Halteria Dujardin, 1841 (ref. ID; 2014)
Class Polyhymenophora: Subclass Spirotricha: Order Oligotrichida: Suborder Oligotrichina (ref. ID; 2014)
Order Oligotrichida (ref. ID; 7040)
Family Halteriidae Claparede & Lachmann, 1853 (ref. ID; 4356)

[ref. ID; 2014]
Spherical shaped body with slight apical protuberance. Terminal pole broadly rounded. The AZM is open and appears to be in two parts, the anterior exterior well-developed part which winds around the apical pole and the group of smaller membranelles which lie within the peristomial funnel region. Somatic cilia reduced to about a dozen rows, each with 5 or 6 long, bristle-like cirri. These rows are arranged slightly obliquely in grooves in the equatorial body region. Centrally placed spherical macronucleus and contractile vacuole.
Quote; Colin R. Curds, Michael A. Gates and David McL. Roberts "British and other freshwater ciliated protozoa Part II Ciliophora: Oligohymenophora and Polyhymenophora" Cambridge University Press, 1983 (ref. ID; 2014)

[ref. ID; 3389]
Body almost globular. Peristomial area depressed and buccal cavity located eccentrically. AZM usually possesses two kinds of membranelles, one shorter than the other. At the middle of the somatic area, long cirri are present equatorially. In addition to a rotatory swimming movement they tend to move abruptly, like jumping. Predominantly in fresh water habitats though one species was reported in the coastal sea. (ref. ID; 3389)

Halteria bifurcata Tamar, 1968 (ref. ID; 3389, 4613, 4671, 4775)
Description; The body is globular. The peristome area is 1/3 to 1/4 of the body length. Sixteen adoral membranelles, each of which consists of two parts, united proximally and separate more distally, fully extend to between 39- 50 um diameter. Another 8 membranelles in the adoral zone are placed near the buccal cavity and are each composed of two subdivisions. There are seven groups of somatic cirri arising from equatorial furrows. Among the four cirri of each group two are bifurcated distally. The macronucleus is in two segments and furnished with a micronucleus. A freshwater species. (ref. ID; 3389)
In H. bifurcata a constriction narrows the anterior quarter to anterior third of the otherwise rounded cell body. The last ranges between 20 x 20 um and 30 x 30 um in size (Tamar 1968). There are 16 monomorphic adoral membranelles, but each consists distinctly of a wider and a narrower portion (Tamar 1974). The 4 bristles that compose each of the 7 equatorial anterior-posterior rows are differentiated, and have been numbered consecutively from anterior to posterior. The most anterior bristle 1 is bent anteriorly in its distal 1/3 and then curves laterally again for a shorter length before terminating. Bristle 2 has a straight stem and a distal bifurcation. Bristle 3 is straight and undivided. The most posterior bristle 4 has a straight stem and a considerably larger distal bifurcation than bristle 2 (Tamar 1968). Forward spiraling, performed with the adoral membranelles, is right-wound (Tamar 1979). Large chromatin granules in H. bifurcata's macronucleus, described in Tamar (1974) and one conglomerate drawn in Tamar (1982), were misinterpreted in Maeda's (1986) guide as a micronucleus. (ref. ID; 4775)
Measurements; Size, 20-30 um without adoral membranelles. (ref. ID; 3389)
Halteria chlorelligera Kahl, 1932 (ref. ID; 4609) or 1935 (ref. ID; 3389) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 1629)
Syn; Halteria grandinella (Dujardin, 1841) var. chlorelligera Kahl, 1932 (ref. ID; 3389, 4609)
Description; The body is globular. The somatic cirri are very thick. Large Chlorella cells are contained inside the animal. Found rarely in the saprobic area of the freshwater habitat. (ref. ID; 3389)
Measurements; Size, 40-50 um. (ref. ID; 3389)
Halteria cirrifera Kahl, 1935 (ref. ID; 1599, 3389, 4609) reported year? (ref. ID; 2245)
See; Pelagohalteria cirrifera (ref. ID; 1599, 4609, 4906)
Syn; Halteria grandinella (Dujardin, 1841) var. cirrifera Kahl, 1932 (ref. ID; 3389)
Description; The body is subglobular. Seven groups of somatic cirri encircle equatorially at the dorso-ventral area. Of the three cirri in each cirral group the anterior one is very wide (3-5 um in width at its base), the other two cirri being rather thin and fine. The animal rests completely or rotates around its longitudinal axis at the one spot, and can jump abruptly. Frequently found in the freshwater habitat. (ref. ID; 3389)
Measurements; Size, 25-50 um. (ref. ID; 3389)
Halteria decemsulcata Szabo, 1934 (ref. ID; 3389)
Description; The body is almost spherical. Fifteen adoral membranelles encircle the apical end of the body. Another 9 membranelles are placed near the buccal cavity. There are 10 groups of ventral cirri in the somatic area, each having four cirri. The macronucleus is long like a "horse-shoe" with a micronucleus at the left lateral side. A freshwater species. (ref. ID; 3389)
Measurements; Size, 25 um. (ref. ID; 3389)
Halteria geleiana Szabo, 1935 (ref. ID; 3388, 3389) reported year? (ref. ID; 1335) reported author and year? (ref. ID; 191)
Description; The body is globular. There are 15 membranelles encircling the apical area and about 10 membranelles near the buccal cavity. There are nine group of cirri at the dorso-ventral area, each group containing 4 cirri, of which the anterior pair are separated and the posterior pair stuck together. A paroral membrane is present in the peristome. The large macronucleus (20-25 um long and 8-10 um wide) is locating at the anterior part of the body. The animal was found under cultivated moss. (ref. ID; 3389)
Measurements; Size, 55-60 um. (ref. ID; 3389)
Halteria grandinella (O.F. Muller, 1773) (ref. ID; 4775) or 1786 (ref. ID; 645, 3593, 4671) reported year? (ref. ID; 1618, 3698, 5624) or (O.F. Muller) Dujardin, 1841 (ref. ID; 3116), (O.F. Muller, 1786) Dujardin (ref. ID; 1621, 2245), (O.F. Muller, 1773) Dujardin, 1841 (ref. ID; 3389, 4356, 4488, 4609, 4613, 4861) reported year? (ref. ID; 1219, 3342)
Syn; Halteria chlorelligera (Kahl, 1935) var. grandinelloides Margalef-Lopez, 1945 (ref. ID; 3389); Trichoda grandinella O.F. Muller, 1773 (ref. ID; 3389, 4609, 4613) or 1886 (ref. ID; 3116); Trichoda grandinella (O.F. Muller, 1773) Ehrenberg, 1830 (ref. ID; 3389)
Description; These were roughly spherical, with a diameter of ca. 20 um. The adoral membrane zone of the animals examined consists of 18 to 21 membranelles. For comparison, Dragesco (1970) found 22 in a population in Cameroon, and Halteria from populations in bodies of water near Bonn have 22 to 25 membranelles. There are two distinct parts of the AZM. One group of 13 to 15 membranelles, surrounding the oral pole in an open circle, is used for locomotion. Theses are clearly larger and further apart than the 5 to 7 membranelles in the second group, which are closely arrayed in front of the cytostome. H. grandinella feeds on bacteria. (ref. ID; 645)
Body spherical; membranelles in circle anteriorly; cytostome at the end of the zone of the membranelles near the anterior end of the organism; lateral body surface with 7 groups of long tactile cilia (3 cilia per group); locomotion is of two types, slow rotatory movements and swift darts. (ref. ID; 1219)
About 7 bristle-bearing grooves; 15 frontal and 7 adoral membranellae. Kahl (1932) distinguishes two varieties; var. cirrifera, 25-50 um long, with huge cirri instead of fine body cirri; and var. chlorelligera, 40-50 um long, with bristles and large zoochlorellae; fresh water. (ref. ID; 1618)
The body is subglobular and obtusely and roundly pointed at the posterior end. There are seven groups of somatic cirri, containing 3 cirri in each group. Each of the cirri is very long and fine, forming an equatorial belt. A contractile vacuole is situated near the center of the body. The animal moves abruptly, with occasional jumps. Principally a freshwater species, but Faure-Fremiet (1924), Margalef-Lorenz (1945) and Munch and Petozold (1956) have found it in marine habitats. (ref. ID; 3389)
[Morphogenesis]: The division of H. grandinella is very similar to that of Meseres, i.e. the oral primordium forms on the cell surface between somatic kineties 1 & 2. The anterior membranelles of the opisthe encircle the new peristomial surface near the parental aboral pole. Two somatic anlagen each develop de novo between the parental kineties. This agrees with observations by Szabo (1935). Descriptions stating a division of the parental kineties are thus obviously incorrect (Faure-Fremiet 1953; Fernandez-Leborans 1983). The anlagen consist of elongating cilia adjacent to distinct knobs. These knobs are possibly short ciliary stubs which are subsequently resorbed because they are not recognizable in interphasic individuals. The few cilia near the opisthe's oral cavity originate de novo; those of the proter are possibly reorganized, because the twofold number of kinetids sometimes occurs only in very late dividers (observation from another population). (ref. ID; 4356)
Comments; This animal was first described by Antony van Leewenhoeck (1677) as "Animalcula No. 4" in a temporary pond, according to Ehrenberg (1838). Muller (1786) and Ehrenberg (1838) showed the diagrams of this animal. Dujardin's (1841) description is unclear but later Claparede and Lachmann (1858) and Kent (1881-2) clearly described the interruption of the circlet of adoral membranelles at the apical area of this organism. (ref. ID; 3389)
Measurements; Length 20-50 um. (ref. ID; 1219)
20-40 um long. (ref. ID; 1618)
20-30 x 27 um. (ref. ID; 3342)
Size, 17-30 um and 20-40 um according to Kent (1881-2) and Kahl (1932) respectively. (ref. ID; 3389)
Halteria maxima Szabo, 1934 (ref. ID; 3389)
Description; The body is more elongated than that of H. grandinella or H. decemsulcata. There are 17 and 15 adoral membranelles at the apical extremity and near the buccal cavity, respectively. There are 17 groups of somatic cirri, each of which is composed of 3 cirri. The macronucleus is elongated and constricted in the middle. One micronucleus is placed near the macronucleus. A freshwater species. (ref. ID; 3389)
Measurements; Size, 40-45 um. (ref. ID; 3389)
Halteria minima Fromental, 1874 (ref. ID; 3389)
Description; The body is spherical with the anterior area elongated and widened at its extremity. The somatic cirri are long and thick. Movement very rapid. Found in freshwater. (ref. ID; 3389)
Measurements; Size, 22 um. (ref. ID; 3389)
Halteria minuta (Gelei, 1954) nom. nov. (ref. ID; 3389)
Syn; Halteria minima Gelei, 1954 (ref. ID; 3389)
Description; The body is globular. The apical area is encircled with 16 adoral membranelles and another 9 or 10 membranelles are present near the buccal cavity. Seven groups of cirri are placed in the equatorial region with 4 cirri in each group. The macronucleus is round, but slightly elongated. A contractile vacuole is situated at the right side of the body. Found in a temporary pool in a meadow. (ref. ID; 3389)
Measurements; Size, 30 um without the adoral membranelles. (ref. ID; 3389)
Halteria oblonga (Kellicott, 1885) (ref. ID; 1621) or (Kellicott, 1885) Kahl, 1932 (ref. ID; 3389)
Syn; Strombidium oblongum Kellicott, 1885 (ref. ID; 3389)
Description; The body, which contains green coloured granules, is almost cylindrical, rounded posteriorly. The peristome area extends to half the body length and, at its right side, a paroral membrane is present. There are few fine cilia on the central part of the body and several long trailing cilia at the posterior end. A contractile vacuole is present in the anterior area and the ovoid macronucleus is located centrally. Found among grasses and weeds in pond water. (ref. ID; 3389)
Comments; Kellicott (1885) lost the sketch of this animal, but Penard (1922) reproduced it with the detailed description. (ref. ID; 3389)
Measurements; Size, 25-30 um, exceptionally about 45 um according to Penard (1922). (ref. ID; 3389)
Halteria ovata Fromental, 1874 (ref. ID; 3389)
Description; The body is oval, constricted in the middle and narrowed posteriorly. The peristomial area is depressed. The somatic cirri are long and thin. A freshwater species. (ref. ID; 3389)
Measurements; Size, 40 um. (ref. ID; 3389)
Halteria verrucosa Fromental, 1874 (ref. ID; 3389)
Description; The green coloured body is subspherical. The anterior end is truncated, having a depression on the edge. The posterior extremity is bluntly pointed. A freshwater species. (ref. ID; 3389)
Comments; Fromental (1874) synonymized Trichoda bomba Muller, 1773 and T. trochus Muller, 1786. (ref. ID; 3389)
Measurements; Size, 60 um from the original diagram. (ref. ID; 3389)
Halteria viridis Fromental, 1874 (ref. ID; 3389) or 1876 (ref. ID; 1599)
See; Pelagohalteria viridis (ref. ID; 1599)
Description; The green coloured body is globular and the anterior extremity is truncated. The pellicle is smooth. The cirri in the somatic area are thick and conspicuous. Movement is rapid, the animal rotating with leaping. A freshwater species. (ref. ID; 3389)
Measurements; Size, 16 um according to the description, but 20 um including AZM by Maeda determination using the original diagram. (ref. ID; 3389)
Halteria volvox (Eichwald, 1852) Claparede & Lachmann, 1858 (ref. ID; 3389)
Syn; Askenasia volvox (Claparede & Lachmann, 1858) Kahl, 1930 (ref. ID; 3389); Trichodina volvox Eichwald, 1852 (ref. ID; 3389)
Description; The body is globulous. The protoplasm is entirely transparent containing many granules according to Eichwald (1852). The apical collar is situated at the anterior extremity which is encircled by the membranelles of the adoral zone. Near the equatorial cirral row in the somatic area there are supplementary long and recurved filamentous cilia. Movement is rotatory and very quick. A freshwater species. (ref. ID; 3389)
Measurements; Size, about 50 um according to Kahl (1930). (ref. ID; 3389)
Halteria vorax Fromental, 1874 (ref. ID; 3389)
Description; The body is irregularly spherical, narrowed anteriorly. Somatic cirri are very short. Movement is rapid and rotatory. A freshwater species. (ref. ID; 3389)
Comments; Fromental (1874) synonymized Trichodina vorax Ehrenberg, 1830. (ref. ID; 3389)
Measurements; Size, 20 um. (ref. ID; 3389)