preparation) and two paratype slides (hematoxylin preparation, protargol preparation) of material from the type locality will be deposited in the International Protozoan Type Slide Collection of the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. (ref. ID; 4267)
Lagenophrys eupagurus Kollicott, 1893 (ref. ID; 4323 redescribed paper, 4335) reported year? (ref. ID; 4267)
Syn; Lagenophrys articularis n. syn. in Nie & Ho (1943, pp. 146, 147) (ref. ID; 4323, 4335), Corliss & Brough (1965, p. 74) (ref. ID; 4323), Kane (1965, p. 121) (ref. ID; 4323), Couch (1967, p. 210) (ref. ID; 4323), Sprague & Couch (1971, p. 531) (ref. ID; 4323), Felgenhauer (1982, pp. 142, 148) (ref. ID; 4323); Lagenophrys eupagurus in Kollicott, (1893, p. 10) (ref. ID; 4323), Wallengren (1900, p. 358) (ref. ID; 4323), von Ubisch (1913, p. 43) (ref. ID; 4323), Swarczewsky (1930, p. 457) (ref. ID; 4323), Corliss & Brough (1965, p. 74) (ref. ID; 4323), Kane (1965, p. 121) (ref. ID; 4323), Couch (1966, p. 171) (ref. ID; 4323), Couch (1967, p. 204) (ref. ID; 4323), Sprague (1970, p. 427, 429) (ref. ID; 4323), Sprague & Couch (1971, p. 533) (ref. ID; 4323), Felgenhauer (1982, p. 148) (ref. ID; 4323); Lagenophrys paguri in Kahl (1935, p. 795) (ref. ID; 4323); Lagenophrys lunatus n. syn. in Imamura (1940, pp. 268-270) (ref. ID; 4323, 4335), Debaisieux (1959, p. 361-383) (ref. ID; 4323), Corliss & Brough (1965, p. 74) (ref. ID; 4323), Kane (1965, p. 121) (ref. ID; 4323), Couch (1967, p. 210) (ref. ID; 4323), Sprague (1970, p. 429) (ref. ID; 4323), Sprague & Couch (1971, p. 533) (ref. ID; 4323), Clamp (1973, pp. 558-561) (ref. ID; 4323), Couch (1978, pp. 17, 19) (ref. ID; 4323), Felgenhauer (1982, pp. 142, 148, 149) (ref. ID; 4323); Lagenophrys sp. in Johnson (1974, pp. 4, 12, 14), Johnson (1975, p. 14) (ref. ID; 4323), Felgenhauer & Ridgeway (1977, pp. 533-535) (ref. ID; 4323); Lagenophrys ("lunatus-like") in Felgenhauer (1982, pp. 148, 149) (ref. ID; 4323)
Description; Lorica hemispheroidal, subcircular or suboval in dorsal view. Anterior margin of lorica nearly straight; lorica usually tapering slightly posteriad. Lorica rim usually heavily thickened, occasionally only slightly to moderately thickened. Lips of lorica aperture short, located distance equal to 1/5-1/6 of length of lorica behind anterior margin of lorica. Both lips moderately arched, with edges heavily thickened; anterior lip and posterior lip of approximately same thickness. Edge of anterior lip divided into 2 slightly to moderately unequal elements by deep, medial cleft. Left element of anterior lip almost always shorter than right element, 70-100% as long as right element. Anterior lip with long, slender, slightly curved, subequal crochets. Edge of posterior lip divided into 2 subequal elements by deep medial cleft. Trochal band of kinetosomes broken on right side; ends of break separated by wide gap. Infraciliature of peniculi as follows: row 1 of P1 slightly shorter than other rows of P1, ending slightly above cytostome; rows 2 and 3 of P1 approximately equal in length, ending at cytostome. Rows of P2 approximately equal in length, ending at distal curvature of P1. P2 closely parallel to P1 for entire length. P3 with 2 rows; rows of P3 approximately equal in length. Proximal end of P3 separated from P2 by wide gap. Rows of P3 beginning moderate distance above distal end of P2, ending at same point as distal end of row 1 of P1. Macronucleus cylindroid, elongate, curved, located close to periphery of body. One or both ends of macronucleus often thicker than rest of nucleus. If thickened, end of macronucleus tapering to more or less sharp point; if not thickened, end of macronucleus rounded. Micronucleus ovoid, usually located near center of macronucleus, less often near right end, rarely near left end. (ref. ID; 4323)
Remarks; Kellicott (1893) described Lagenophrys eupagurus in an abstract without providing a figure. He found the species on the "gills of the smaller 'hermit crab' (presumably Pagurus longicarpus Say) in the vicinity of Woods Hole, Massachusetts. The distinguishing characteristics of L. eupagurus were diameter of its lorica (1/600 inch or 43 um) and the structure of its lorica aperture. Kellicott (1893) writes that "... this aperture has about its edge four thickened pieces each a qaudrent [sic] of a circle...". No one after Kellicott reported finding L. eupagurus again; consequently, it has remained virtually unknown and unremarked. (ref. ID; 4323)
Type locality and host; United States, Massachusetts, Barnstable Co., Woods Hole; on Pagurus longicarpus Say, gill lamellae Kellicott (1893). (ref. ID; 4323)
Disposition of type material; Ten slides of L. lunatus were donated to me by its author, Dr. Taiji Imamura. Three of these slides (2 whole mounts and 1 slide of sectioned material, hematoxylin preparation) are designated neosyntypes of L. lunatus and will be deposited in the International Protozoan Type Slide Collection of the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. The remaining slides (1 whole mount and 6 slides of sectioned material) will remain in my private collection. No other type material of L. eupagurus or its synonyms exists. (ref. ID; 4323)
Lagenophrys foxi Clamp, 1987 (ref. ID; 4267 original paper, 4335)
Description; Lorica hemispheroidal, subcircular or suboval (wider than long) in dorsal view; lorica rim not thickened. Dorsal surface of lorica with prominent, thickened, curved ridge (anterior crescentic thickening) immediately anteriad of aperture, extending posteriad no farther than lateral edges of aperture. Lips of lorica aperture tall, located close to anterior margin of lorica. Both lips of aperture moderately arched, unthickened, smooth, without projections or indentations. Anterior lip lacking crochets. Edge of posterior lip with distinct, medial food when aperture closed. Narrow band of loricastome near bases of lips moderately thickened; ends of posterior half of thickened band always bent sharply posteriad approximately 2/5 distance from lateral edge of loricastome to center. Anterior half of thickened band bent in same way as posterior half when aperture close, curved in shallow arc when aperture open. Trochal band of kinetosomes unbroken. Infraciliature of peniculi as follows: row 1 of P1 shorter than other rows of P1, ending moderate distance above cytostome. Distal ends of rows 2 and 3 of P1 curving sharply away from row 1 of P1 toward P3; rows 2 and 3 of P1 ending together at cytostome. Rows of P2 equal in length, ending at distal curvature of P1. Peniculus 3 with two rows; rows 1 approximately 1+1/4 times as long as row 2. Row 1 of P3 beginning far above distal end of P2; row 2 of P3 beginning moderate distance above distal end of P2. Rows of P3 closely parallel for most of length, ending at approximately same point as does row 1 of P1. Macronucleus cylindroid, elongate, bent in middle at angle ranging from obtuse to acute, located in right half of body. Right arm of macronucleus lying along right edge of body, conforming to curve of edge of body. Left arm of macronucleus straight or slightly curved, extending from bend in middle of macronucleus toward center of body. Micronucleus ovoid, usually located near right arm of macronucleus, rarely near center or left arm of macronucleus. (ref. ID; 4267)
Remarks; Lagenophrys foxi was found only in the middle part of the Mississippi drainage, being most abundant on G. pseudolimnaeus. Samples of G. pseudolimnaeus and other Gammarus species from the Great Lakes region, upper midwestern United States, and eastern North America (including parts of Canada) were examined, but L. foxi was not seen on any of them. Individuals of L. foxi in permanent preparations are often seen with the inner edges of the thickened band in the loricastome pressed tightly together and the lips of the aperture spread open, possibly due to pressure from the coverslip. This suggests that the loricastome rather than the lips may act as the primary closure mechanism of the lorica aperture. (ref. ID; 4267)
Etymology; This species is named in honor of Dr. Richard S. Fox in appreciation of his friendship. He also contributed the sample of amphipods on which L. foxi was first discovered. (ref. ID; 4267)
Type locality and host; United Stated, Missouri, Lincoln Co., 7.2 km NNW Foley, Hurricane Cr. at MO 79; 5/10/78; J. C. Clamp, L. Parks; on Gammarus pseudolimnaeus Bousfield, gills. (ref. ID; 4267)
Type material; A holotype slide (hematoxylin preparation) and two paratype slides (hematoxylin preparation, protargol preparation) from the type locality will be deposited in the International Protozoan Type Slide Collection of the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. (ref. ID; 4267)
Lagenophrys incompta Clamp, 1987 (ref. ID; 4267 original paper)
See; Lagenophrys diogenes Jankowski (ref. ID; 4335)
Description; Lorica hemispheroidal, subcircular or suboval (usually longer than wide) in dorsal view. Lorica rim slightly to heavily thickened. Lorica without anterior crescentic thickening or anterior bulge. Lips of lorica aperture short, located close to anterior margin of lorica, recessed into depression in dorsal surface of lorica. Both lips of aperture slightly arched, unthickened, smooth, without projections or indentations; anterior lip lacking crochets. Trochal band of kinetosomes unbroken. Infraciliature of peniculi as follows: rows 1 and 2 of P1 equal in length, ending at cytostome; row 3 of P1 slightly shorter than other rows of P1. Rows of P2 equal in length, ending at distal curvature of P1; P2 separated from P1 by wide gap that gradually narrows distally. Peniculus 3 with two rows; row 1 slightly longer than row 2. Row 1 of P3 beginning far above distal end of P2; row 2 of P3 beginning slightly less far above distal end of P2 than does row 1. Rows of P3 closely parallel for most of length, ending at cytostome at same point as rows 1 and 2 of P1. Macronucleus elongate, cylindroid, sharply curved near middle, located in right half of body . Right arm of macronucleus lying along right edge of body, conforming to curve of edge of body. Left arm of macronucleus equal in length to right arm or longer, extending mediad from right arm; tip of left arm often curved sharply anteriad. Micronucleus ovoid, located most often near right arm of macronucleus, much less often near center of macronucleus, rarely near left arm of macronucleus. (ref. ID; 4267)
Remarks; Lagenophrys incompta shares it host with L. dennisi. The latter is found only on exposed surfaces of the host's body while the former is restricted to the host's branchial chamber. Lagenophrys incompta and L. dennisi differ sharply from one another with respect to the height of the lips of the lorica aperture and the shape of the macronucleus. The penicular infraciliature of the two species are similar; however, row 3 of P1 is slightly shorter and both rows of P3 begin much further above the end of P2 in L. incompta. (ref. ID; 4267)
Etymology; The specific name is derived from incomptus (Latin: unadorned) and refers to the lips of the lorica aperture which are short and plain in appearance. (ref. ID; 4267)
Type locality and host; United States, Missouri, Jefferson Co., 4.3 km NNE Hillsboro, creek running parallel to MO 21 at Hayden Rd.; 5/10/78; J. C. Clamp, L. Parks; on Orconectes illinoiensis Brown, gills and brachial chamber. (ref. ID; 4267)
Type material; A holotype slide (hematoxylin preparation) and two paratype slides (hematoxylin preparation, protargol preparation) from the type locality will be deposited in the International Protozoan Type Slide Collection of the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. (ref. ID; 4267)
Lagenophrys labiata Stokes, 1877 (ref. ID; 1620) reported year? (ref. ID; 1618)
Description; On Gammarus. (ref. ID; 1618)
Measurements; Lorica 60 by 55 um. (ref. ID; 1618)
Lagenophrys lenticula (Kellicott, 1885) (ref. ID; 4335) reported year? (ref. ID; 3674)
Syn; Stylohedra lenticula Kellicott, 1885 (ref. ID; 4335) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 3674)
Emended description; Lorica ovoid, much longer than wide, tapered sharply at posterior to form slender pseudostalk. Lorica attaches to host by base of pseudostalk, remainder of lorica free. Pseudostalk slender, heavily thickened, with interior space reduced to narrow tube; base of pseudostalk expanded, approximately 1+1/2 to 2 times wider than rest of pseudostalk. Lips of lorica aperture short, recessed slightly into anterior part of lorica, projecting almost directly anteriad. Both lips of aperture moderately arched, unthickened, smooth, without clefts or indentations; anterior lip with long, stout, subequal crochets. Dorsal surface of lorica immediately posteriad of aperture deeply folded and overhanging anterior margin of lorica; anterior end of lorica truncate. Infraciliature of peniculi was not observed well enough to describe. Macronucleus cylindroid, elongate, bent or curved in middle, and located in right half of body. Right arm of macronucleus usually longer than left arm, lying along right side of body and conforming to curve of body's edge. Left arm of macronucleus bent or curbed sharply anteriad away from right arm. Micronucleus ovoid, usually located near right arm of macronucleus and seldom near left arm or middle. (ref. ID; 4335)
Remarks; Lagenophrys lenticula always occurred with L. patina; it was found twice on freshwater gammarid amphipods, once on Gammarus lacustris, and once on Crangonyx gracilis. In both instances, normal lagenophryid associates of the host were present in addition to L. lenticula and L. patina, but only these two species were present on H. aztecta collected at the same localities. Many samples were collected in which H. aztecta infested with L. lenticula was mixed with other species of amphipods, but L. lenticula was seen on other amphipods in only the two cases cited above. Little variation was observed among populations of L. lenticula from widely separated localities. An exception is the substantial difference in size of the micronucleus between individuals from Uruguay and from North America. Otherwise, L. lenticula from Uruguay is virtually identical with L. lenticula from distant places such as Alberta and Newfoundland. (ref. ID; 4335)
Type locality and host; UNITED STATES, Michigan, Shiawassee Co., near Owosso, Mud Lake; on Gammarus pulex (L.), legs (Kellicott, 1885). Mud Lake does not appear on current maps of the type locality, and local authorities did not know of any lake near Owosso by that name. The type host is assumed to have been misidentified since G. pulex does not occur in North America. Hyalella azteca (Saussure) is the usual host of the species and was probably the host on which Kellicott (1885) found it. (ref. ID; 4335)
Type material; Two slides (hematoxylin preparations) of material from Corunna, Michigan, in the immediate vicinity of the type locality, will be designated neosyntypes and deposited. (ref. ID; 4335)
Lagenophrys lunatus Imamura, 1940 (ref. ID; 1618) reported year? (ref. ID; 4267)
See; Lagenophrys eupagurus Kellicott, 1893 (ref. ID; 4323, 4335)
Description; On Leander paucidens and Palaemon varians. (ref. ID; 1618)
Measurements; Lorica 50-60 um in diameter. (ref. ID; 1618)
Lagenophrys machaerigera Clamp, 1992 (ref. ID; 4396 original paper)
Description; Lorica hemispheroidal, suboval in dorsal view, much longer than wide. Lorica rim heavily thickened; part of rim anterior and lateral to aperture thicker than rest. Lorica rim thickest at point on left immediately anteriad of aperture or on both sides at same point, protruding toward interior of lorica at thickest point or points. Surface of lorica often indented dorsad of thickest point or points of lorica rim. Lips of lorica aperture short, located close to anterior margin of lorica. Lips of aperture extremely variable, ranging between two extreme forms. Anterior lip of one extreme form moderately arched and extremely thickened, with edge of lip produced into long, broad blade which curves sharply to left. Tip of blade may be recurved; anterior edge of blade either smooth or with one to three prominent tubercles. Posterior lip of this form moderately arched, extremely thickened, smooth, without protrusion or indentations. Anterior lip of other extreme form moderately arched, heavily thickened, smooth, without protrusions or indentations; edge of lip not produced into blade. Posterior lip of this form moderately arched, smooth, without protrusions or indentations; base of lip moderately to heavily thickened edge unthickened. Most individuals intermediate between two extreme forms with edge of anterior lip of lorica aperture produced into short blade or broad ridge. Intermediate individuals with posterior lip of lorica aperture heavily thickened, never with edge of posterior lip unthickened. Anterior lip of all forms with slender, subequal crochets, ranging in length from short to elongate. Trochal band of kinetosomes unbroken. Infraciliature of infundibular polykinetids as follows: rows of P1 equal in length, ending at cytostome; rows of P2 equal in length, ending slightly above adstomal curvature of P1. P2 separated from P1 by wide gap for most of length; gap narrowing adstomally. P3 with three rows; row 1 of P3 much shorter than its other rows, less than 1/2 as long as row 2 of P3, approximately 1/2 as long as row 3 of P3. Row 1 of P3 extending from slightly above adstomal end of P2 to adstomal curvature of P1, closely parallel to row 2 of P3 for entire length. Row 2 of P3 extending from abstomal end of row 1 of P3 to point approximately 2/3 distance between adstomal curvature of P1 and end of P1. Row 3 of P3 extending slightly less far abstomally than other rows of P3, separated from row 2 of P3 by slight gap at abstomal end, closely parallel to row 2 for rest of length, ending adstomally at same point as row 2. Macronucleus cylindroid, elongate, bent or curved in middle, located in approximate center of right half of body, spanning from one-half to nearly entire width of body. Right arm of macronucleus lying along right side of body, conforming to curve of edge of body. Left arm of macronucleus bent or curved moderately to sharply anteriad away from right arm. Micronucleus ovoid; located most often near curvature or bend in middle of macronucleus, less often near right arm, never near left arm. (ref. ID; 4396)
Remarks; The lips of the lorica aperture of Lagenophrys machaerigera are unusually variable compared with those of other species of Lagenophrys. The anterior lip of the lorica aperture is the structure that varies the greatest, and some of the more common intermediate forms, as well as variations of the form with an extremely produced edge. Variation of the posterior lip of the aperture seems to be linked to variation of the anterior lip in L. machaerigera. Individuals in which the edge of the anterior lip is produced, even slightly, have the posterior lip heavily thickened. The edge, but not the base, of the posterior lip is unthickened in all individuals in which the edge of the anterior lip is not produced. The anterior portion of the lorica rim of L. machaerigera also varies, with its variation seemingly linked to variation of the aperture. The lorica rim of individuals in which the anterior lip of the aperture is extremely produced protrudes inward at only one point to the left of the aperture, giving the anterior end of the lorica the illusion of being distorted or twisted to the left in the dorsal view. These individuals also have a deep indentation in the dorsal surface of the lorica on each side of the aperture. Examination of a series of forms in which the anterior lip is only moderately or slightly produced shows that the anterior portion of the lorica becomes progressively more symmetrical and the indentations of its dorsal surface shallower with reduction of the edge of the anterior lip. The lorica rim of individuals without any production of the edge of the anterior lip always protrudes inward on both sides of the aperture, and the dorsal surface of the lorica of these individuals is not indented. Individuals within samples of L. machaerigera were readily recognizable as conspecific with one another despite the great degree of variation in the lips of the lorica aperture among them. For one thing, the overall shape and proportions of their loricae were similar. The anterior lip of the lorica aperture, although highly variable in the extent to which its edge was produced, had the same basic shape in all individuals and was always heavily thickened. Also, shape and location of the macronucleus were uniform within samples of L. machaerigera. (ref. ID; 4396)
Etymology; The specific name is derived from machaera (Latin: bent sword or dirk) and refers to the shape of the produced edge of the anterior lip of the lorica aperture seen in many individuals of the species. (ref. ID; 4396)
Type locality and host; Madagascar; on Gecarcinautes goudoti (A. Milne-Edwards), gill lamellae (NMNH-CC catalogue number 29995; host identified as Potamon goudoti [Milne-Edwards] on the specimen label). (ref. ID; 4396)
Type material; A holotype slide (USNM 43090) and one paratype slide (USNM 43091), hematoxylin preparations of material from the type locality, were deposited in the International Protozoan Type Slide Collection of the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. One hematoxylin preparation (USNM 43092) and one protargol preparations (USNM 43093) of material that is probably from a locality in Madagascar other than the type locality were deposited there as paratypes. (ref. ID; 4396)
Lagenophrys missouriensis Clamp, 1987 (ref. ID; 4267 original paper, 4335)
Description; Lorica hemispheroidal, suboval in dorsal view, much longer than wide; lorica rim not thickened. Lips of lorica aperture tall, recessed into depression in dorsal surface of lorica, located close to anterior margin of lorica. Anterior lip of aperture highly arched; edge of lip unthickened, without projection or indentations. Posterior lip of aperture moderately arched; edge of lip unthickened and with two deep indentations, each located 2/3-3/4 distance from end of lip to center of lip. Trochal band of kinetosomes unbroken. Infraciliature of peniculi as follows: rows of P1 differing in length: row 3 longer than row 2 and row 2 longer than row 1. Row 3 of P1 extending past row 2 by same distance that row 2 extends past row 1. Row 3 of P1 ending short of cytostome by distance equal to distance between ends of rows 1 and 2 or rows 2 and 3. Rows of P2 equal in length, ending at distal curvature of P1. Peniculus 3 with two rows; row 1 slightly longer than row 2. Row 1 of P3 beginning far above distal end of P2; row 2 of P3 beginning less far above distal end of P2 than row 1. Rows of P3 closely parallel for entire length, ending at cytostome. Macronucleus cylindroid, short slightly curved, lying along right edge of body. Micronucleus ovoid, frequently located near center of macronucleus, much less frequently near anterior end of macronucleus, seldom near posterior end of macronucleus. (ref. ID; 4267)
Remarks; Lagenophrys missouriensis shares its host with L. foxi in eastern Missouri. Lagenophrys missouriensis is easily distinguished from L. foxi by the greater height of the lips of its lorica aperture, the two indentations in its posterior lip, the absence of a thickened band at the bases of the lips, the lack of an anterior crescentic thickening, and the different shape of its lorica and macronucleus. The two species also differ in the lengths and configurations of kinetosome rows in P1 and P3 of the penicular infraciliature. (ref. ID; 4267)
Etymology; The specific name refers to the state of Missouri where the species was first discovered. (ref. ID; 4267)
Type locality and host; United States, Missouri, Lincoln Co., 7.2 km NNW Foley, Hurricane Cr. at MO 79; 5/10/78; J. C. Clamp, L. Parks; on Gammarus pseudolimnaeus Bousfield, surfaces of peraeon and pleon, pereiopods. (ref. ID; 4267)
Type material; A holotype slide (hematoxylin preparation) and two paratype slides (hematoxylin preparation, protargol preparation) from the type locality will be deposited in the International Protozoan Type Slide Collection of the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. One paratype slide (hematoxylin preparation) from a locality in Wisconsin will also be deposited. (ref. ID; 4267)
Lagenophrys novazealandae Clamp, 1994 (ref. ID; 7311 original paper)
Description; Lorica hemispheroidal, suboval in dorsal view, moderately shorter than wide. Lorica rim moderately thickened, curved inward slightly on right at point just anteriad of aperture. Lips of lorica aperture short, located close to anterior margin of lorica. Anterior lip of lorica aperture moderately arched; edge of lip heavily thickened, with several large tubercles varying from rounded and inconspicuous to prominent and sharply pointed. Anterior lip divided into two grossly unequal elements by deep cleft; right element much longer than left element. Anterior lip with crochets; left crochet thicker and more prominent than right crochet. Posterior lip of lorica aperture moderately arched, unthickened, smooth-edged, without clefts or tubercles; lip with several inconspicuous folds or pleats on outer surface. Trochal band of kinetosomes unbroken, infraciliature of infundibular polykinetids as follows: rows of P1 equal in length, ending at cytostome; rows of P2 equal in length ending slightly above adstomal curvature of P1. P2 closely parallel to P1 for entire length, not separated widely from it. P3 with P2 rows. Both rows of P3 extending above adstomal end of P2 for approximately 1/5 their length; row 1 of P3 extending slightly farther abstomally than row 2. Rows of P3 closely parallel for entire length, ending at cytostome. Macronucleus ovoid or reniform, located near center of right side of body, oriented parallel to long axis of body. Micronucleus ovoid, usually located near center of macronucleus, rarely located near anterior or posterior end. (ref. ID; 7311)
Remarks; Other than L. novazealandae, an unidentified species of Lagenophrys discovered by Kane (1965) on P. planifrons White from North Island is the only other lagenophryid peritrich known from New Zealand. Kane's species resembles L. novazealandae in the shape of the lorica and the shape and position of the macronucleus. He was unable to describe the lips of the lorica aperture of his species, and did not even hint at the presence of a thickened, tuberculate anterior lip in the test of his description or the accompanying figure (Kane 1965). The posterior lip of the lorica aperture was almost perfectly transparent in all individuals of L. novazealandae that I examined, and its edge was difficult to resolve under the microscope, perhaps explaining Kane's inability to describe the posterior lip of his species with confidence if it was, in fact, L. novazealandae. It is difficult to believe, however, that Kane would have overlooked the thickened, tuberculate anterior lip of L. novazealandae if it had been present in individuals of this species. The structure of the edge of the anterior lip of L. novazealandae especially distinguishes it from other species in its genus. No other species of Lagenophrys has blunt, thickened tubercles across the entire width of the anterior lip. Individuals of L. machaerigera Clamp with an extremely produced, blade-like anterior lip may have one to three tubercles on the edge of the lip (Clamp 1992); however, L. machaerigera and L. novazealandae differ with respect to virtually all other salient characteristics, and other morphs of the former species lack tubercles to the anterior lip altogether (Clamp 1992). Lagenophrys nassa Stein has jagged protuberances on both lips of the lorica aperture that superficially resemble sharp tubercles (Stein 1852); however, these protuberances are not thickened and have little similarity to the tubercles on the anterior lip of L. novazealandae (Clamp, unpubl. observ.). Lagenophrys patina Stokes usually has thickened tubercles on the median part of the posterior lip of the lorica aperture (Clamp 1990), but its anterior lip lacks tubercles. Both L. nassa and L. patina are strikingly different from L. novazealandae with regard to characteristics other than the edge of the lips. The deep cleft in the left side of the anterior lip of L. novazealandae is similar in extent and placement to the cleft in the anterior lip of L. callinectes Couch (Clamp 1989), but the two species do not resembles one another otherwise. Lagenophrys novazealandae does show a general resemblance to species of Lagenophrys on Australian and South American hosts with respect to the proportions of the lorica in dorsal view, shape of the macronucleus, and placement of the macronucleus. Like L. novazealandae, all of the species of Lagenophrys that Kane (1965) found on Australian parastacid crayfish have a compact macronucleus, and most have a lorica that is shorter than it is wide; however, only L. darwini and L. deserti also have the macronucleus located on the right side of the body. Lagenophrys novazealandae resembles both L. anticthos Clamp from Chilean parastacids and L. aegleae from Brazilian and Uruguayan freshwater crabs in all three of these characteristics (Clamp 1988). In addition, smaller individuals of L. anticthos have a thickened (but not tuberculate) anterior lip with a shallow cleft left of center. Lagenophrys anticthos differs from L. novazealandae in having a thickened posterior lip that is also wider than the anterior lip (Clamp 1988). The lorica of L. anticthos also has a distinctive, distorted, asymmetrical shape in dorsal view (Clamp 1988). By contrast, L. novazealandae has a more or less symmterical lorica. Lagenophrys novazealandae resembles many other species of Lagenophrys in having P3 of its infundibular infraciliature composed of two rows of kinetosomes that are equal in length. Like all other species of Lagenophrys in which infundibular infraciliature has been described, all rows of its P2 end at the adstomal curvature of P1. Infundibular polykinetid 1 of L. novazealandae resembles those of L. dennisi Clamp (1987), L. patina (Clamp 1990), and L. johnsoni Clamp (1990).
Etymology; The specific name refers to the country of New Zealand, the only place where the species is known to occur. (ref. ID; 7311)
Type locality and host; New Zealand, South Island, Canterbury, Honoret Race; November 29, 1967; on Paranephrops zealandicus (White), bases and filaments of gills (NMNH-CC catalogue number 129814; host identified as P. setosus Hutton on museum label). (ref. ID; 7311)
Type material; A holotype slide (USNM 47731; hematoxylin preparation) and two paratype slides (USNM 47732 and USNM 47733; protargol preparation and hematoxylin preparation) of material from the type locality were deposited in the International Protozoan Type Slide Collection of the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution). (ref. ID; 7311)
Additional records; None. (ref. ID; 7311)
Lagenophrys oregonensis Clamp, 1987 (ref. ID; 4267 original paper)
Description; Lorica hemispheroidal, subcircular or suboval (wider than long) in dorsal view; anterior margin of lorica nearly straight. Lorica rim heavily thickened. Rim thickest at point on each side immediately anteriad of aperture of lorica, protruding inward at these points. Lorica without anterior crescentic thickening or anterior bulge. Lips of lorica aperture moderately tall, located close to anterior margin of lorica. Anterior lip of aperture moderately arched, smooth, without projections or indentations; medial 3/5 of edge slightly to moderately thickened, lateral parts of edge unthickened. Anterior lip with short, slender, subequal crochets. Posterior lip of aperture moderately arched, unthickened, smooth; edge of lip with several shallow indentations (usually visible only when lips are gaping open). Posterior lip with slight fold on each side, approximately 3/5 distance from end of lip to center (visible only when lips are pressed together to close aperture). Trochal band of kinetosomes unbroken. Infraciliature of peniculi as follows: row 1 of P1 much shorter than other rows of P1; rows 2 and 3 of P1 equal in length, ending moderate distance above cytostome. Rows of P2 equal in length, ending at distal curvature of P1. Peniculus 3 with two rows; row 1 slightly longer than row 2. Row 1 of P3 beginning far above distal end of P2; row of P3 beginning slightly less far above distal end of P2 than row 1. Rows of P3 closely parallel for entire length, ending together at cytostome. Distal end of P3 curved toward P1. Macronucleus elongate, irregular in shape, located in approximate center of body, nearly spanning width of body. Macronucleus divisible into three parts: right arm, median part and left arm. Medial part of macronucleus straight or only slightly curved, usually much more slender than left and right arms of macronucleus, slanting posteriad from left to right at slight angle to transverse axis of body. Right arm of macronucleus curved sharply from medial part, lying along right edge of body, conforming to curve of edge of body; right arm usually shorter than medial part by can be longer, approaching or equalling length of medial part. Left arm of macronucleus either similar to right arm or thickened and clavate. Micronucleus ovoid, always located near right arm of macronucleus. (ref. ID; 4267)
Etymology; The specific name refers to the state of Oregon where the species was fist discovered. (ref. ID; 4267)
Type locality and host; United State, Oregon, Lincoln Co., 3.2 km NW Eddyville, Marys R. alongside US 20; 7/14/74; J. C. Clamp; on Pacifastacus leniusculus leniusculus (Dana), carapace, branchial chambers and gills, ventral surfaces of abdomen and uropods, pereiopods, pleopods. (ref. ID; 4267)
Type material; A holotype slide (hematoxylin preparation) and one paratype slide (protargol preparation) of material from the type locality will be deposited in the International Protozoan Type Slide Collection of the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. A paratype slide (hematoxylin preparation) of material from a locality in Washington will also be deposited. (ref. ID; 4267)
Lagenophrys patina Stokes, 1887 (ref. ID; 1620, 4335) reported year? (ref. ID; 1618, 4267)
Description; On Gammarus. (ref. ID; 1618)
Measurements; Lorica 55 by 50 um. (ref. ID; 1618)
Lagenophrys petila Clamp, 1994 (ref. ID; 7311 original paper)
Description; Lorica ovoid, elongate, tapered at posterior end to form slender pseudostalk, attaching to host by base of pseudostalk. Pseudostalk of lorica slender, with wall of same thickness as wall of body of lorica; base of pseudostalk with diameter approximately 3-4 times greater than that of remainder of pseudostalk. Lips of lorica aperture short, raised only slightly above general surface of lorica; lorica aperture located slightly ventrad of anterior apex of lorica. Both lips of lorica aperture moderately arched, unthickened, smooth-edged; anterior lip without crochets. Infraciliature not observed because protargol preparations were not available (material was used up in making hematoxylin preparations and in unsuccessful attempts at making protargol preparations; all specimens stained with protargol become detached during the staining process and were lost). Macronucleus ovoid, located in anterior portion of right half of body. Micronucleus ovoid or fusiform, always located posteriad of macronucleus, separated from it by wide distance. (ref. ID; 7311)
Remarks; Kane (1969) reported the occurrence of "variants" of L. jacobi, a species whose lorica is also supported by a pseudostalk, on setae of various Australian species of parastacid crayfish and phreatoicid isopods. None of these "variants" were described, and it is therefore possible that some of them may be L. petila. Lagenophrys petila is easily distinguished by its much longer and more slender lorica from L. jacobi itself. Unfortunately, the original description of L. jacobi is a short passage in an abstract without accompanying figures, and Kane never followed this up with a full, detailed description of either L. jacobi of its "variants". Considering the variety of hosts on which Kane (1969) found L. jacobi and its "variants", the possibility exists that three may be an entire complex of species of Lagenophrys with ovoid loricae and pseudostalks on Australian freshwater crustaceans. Lagenophrys petila differs markedly from L. lenticula (Kellicott, 1885), another species with an ovoid lorica attached to the host by a pseudostalk (Clamp 1991, Thomsen 1945). The two species are separated by ovious differences in the lips of the lorica aperture, position of the lorica aperture, shape of the macronucleus, and thickness of the wall of the pseudostalk. (ref. ID; 7311)
Etymology; The specific name is derived from petilus (Latin: thin, slender) and refers to the elongate shape of the lorica. (ref. ID; 7311)
Type locality and host; Australia, Tasmania, Derwent Bridge; February 11, 1967; on Parastacoides tasmanicus (Erichson), setae of gills and pleopods (NMNH-CC catalogue number 118805). (ref. ID; 7311)
Type material; A holotype slide (USNM 47734) and one paratype slide (USNM 47735), hematoxylin preparations of material from the type locality, were deposited in the International Protozoan Type Slide Collection of the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonia Institution. (ref. ID; 7311)
Lagenophrys singularis Kellicott, 1887 (ref. ID; 388, 1620, 4241)
See; Paralagenophrys singularis (ref. ID; 4241)
Description; It was discovered by Kellicott 1887 on the leaves of Myriophyllum sp. but has not been reported again for 100 years. (ref. ID; 4241)
Type locality; Kellicott collected L. singularis from Scajaquada Creek, a small stream that runs through the city of Buffalo, New York, immediately north of its main business district. (ref. ID; 388)
Lagenophrys vaginicola Stein, 1852 (ref. ID; 4335, 4610) reported year? (ref. ID; 1219, 1618, 1620, 1629, 4267)
Syn; Lagenophrys obovata Stokes, 1887 (objective junior synonym) (ref. ID; 4335, 4610)
Description; Attached caudal bristles and appendages of Cyclops minutus and Canthocamptus sp. (ref. ID; 1618)
Measurements; Lorica 70 by 48 um. (ref. ID; 1618)